Independent Clause! contain both asubject and a verb! can stand alone as asentence! Example: My dogloves play.In this example dogis the subject and lovesis the verb.Dependent Clause! contain both a subjectand a verb! cannot stand alone as asentence! does not express acomplete thought! Example: Whenever lazystudents whine, Mrs.Heather throws chalkerasers at their heads
Independent clauses can also be joined to otherindependent clauses, by using a conjunction.! Ex: and, but, in addition, also, however, soExample: I have a high fever today, but I still go toschool.
Noun Clause! A dependent clause that is used as a noun! Used as a subject, a predicate nominative,a direct object, an indirect object, or an object ofa preposition! Example: William talked at length about how shehad won the pizza-eating contest.（object of the preposition about）
Adjective Clause! A dependent clause that modifies a noun or apronoun! Must connect to the independent clause in orderto finish the thought.! Example: The vegetables that people leaveuneaten are often the most nutritious.
Adjective ClauseEssential Clause! provides informationthat is necessary to themeaning of a sentence! Example: Thevegetables that peopleleave uneaten are oftenthe most nutritious.Nonessential Clause! provides additionalinformation that can beomitted withoutchanging the basicmeaning of a sentence! Example: Broccoli,which people oftenleave uneaten, is verynutritious.
Adverb Clause! A dependent clause that modifies a verb, anadjective, or an adverb! Tells how, when, where, why, to what extent, orunder what condition! Example: Ping’s three cats bolted from thedriveway once they saw her car turn the corner.(When did the cats bolt? Once they saw her car turn the corner)
Subject-Verb Agreement! Subject: the person or thing that is beingdiscussed or describes in a sentence! Ex: I want to have a toy. (I is the subject)! Verb: the word use to describe an action! Ex: I want to have a toy. (want is the verb)
Singular! Ex:! I → go! You→ go! He/ She→ goes! It→ goes! Mr. Ted→ goes! Mr. Ted is a kindperson.Plural! Ex:! You→ go! They→ go! We→ go! Mr. Ted & me→ go! Mr. Ted and me arekind people.
Agree with the tenseJojo: runs (present)ran (past)is running (present continuous)
Important Rules! Used Plural: One of … who… a number of…(many)! Used Singular: the only one … who… thenumber of , every! Ex: She is one of the students who do notenjoy classic concerts.! Every student in the classroom is hardworking.
Verbals! Definition: Verbals are verbs that being changedinto different form of Noun, Adjective, Adverb.
Three different kinds of verbals:! Infinitive- is a verb form that start with the word “To”! Ex: To sleep, To talk, To run! Participle –using it in describing and modifying thesubject! Ex: Running along the path.! Gerund – a verb with “-ing”! Ex: Chrewing gum in class is not allowed.
Sentence Fragments! Definition: It is part of a sentence that you must addto a main clause because it is not complete by itself! Cannot use a sentence fragment alone! But if you add the fragment to the main clause thatwill be a good sentence! Example: I wont leave the house. Until I hear fromyou.
Types of Sentence Fragment! Prepositional Phrase- the fragment starts with apreposition(of, to, and, in, on…)Ex: In the rain, I enjoyed my run.! Appositional Phrase- is a noun based fragmentEx: My friend, Lily, is jealous of me.! Participial Phrase- uses a specific type of pasttense verb that acts like an adjective, but theparticipial verb is not a true verb.! Ex: Dissatisfied with my coffee, I went to thestore to buy milk.
Types of Sentence Fragment! Gerund Phrase-uses a verb with an “ing” ending Ex:Running to school, I afraid to late.! Infinitive Phrase- uses the infinitive form of the verb“to”! Ex: I stand the top of the hill to see the view of thewhole country.! Afterthought Phrase-clarifies earlier information byproviding specific details. (especially, including, forexample)! Ex: Some people are very talkative, for example:vincent.
Comma-Splices! Definition: the error when you combine towindependent clauses in a compound sentence byinserting only a comma between the without thenecessary conjunction.! Ex: Vincent has a lot of friends, he is very kind.(X)
Run on sentecne! Definition: the error when you combine twoindependent clauses by inserting only aconjunction between them without thenecessary comma.! Ex: This has been as very dry summer andsupply of water in the reservoirs is low.. (X)
Fused Sentence! Definition: the error when you combine twoindependent clauses with nothing in between.The two clauses are just jammed up next to eachother (fused) with neither conjunction norpunctuation.! Ex: Grandma still use rides her Harley motorcycleher toy poodle balances in a basket. (X)
How to fixed the problems! Use a period (.)! Use a semi-colon (;)! Use a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS,F=for, A=and, N=nor, B=but, O=or, Y=yet, S=so)! Use a subordinating conjunction (although, as,even thought, if, because, since, until and so on)
Example to fix the problem! Fused Sentence: Grandma still use rides her Harleymotorcycle her toy poodle balances in a basket.! Use a period: Grandma still use rides her Harleymotorcycle．Ｈｅｒ toy poodle balances in a basket.! Andy went to the gym everyday he lost a lof of weight.! Use a semi colon: Andy went to the gym everyday; helost a lof of weight.
Example to fix the problem! This has been as very dry summer and the supplyof water in the reservoirs is low. (Run onsentence)! Use a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS)! This has been as very dry summer, so the supplyof water in the reservoirs is low.
Example to fix the problem! Vincent has a lot of friends, he is very kind.(comma splice)! Use a subordinating conjunction! Vincent has a lot of friends because he is verykind.
Misplaced Modifier! Definition:! A word, phrase, or clause that is separated from the wordit modifies/ describes! Example: On his way home, Bob found a gold man’swatch.(X) (this means that gold man owns watch)! On his way home, Bob found a man’s gold watch. (thismeans that the watch is gold not the man)
Types of misplacedMisplaced Clauses:A sentence that sounds awkward and does not makeany sense because the sentence was placedincorrectly. I held the ticket tightly in my hand that my friend gaveme. (X)I held the ticket that my friend gave me tightly in myhand.
Misplaced Modifier! Misplaced Adjectives:! Adjective phrase that is separated from the noun thatit modifies, which might change the meaning of thewhole sentence.! Ex: The beautiful student’s bag lay on the floor.(X)! The student’s beautiful bag lay on the floor.
Misplaced Modifier! Misplaced Adverbs:! Ex: We ate the lunch that we had brought slowly.(X)! We slowly ate the lunch that we had brought.
Dangling Modifier! Dangling Participle:! found at the beginning of a sentence, that appearsfrom its position to modify an element of thesentence other than the one it was intended tomodify ! Ex: Rushing to the catch the bus, Bobs wallet fell outof his pocket.
Dangling Modifier! Dangling Gerund:! A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functionsas a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund,like the other two kinds of verbal, is based on a verband therefore expresses action or a state of being ! Ex: We drinking our coffee, the lions approachedour camp.
Dangling Modifier! Dangling Infinitive:! Start with the infinitive form of a verb (such as to tango, tosimmer, to cogitate, etc ! After having danced all night, they realized it was late andno restaurants were open.! Ex: To survive in this heat, new plants must be watereddaily.
Dangling Modifier! Dangling Elliptical Clause:! An elliptical clause will dangle if a writer does not makesure that the word it refers to is the subject of the mainclause ! - To ensure accuracy, we evaluated N2 selectivity onlywhen the no conversion exceeded 10%.! Ex: While driving a car, traffic regulations must beobserved.
Lack of Agreement BetweenPronoun and Antecedent! What is pronoun?! Pronoun replace nouns (pronouns are usuallyshort words)! Pronouns like “he, which, none, you” to makeyour sentences less cumbersome and lessrepetitive
Types of Pronoun! Personal Pronoun: the subjective personalpronouns are “I, you, she, he, it we, they”! Ex: It is on the table.! Objective Personal pronoun: the objectivepersonal pronouns are “me, you, her, him, it, us,them”! Ex: Bobby threw it into the garbage can.
Types of Pronoun! Possessive Personal Pronouns: “mine, yours, hers,his, its, our, theirs”! Ex: Don’t you dare touch the bag! It’s mine!! Demonstrative Pronouns – this and these refer tothings that are nearby either in space or in time,while that and those refer to things that are fartheraway in space or time! Ex: This is not good, you should not do it.
Types of Pronouns! Interrogative pronouns: “who, whom, which,what and the compounds formed with the suffixever whoever, whomever whichever andwhatever”! Ex: Which one do you like best?! Indefinite Pronouns: all, another, any, anybody…! Ex: Give a book to each.
Types of Pronouns! Reflexive Pronouns: myself, yourself, herself,himself, itself, ourselves and themselves! Ex: He usually sends a copy of email to himself.! Intensive Pronouns: used to emphasize itsantecedent! Ex: Amanda herself thinks that her boyfriend isthe worst guy out here.
Examples of sentenceswithout pronouns! Joe plays basketball with Jack because Joereally likes Jack.! Bob wants to eat so badly because Bob is veryhungry.! My mother cannot resist the smell of corn soupbecause corn soup is my mother’s favorite.
Lack of Agreement BetweenPronoun and Antecedent! What is an antecedent?! “Ante” in the word antecedent is prefix forsomething that goes before. For example,antediluvian that describes something old fashionedor out of date! A pronoun takes places for a noun that you’ve oncementioned, such as “he” used it to replace “Jack”, or“it” that is used to replace a “dog”
Allusion! Definition: An allusion is a figure of speech thatmakes a reference to , or a representation of,people, events, literary works, myths, or work ofarts.
Types of Allusion! Biblical Allusion- is when the writer makesreference to someone or event in the Bible.! Ex: The Crucible Act two: Elizabeth statesAbigail brings the other girls into the court, andwhere she walks the crowds will part like the seafor Israel.! This is referring to Moses, who parted the seasof Israel for the Israelites to escape from thePharaoh’s armies.
Types of Allusion! Historical Allusion- is used when someone make referenceto an individual or event in the past.! Ex: Crucible Act Two: At the beginning of Act 2, a kind ofcold war exists between John and Elizabeth because ofpast events.! Literary Allusion-is used when the writer refers to a bookor a person, place or event in a book or play.! Ex: Crucible Act Two: Although an honest and strong man,John Procter has an Achilles heel his relationship toAbigail.
Epiphany! Definition:! a moment of sudden revelation or insight! the point in literature works when the characterexperiences a sudden deep understanding orrealization of someone or something
IdiomDefinition: Idioms can be classified based on theirstructural properties. There are many differentways to classify them, and none are considered tobe the totally wrong or right.
Types of Idioms! Lexemic idioms- that function as a familiar partof speech. They have to be longer than one wordbut not as long as a sentence! Ex: Give in: To admit to be defeated or not to beable to do something.! Sememci idioms: Functions as a sentence.Never to get to first base: To fail to achieve thefirst state of significance in an activity.
Irony! Definition:! Is a literary device in which words are used toexpress a contradiction between appearanceand reality! In irony is usually the opposite of what it seems! In literature there are three types of irony
Types of Irony! Verbal irony – is when a speaker of writer saysone thing but actually means the opposite! Ex: When your mon walks into you filthy bedroomand says, “I see you’ve cleaned your room.”! (Sarcasm in one type of verbal irony)
Types of Irony! Situational Irony- is when the outcome of asituation is inconsistent with what we expectwould logically or normally occur. It is thereverse of what we expect will be or happen. Anexample of situational irony would be.! Ex: If a thief’s house was broken into at the sametime he was robbing someone’s house.
Types of Irony! Dramatic Irony- is when the audience or thereader is aware of something that a characterdose not know.! Ex: When Romeo believes Juliet is dead, but theaudience know that she has only been given apotion to sleep.
Themes! Definition: The main idea of text, expressed directlyand indirectly. Themes are the fundamental and oftenuniversal ideas explored in a literary work.! The theme is not the topic of the work, but a pointmade about the topic.
How to find the theme! First, what is the topic, or big idea of the work?! Second, what do the characters say or do thatrelates to the topic?! Third, what do these things tell you that isimportant to learn about the topic?
Example:! Themes are usually about big ideas like freedom,trust, friendship family good versus evil, love, courage,religion, death, survival and so on.Ex: Romeo and Juliet is the Love and Tragedy The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn: Religion and Supersition ! Harry Potter: Adventure and mystery! Hunger Games: Survival and love
Motifs (Definition)! Motif is not the same as motive! A decorative design or pattern! A distinctive feature or dominant idea in anartistic or literary composition! To summarize, motif is a symbolic idea or apattern that reoccurring again and again
Why motif is so important! Understanding motif will help us identify the theme of astory! Motif can also show different aspects of the story and itscharacter! Motif can help us understand a story that has manydifferent part! Motif can help writers centralize the message that the theytry to express
Motif (example)! In the Animal Farm by George Orwell one of themajor motif is the song, poem, and slogan like “theBeasts of England.” This represent propaganda andthe authors opinion on communism! In Slaughter House Five, one of the motif in the novelis the phrase, “so it goes.” This phrase follow everymention of death in the novel. This phrase reflectwhat Tralfamadorian’s idea on death
Other types of Motif! Motif also appears in many types of music and art! In music:Motif is a short rhythmic passage that repeatsthroughout the song or composition! In arts:! A repeated design in architecture or decoration
Paradox! Definition:! A seemingly contradictory statement that maynonetheless be true.
Types of Paradox! Veridical Paradox - is a counter-intuitiveresult which can be demonstrated to be true. ! Ex: A man who is 20 years old but had onlyhave 5 birthdays. ! Fasidical Paradox - is a result being absurdon the surface, is the result of faultyreasoning and so is genuinely false.
Types of Paradox! Antinomy - presents a statement, question orproblem that seems to have no answer! Ex: Assumes there is a town in which "the barber shaves alland only those men in town who do not shave themselves."The question that is posed is who shaves the barber ! Dialethia - is a statement which is paradoxicalthrough the fact that it is both true and false at thesame time.
Rhetorical Question! Definition:! A rhetorical question is a question that does notexpect an answer. It is a question that is makinga point, and not really asking a question.
Types of rhetorical! Negative assertions- is intended as a challengewith the implication that the question is difficultor impossible to answer.! Ex: Smoking can lead to lung cancer, who knew?! As a metaphor- one common form is where arhetorical question is used as a metaphor for aquestion already ask.! Ex: How do you catch a cloud and pin it down?
Types of rhetorical! Other forms- sometimes the implied answer to arhetorical question is “Yes but I wish it were not so”or vice versa! Ex: Eh, why not?! Ex: When you parents are angry at you, they will say,“Are you a little child?”! (It is not asking a question, but making point that yourbehavior is like a little child)
Satire! Definition: is a literary work in which humanvoice or folly is attacked through wit, sarcasmand irony
Types of Satire! Horation: humorous, lighthearted jabbing! Ex: Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice! Juvenalian: harsh, bitter, cruel mocking! Ex: William Golding’s lord of the files.! Menippean: spreads its mental barbs at a widenumber of targets.! Ex: Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland.
Weapons of Satire! Humor! Ex: the class was so boring; everyone fell asleepin three seconds.! Comic Juxtaposition! Ex: Pop’s line in Rape of the Lock: “Puffs,patches, and bibles.”
Weapons of Satire! Diminution! Ex: Treating the Canadian Members of Parliament asa squabbling group of little boys.! Invective! You are a liar.! Lampoon! Jed Babbin: “Going to war without the French is likegoing deer hunting without your accordion.”
Sarcasm (what is sarcasm)! The use of language that subverts the user’s truemeaning or position in order to be harsh or attacking! Sarcasm is intended to be cutting or hurt to a thirdparty in one’s subversive use of language! A form of irony that is widely used in Englishespecially when people being humorous! Is a verbal irony but not every verbal irony is sarcasm! While satire can mostly be found in literaturesarcasm can be found mostly by speaking
Example of Sarcasm! Jacky is very tall.! I work 40 hours a week to be this poor.! And which dwarf are you?