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FEMTOCELL
TECHNOLOGIES
Presentation By
VIPIN K T
MCA (2013- 2016)
CHINMAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
in.linkedin.com/in/vipi...
“ Can you hear me now ? ”
 This is often the case in homes and buildings where coverage decreases
considerably as soon as you go indoors
 People a...
 Femtocell technology could be the answer
 In addition to facilitating better indoor call coverage, this emerging
techno...
 A small device which is installed in the home or office in order to offer
better support to mobile phones there
 These ...
PROBLEMS
 Mobile cellular and 3G networks normally often suffer from poor
penetration and reception in certain areas, lik...
POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS
 Repeaters
 Dual Mode Wi-Fi
 Femtocells
WHY IS FEMTOCELL IMPORTANT?
 Femtocells very important for the following reasons:
1. It can provide indoor coverage for p...
WHY IS FEMTOCELL IMPORTANT?
5. Femtocells can provide significant power saving to UEs
6. The use of femtocells ‘greener’ t...
EVOLUTION OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS
EVOLUTION OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS:
CELL SIZE
 Cell size decreases dramatically.
 Usage:
 Macrocell: Rural, highway.
 Micro...
EVOLUTION OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS:
CELL SIZE
CELL SIZE vs. THROUGHPUT AND USAGE
 As throughput demand and usage increase, cell size decreases.
TRAFFIC TREND (USER BEHAVIOR)
 29% of calls placed at home.
 57% of mobile usage at home or at work.
 75% of 3G traffic...
SHORTCOMING OF MACROCELL FOR
INDOOR USAGE
 Macrocell cannot provide good signal strength for indoor coverage.
FEMTOCELL : FEMTOFORUM
 Femtocells are low-power wireless access points that operate in licensed
spectrum to connect stan...
FEMTOCELL IS AN ACCESS POINT
 Femtocells a low-power domestic access point
 Small-size cellular base stations (BSs) for ...
A FEMTOCELL DEFINITION
 A small cellular base station, designed for use in residential or enterprise.
 Connects to the s...
FEMTOCELL DEVELOPMENT
 In 2002, a group of Motorola engineer introduced a Home Base Station
technology
 In 2007, vendors...
EXISTING COMMERCIAL FEMTOCELL
WHY NEEDS FEMTOCELLS ?
DATA COVERAGE
 Problem:
 Mainly a issue for macro cellular systems Good voice coverage, but poor ...
WHY NEEDS FEMTOCELLS ?
BASIC COVERAGE
 Problem:
 RF coverage holes.
 Need to improve voice coverage.
 Femtocells:
 Pr...
WHY NEEDS FEMTOCELLS ?
CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT
 Problem:
 Data loads exceeding capacity.
 Limited macro enhancement abilit...
BENEFITS OF FEMTOCELL NETWORKS:
FOR OPERATORS
 Low cost solution.
 Improve reliability.
 Increases both coverage and ca...
BENEFITS OF FEMTOCELLNETWORKS:
FOR END-USERS
 Excellent network coverage when there is no existing signal or poor
coverag...
FEATURES OF FEMTOCELL
 Operates in the licensed spectrum
 Uses fixed broadband connection for backhaul
 Principally int...
INDOOR WIRELESS COVERAGE:
FEMTOCELL
 Internet-grade service quality. (Wire line backhaul)
 Easy plug-and-play.
 Two typ...
FEMTO USAGE MODEL
 Public (Open):
 No restrictions on subscriber to use the femtocell.
 All customers of a cellular ser...
INDOOR TECHNIQUES COMPARISON
FEMTO CHARACTERISTICS
 Physique
 Physically small for limited space in some households/offices
 Silent in operation whi...
 Backhaul
 Utilize Internet Protocol (IP) with a flat BS architecture
 Link to operator networks via wired broadband co...
 Operation
 Compatible with existing 2G/3G handsets and devices
 Operates in licensed spectrum owned by operators
 Rem...
KEY ATTRIBUTES OF FEMTOCELLS
 Mature mobile technology:
 Femtocells use fully standard wireless protocols over the air t...
 Operating in licensed spectrum:
 By operating in licensed spectrum licensed to the service provider, femtocells
allow o...
 Using internet-grade backhaul:
 Femtocells backhaul their data over standard residential broadband
connections, includi...
 Fully managed by licensed operators:
 Femtocells only operate within parameters set by the licensed operator.
 While t...
FEMTOCELL CONFIGURATION
SCENARIOS
 Macrocells are operated by a mobile wireless operator, while femtocells
are privately ...
FEMTOCELL NETWORK CONFIGURATION
 There are three possible types of femtocell network configurations based
on the availabi...
FEMTOCELL NETWORK CONFIGURATION
TYPE A -
A SINGLE STAND-ALONE FEMTOCELL
 This could be the case of a remote area with:
 no macro cellular coverage
 a p...
TYPE B –
A NETWORK OF STAND-ALONE FEMTOCELLS
 In this scenario, multiple FAPs are situated within an area in such a way t...
TYPE C –
A FEMTOCELL NETWORK INTEGRATED WITH A
MACROCELLULAR INFRASTRUCTURE
 This scenario can be viewed as a two-tier hi...
DEPLOYMENT : GREATER FEMTOCELL
 Not only for the home !
 Femtocell economies of scale deliver cost-effective deployments...
INDOOR FEMTO
DATA FEMTO
OUTDOOR FEMTO
WORKING OF FEMTOCELL
WORKING OF FEMTOCELL
 A femtocell is installed at home and connected to mains power and a
standard broadband IP connectio...
WORKING OF FEMTOCELL
 When users walk outside or out of range, calls are automatically handed
over to the external mobile...
WORKING OF FEMTOCELL
WORKING OF FEMTOCELL
Femtocells are a complicated technology and there have been a number of issues
and concerns which need to be addressed.
IN...
EQUIPMENT LOCATION
 There are issues in this regard for access point base stations sold to
consumers for home installatio...
QUALITY OF SERVICE
 In shared-bandwidth approaches, which are the majority of designs
currently being developed, the effe...
CONTROVERSY ON CONSUMER PROPOSITION
 The impact of a femtocell is most often to improve cellular coverage,
without the ce...
POTENTIAL CONSUMER CONCERNS
A base station at my home ???
 Femtocell transmits less than DECT or Wi-Fi
 Handset transmit...
FEMTO FORUM
FEMTOCELL VENDORS
SOME FEMTOCELLS
CONCLUSIONS
 Femtocells are on a road to nowhere
 Unsatisfactory coverage and the increasing number of high-data-
rate a...
REFERENCES
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Femtocell
 http://www.mobileburn.com/definition.jsp?term=femto
 http://searcht...
VIDEO DEMONSTRATION
Femtocell Technologies By Vipin
Femtocell Technologies By Vipin
Femtocell Technologies By Vipin
Femtocell Technologies By Vipin
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Femtocell Technologies By Vipin

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Femtocell Technologies By Vipin

  1. 1. FEMTOCELL TECHNOLOGIES Presentation By VIPIN K T MCA (2013- 2016) CHINMAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY in.linkedin.com/in/vipinmundayad
  2. 2. “ Can you hear me now ? ”
  3. 3.  This is often the case in homes and buildings where coverage decreases considerably as soon as you go indoors  People are ditching their landlines in favor of mobile phones  It has become necessary to work on new technology that will facilitate calling coverage both indoor and outdoor
  4. 4.  Femtocell technology could be the answer  In addition to facilitating better indoor call coverage, this emerging technology reduces the drain that advanced mobile services (such as mobile broadband) are placing on the capacity offered by phone companies
  5. 5.  A small device which is installed in the home or office in order to offer better support to mobile phones there  These base stations can accommodate up to five cell phones which means that you can get increased coverage for your whole household  Enhance the cell phone signal that you receive indoors so that your call quality isn’t decreased when you’re talking indoors  Now many operators are providing Femtocell service
  6. 6. PROBLEMS  Mobile cellular and 3G networks normally often suffer from poor penetration and reception in certain areas, like indoors  This decreases the quality of voice and video communication.  It slows down high speed services.
  7. 7. POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS  Repeaters  Dual Mode Wi-Fi  Femtocells
  8. 8. WHY IS FEMTOCELL IMPORTANT?  Femtocells very important for the following reasons: 1. It can provide indoor coverage for places where macrocells cannot 2. It can offload traffic from the macrocell layer and improve macrocell capacity 3. Addition of a femtocell layer will significantly improve the total network capacity by reusing radio spectrum indoors 4. There is a growing demand for higher and higher data rates
  9. 9. WHY IS FEMTOCELL IMPORTANT? 5. Femtocells can provide significant power saving to UEs 6. The use of femtocells ‘greener’ than macrocells 7. Femtocell provides an ideal solution for FMC (Fixed Mobile Convergence). 8. Femtocell plays an important role in mobile broadband and ubiquitous communications.
  10. 10. EVOLUTION OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS
  11. 11. EVOLUTION OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS: CELL SIZE  Cell size decreases dramatically.  Usage:  Macrocell: Rural, highway.  Microcell: Urban, street.  Picocell: building, enterprise, station.  Femtocell: indoor, very high-rate coverage
  12. 12. EVOLUTION OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS: CELL SIZE
  13. 13. CELL SIZE vs. THROUGHPUT AND USAGE  As throughput demand and usage increase, cell size decreases.
  14. 14. TRAFFIC TREND (USER BEHAVIOR)  29% of calls placed at home.  57% of mobile usage at home or at work.  75% of 3G traffic to originate in-building by 2013.  In the future, more and more indoor mobile usage.
  15. 15. SHORTCOMING OF MACROCELL FOR INDOOR USAGE  Macrocell cannot provide good signal strength for indoor coverage.
  16. 16. FEMTOCELL : FEMTOFORUM  Femtocells are low-power wireless access points that operate in licensed spectrum to connect standard mobile devices to a mobile operator’s network using residential DSL or cable broadband connections. [Femto forum]  By 2013, 204 million users on 60 million access points worldwide. [ABI Research]  Femtocell base station is also known as home base station, home access point, or home Node B.
  17. 17. FEMTOCELL IS AN ACCESS POINT  Femtocells a low-power domestic access point  Small-size cellular base stations (BSs) for residential or small business environments.  Full-strength mobile technology but simpler deployment With full operator management.  Improve indoor coverage and capacity With internet-grade backhaul At prices comparable with Wi-Fi access points ($30~$200 for home usage).  Typically support 2 to 6 concurrent users.  An alternative method to Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC).
  18. 18. A FEMTOCELL DEFINITION  A small cellular base station, designed for use in residential or enterprise.  Connects to the service provider’s network via broadband.  Support 2 to 5 mobile.  Allows service providers to extend service coverage indoors.  The concept is applicable to all wireless standards, including UMTS, GSM, CDMA-2000, TD-SCDMA and WiMAX solutions.
  19. 19. FEMTOCELL DEVELOPMENT  In 2002, a group of Motorola engineer introduced a Home Base Station technology  In 2007, vendors formed the Femto Forum to promote femtocell use  In 2008, Sprint Nextel released home-based 2Gfemtocellbuilt by Samsung Electronics that works with any Sprint handset  In 2009, Verizon and Vodafone rolled out their femtocell network service with 3G standard
  20. 20. EXISTING COMMERCIAL FEMTOCELL
  21. 21. WHY NEEDS FEMTOCELLS ? DATA COVERAGE  Problem:  Mainly a issue for macro cellular systems Good voice coverage, but poor high data rate coverage.  Coverage degrades at high rates.  Femtocells :  Extend high-rate data coverage.  Mainly applies to Cellular operators with macrocell deployment.
  22. 22. WHY NEEDS FEMTOCELLS ? BASIC COVERAGE  Problem:  RF coverage holes.  Need to improve voice coverage.  Femtocells:  Provide basic service coverage.  Home/Enterprise coverage.  Mainly applies to : Operators for suburban/rural coverage.
  23. 23. WHY NEEDS FEMTOCELLS ? CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT  Problem:  Data loads exceeding capacity.  Limited macro enhancement ability. (Higher power may induce higher interference.)  Increase capacity economically by offloading to femtocells.  Femtocells:  Provide localized capacity.  Increase overall capacity.  Mainly applies to : Highly saturated operators.
  24. 24. BENEFITS OF FEMTOCELL NETWORKS: FOR OPERATORS  Low cost solution.  Improve reliability.  Increases both coverage and capacity.  Reduce coverage holes and create new converged services.  Reduce macrocell backhaul capacity requirements.  Works with all existing handsets; no need for expensive subsidizes on dual- mode (3G + Wi-Fi).  Increases 3G adoption.
  25. 25. BENEFITS OF FEMTOCELLNETWORKS: FOR END-USERS  Excellent network coverage when there is no existing signal or poor coverage.  Higher capacity, which is important if the end-user uses data services on his/her mobile phone.  Depending on the pricing policy of the MNO, special tariffs at home can be applied for calls placed under femtocell coverage.
  26. 26. FEATURES OF FEMTOCELL  Operates in the licensed spectrum  Uses fixed broadband connection for backhaul  Principally intended for home and SOHO  Lower cost  Smaller coverage  Smaller number of subscriber  Higher density
  27. 27. INDOOR WIRELESS COVERAGE: FEMTOCELL  Internet-grade service quality. (Wire line backhaul)  Easy plug-and-play.  Two typical operation modes of femtocells.  Public (open)  Private(closed)
  28. 28. FEMTO USAGE MODEL  Public (Open):  No restrictions on subscriber to use the femtocell.  All customers of a cellular service providers can access publicly accessible Femto-AP.  Hotspot type scenario: coffee shop or airport.  The femtocell becomes another part of the public mobile network.  Private (Closed):  Only authorized users are allowed to connect to a privately accessible Femto-AP.  Access Control List.  Non-authorized subscribers are denied access to the Femto (redirected back to the public macrocell network).  Home or enterprise environments.
  29. 29. INDOOR TECHNIQUES COMPARISON
  30. 30. FEMTO CHARACTERISTICS  Physique  Physically small for limited space in some households/offices  Silent in operation while generating low levels of heat output  RF Power  T x RF power is between 10-100mW (lower than 1W by Wi-Fi)  3G handset is able to transmit at lower power levels when being close to the femtocell  Coverage  Dedicated 3G coverage within a household (10-200m)  Designed for a capacity of 2 to 6 end-users
  31. 31.  Backhaul  Utilize Internet Protocol (IP) with a flat BS architecture  Link to operator networks via wired broadband connections  Interference  Macrocells vs. Femtocells  Femtocells vs. Femtocells  Security  Security risks due to broadband internet (open access)  Network security is managed by the IPsec protocol FEMTO CHARACTERISTICS
  32. 32.  Operation  Compatible with existing 2G/3G handsets and devices  Operates in licensed spectrum owned by operators  Remote configuration and monitoring system similar to that used by the macro networks  Remote management to enable QoS at the edge of the network  Includes provision for a services environment on which applications may be added  Worldwide Standard Support  Developed to support both 3GPP (UMTS) and 3GPP2 (CDMA)  Also supports emerging technologies such as WiMAX and LTE FEMTO CHARACTERISTICS
  33. 33. KEY ATTRIBUTES OF FEMTOCELLS  Mature mobile technology:  Femtocells use fully standard wireless protocols over the air to communicate with standard mobile devices, including mobile phones and a wide range of other mobile-enabled devices.  Qualifying standard protocols include GSM, UMTS, LTE, Mobile WiMAX, CDMA and other current and future protocols standardized by 3GPP, 3GPP2 and the IEEE.  The use of such protocols allows femtocells to provide services to more than 3 billion existing devices worldwide and to provide services which users can access from almost any location as part of a wide-area network.
  34. 34.  Operating in licensed spectrum:  By operating in licensed spectrum licensed to the service provider, femtocells allow operators to provide assured quality of service to customers over the air, free from harmful interference but making efficient use of their spectrum.  Generating coverage and capacity:  As well as improving coverage within the home, femtocells also create extra network capacity, serving a greater number of users with high data-rate services.  They differ in this from simple repeaters or ‘boosters’ which may only enhance the coverage. KEY ATTRIBUTES OF FEMTOCELLS
  35. 35.  Using internet-grade backhaul:  Femtocells backhaul their data over standard residential broadband connections, including DSL and cable, using standard internet protocols. This may be over a specific internet service provider’s network, over the internet itself or over a dedicated link.  At competitive prices:  The large volumes envisaged for femtocells will allow substantial economies of scale, driving efficiencies in manufacturing and distribution in a manner similar to the consumer electronics industry and with pricing projected to be comparable with access points for other wireless technologies. KEY ATTRIBUTES OF FEMTOCELLS
  36. 36.  Fully managed by licensed operators:  Femtocells only operate within parameters set by the licensed operator.  While they have a high degree of intelligence to automatically ensure that they operate at power levels and frequencies which are unlikely to create interference, the limits on these parameters are always set by operators, not the end user.  The operator is always able to create or deny service to individual femtocells or users. This control is maintained whether the femtocell itself is owned by the operator or the end user. KEY ATTRIBUTES OF FEMTOCELLS
  37. 37. FEMTOCELL CONFIGURATION SCENARIOS  Macrocells are operated by a mobile wireless operator, while femtocells are privately owned and connected to a broadband service provider, such as an Internet Service Provider (ISP).  Thousands of femtocells may co-exist in a coverage area of a macrocell- based cellular network.
  38. 38. FEMTOCELL NETWORK CONFIGURATION  There are three possible types of femtocell network configurations based on the availability of a broadband connection (e.g., ISP) and on the coverage of the macro cellular network:  Type A :a single stand-alone femtocell  Type B : a network of stand-alone femtocells  Type C : a femtocell network integrated with a macro cellular infrastructure
  39. 39. FEMTOCELL NETWORK CONFIGURATION
  40. 40. TYPE A - A SINGLE STAND-ALONE FEMTOCELL  This could be the case of a remote area with:  no macro cellular coverage  a poor coverage area  indoor  Macrocell edge  when no other neighboring femtocells are available.  this type of a configuration extends the service coverage into remote areas.
  41. 41. TYPE B – A NETWORK OF STAND-ALONE FEMTOCELLS  In this scenario, multiple FAPs are situated within an area in such a way that a radio signal from one FAP overlaps with other FAPs’ signals.  There is no macro cellular coverage  Ether coverage is poor.  Femtocell-to-femtocell handovers are present and need to be handled by the femto cellular network.  As the Type A configuration, the Type B configuration is also able to extend the service coverage into remote areas.
  42. 42. TYPE C – A FEMTOCELL NETWORK INTEGRATED WITH A MACROCELLULAR INFRASTRUCTURE  This scenario can be viewed as a two-tier hierarchical network, where :  the macrocells create the upper tier ; and  the femtocells the lower tier  Handover between macrocells and femtocells, as well as handover between femtocells, are common occurrence in this scenario.  This configuration improves the indoor service quality and reduces the traffic load of the macrocells by diverting traffic to femtocells.
  43. 43. DEPLOYMENT : GREATER FEMTOCELL  Not only for the home !  Femtocell economies of scale deliver cost-effective deployments in offices and in high-traffic or low coverage locations  Femtos in the enterprise and metro zone  Scope for cost-effective access to rural and developing markets via appropriate backhaul solutions
  44. 44. INDOOR FEMTO
  45. 45. DATA FEMTO
  46. 46. OUTDOOR FEMTO
  47. 47. WORKING OF FEMTOCELL
  48. 48. WORKING OF FEMTOCELL  A femtocell is installed at home and connected to mains power and a standard broadband IP connection (typically DSL) through to the mobile operator’s core network  Voice calls, text massages and data services are provided by the same systems.  Femtocells operate at very low radiation power levels, and typically have a range of 200 meters
  49. 49. WORKING OF FEMTOCELL  When users walk outside or out of range, calls are automatically handed over to the external mobile network.  Unlike Wi-Fi access points, Femtocells operate using licensed spectrum and thus must be supplied and operated in conjunction with the mobile operator
  50. 50. WORKING OF FEMTOCELL
  51. 51. WORKING OF FEMTOCELL
  52. 52. Femtocells are a complicated technology and there have been a number of issues and concerns which need to be addressed. INTERFERENCE  The placement of a femtocell has a critical effect on the performance of the wider network, and this is one of the key issues to be addressed for successful deployment. Because femtocells can use the same frequency bands as the conventional cellular network, there has been the worry that rather than improving the situation they could potentially cause problems.  As more analysis has been done, and more operators have deployed it is clear that so long as femtocells incorporate appropriate interference mitigation techniques (detecting macrocells, adjusting power and scrambling codes accordingly) then this need not be a problem. ISSUES
  53. 53. EQUIPMENT LOCATION  There are issues in this regard for access point base stations sold to consumers for home installation, for example. Further, a consumer might try to carry their base station with them to a country where it is not licensed.  Other regulatory issues relate to the requirement in most countries for the operator of a network to be able to show exactly where each base-station is located, and for E911 requirements to provide the registered location of the equipment to the emergency services. ISSUES
  54. 54. QUALITY OF SERVICE  In shared-bandwidth approaches, which are the majority of designs currently being developed, the effect on Quality of Service may be an issue. ISSUES
  55. 55. CONTROVERSY ON CONSUMER PROPOSITION  The impact of a femtocell is most often to improve cellular coverage, without the cellular carrier needing to improve their infrastructure (cell towers, etc.). This is net gain for the cellular carrier. However, the user must provide and pay for an internet connection to route the femtocell traffic, and then (usually) pay an additional one-off or monthly fee to the cellular carrier. Some have objected to the idea that consumers are being asked to pay to help relieve network shortcomings. On the other hand, residential femtocells normally provide a 'personal cell' which provides benefits only to the owner's family and friends. ISSUES
  56. 56. POTENTIAL CONSUMER CONCERNS A base station at my home ???  Femtocell transmits less than DECT or Wi-Fi  Handset transmits less power near femtocell  Confidential UMTS femtocell max transmit power is 10-17dBm (3G handset max transmit power is 21dBm)
  57. 57. FEMTO FORUM
  58. 58. FEMTOCELL VENDORS
  59. 59. SOME FEMTOCELLS
  60. 60. CONCLUSIONS  Femtocells are on a road to nowhere  Unsatisfactory coverage and the increasing number of high-data- rate application are two driving forces for femtocell development  Femtocells have the potential to provide high quality network access to indoor users at low cost  Improve coverage  Provide huge capacity gain
  61. 61. REFERENCES  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Femtocell  http://www.mobileburn.com/definition.jsp?term=femto  http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/definition/femtocell  http://www.airvana.com/technology/femtocell-network-architecture/  http://123seminarsonly.com/Seminar-Reports/031/Femtocells.html  http://www.seminarsonly.com/computer%20science/Femtocell-seminar-report-ppt.php
  62. 62. VIDEO DEMONSTRATION

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