Phrases and clauses


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  • Phrases and clauses

    1. 1. Phrases and Clauses Presented By: Rushda Ashraf English Language Instructor
    2. 2. Introduction • Phrases and clauses are the building blocks of sentences. • A phrase is a group of words that act as a part of speech but cannot stand alone as a sentence. • Clauses are groups of words that has a subject and a predicate. • A sentence expresses a complete thought and contains a subject, a noun, pronoun, a predicate, a verb and a verb phrase.
    3. 3. The Phrase A phrase is any group of related words, that unlike a sentence has no subject- predicate combination. The words in a phrase act together so that the phrase itself functions as a single part of speech. For example some phrases act like nouns, some as verbs, some as adjectives or adverbs. Remember that phrases cant stand alone as sentences. A cool wet afternoon.( noun phrase) You can’t eat that.( verb phrase) She is fond of cooking.( Adjective phrase)
    4. 4. Cont… • The object of a preposition can have its own modifiers, which also are part of the prepositional phrase. In the smoky, crowded room By the rushing river Of the remaining few people • Prepositional phrase works as either adjectives or adverbs. The woman in the woolen coat pulled out her cell phone.
    5. 5. The Participle Phrases • A participle phrase begins with a present or past participle and followed by its objects and modifiers. Like participles alone, participle phrases are used as adjectives. Sniffing the fresh air, Ayyan realized he had found paradise. • In this sentence the present participle sniffing introduces the participle phrase which includes the participle’s object( air) and its modifiers( the, fresh).
    6. 6. Cont… • The soldiers, trapped by the enemy, threw down their guns. • Here, the past participle trapped introduces the participle phrase trapped by the enemy. The entire phrase acts as an adjective modifying the subject of the sentence (soldiers). Notice the phrase within phrase here. By the enemy is a prepositional phrase modifying the participle trapped. • Remember that phrases can act as modifiers in other phrases.
    7. 7. The Gerund Phrase • A gerund phrase may look like a participle phrase because gerund phrase begin with the –ing form of a verb( riding, seeing, talking etc) and have objects and modifiers. But a gerund phrase acts as a noun in a sentence, not as an adjective. • A gerund phrase can serve as the subject of the sentence, the object of a verb or preposition, or the compliment of a linking verb. Riding the black stallion, terrified Hammad. • In this sentence the gerund phrase, riding the black stallion acts as a noun and is the subject of the verb terrified.
    8. 8. The Infinitive Phrase • The infinitive phrase contains an infinitive( to sleep, to have slept, to consider, to throw) and its objects and modifiers. Infinitive phrases usually function as nouns, though they can be used as adjectives and adverbs. To sleep all night was his only wish. • In this sentence to sleep all night is the infinitive phrase acting as a noun. It is the subject of the sentence.
    9. 9. Cont… The representative didn’t want to take an unpopular stand. • To take an unpopular stand is an infinitive phrase acting as a noun. It is the direct object of the predicate didn’t want. He has plenty of money to spend foolishly. • The infinitive phrase to spend foolishly acts as an adjective modifying noun money. After the accident, she drove mile to clear her mind. • To clear her mind acts as an adverb modifying drove. It answers the question “ Why did she drive?”
    10. 10. Noun Phrase • A noun phrase consists of a noun and other related words( usually modifiers and determiners) which modify the noun. It functions like a noun in the sentence. The whole phrase works as a noun in the sentence. Noun phrase= noun + modifier He is wearing a nice red shirt. (as noun/ object) She brought a glass full of water. (as noun/ object) The boy with brown hair is laughing. (as noun/ subject) • A sentence can also contain more noun phrases. The girl with blue eyes bought a beautiful chair.
    11. 11. Prepositional Phrase • A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object of preposition( noun or pronoun) and may also consist of other modifiers. A prepositional phrase functions as an adjective or adverb in a sentence. A boy on the roof is singing a song.( as adjective) The man in the room is our teacher.( as adjective) She is shouting in a loud voice.( as adverb) He always behaves in a good manner.( as adverb)
    12. 12. Adjective phrase • An adjective phrase is a group of words that functions like an adjective in the sentence. An adjective phrase functions like an adjective to modify a noun or a pronoun in a sentence. He is wearing a nice red shirt.( modifies shirt) He gave me a glass full of water.( modifies glass) • Prepositional and participle phrases also functions as adjective so we can also call them adjective phrases when they function as adjectives. In the sentence “ The girl with brown hair is singing a song”, the phrase “ with brown hair” is a prepositional phrase but it functions as an adjective.
    13. 13. Adverb Phrase • An adverb phrase is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence. It consists of adverb and other words( preposition, noun, verb, modifiers). An adverb phrase functions like an adverb to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb. She always drives with care.( modifies verb drive) He returned in a short while.( modified verb return). • A prepositional can also act as an adverb phrase. In this sentence “ He always behaves in a good manner”, the phrase” good manner” is a prepositional phrase but it acts as adverb phrase here.
    14. 14. Verb Phrase • A verb phrase is a combination of main verb and its auxiliaries( helping verbs) in a sentence. He is eating an apple. She has finished her work. • A verb phrase can consists of a main verb, its auxiliaries, its compliments and other modifiers. Hence, it can refer to the whole predicate of a sentence. • Example: You should study for the exam.
    15. 15. Absolute Phrase • Absolute phrase( also called nominative phrase) is a group of words including a noun and pronoun and a participle as well as any associated modifier. Absolute phrase modifies the entire sentence. It resembles a clause but it lack a true finite verb. It is separated by a comma or pair of commas from the rest of the sentence. He looks sad, his face expressing worry. She was waiting for her friend, her eyes on the clock. John is painting a wall, his shirt dirty with paint.
    16. 16. The Clause • A clause is group of related words containing a subject and predicate. • For example: He laughed. I will meet him in office. • The part of above sentence “ I will meet him” is a clause because it has a subject( I ) and a predicate ( will meet him ). But the remaining part of the sentence “ in office” lacks both subject and predicate such group of words is called phrase. • A clause may stand as a simple sentence or may join another clause to make it a sentence.
    17. 17. Cont… • Therefore, a sentence consists of one, two or more clauses. • He is sleeping. ( one clause) • The kids were laughing at the joker. ( one clause) • The teacher asked a question, but no one answered. (two clauses) • I like Mathematics, but my brother likes Biology, because he wants to become a doctor. ( three clauses)
    18. 18. Types of Clauses • There are two main types of clauses main ( or independent) clause and subordinate ( or dependent) clause. • Main clause is a clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand as a sentence. I met the boyI met the boy who had helped me. She is wearing a shirt which looks nice. He takes medicine because he suffers from fever.
    19. 19. Cont… • The group of words that has a subject and verb but( unlike an independent clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. Also known as a dependent clause. Whenever I sharpened my pencil. This is a subordinate clause. We don’t understand that what happens whenever(he) sharpened(his) pencil. It need an independent clause to make sense.
    20. 20. Types of Subordinate Clause • Subordinate clauses can be divided into following types: • Noun Clause: What he did made a problem for his family. • In this sentence the clause “ what he did” functions as a noun, so it is a noun clause. A noun clause works as a noun that acts as a subject, object, or predicate in a sentence. A noun clause starts with words, “that, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, whomever. Whatever you learn will help you in future.( as a subject) What you said made me laugh.( as a subject) He knows that he will pass the the test.( as an object)
    21. 21. Cont… • Adjective Clause: A pendent clause that functions as an adjective in a sentence is called an adjective clause. He wears a shirt that looks nice. • The clause “ which looks nice” is an adjective clause because it modifies noun “shirt”. • Adjective clause begins with relative pronoun( that, who, whom, whose, which). An adjective clause precedes a noun it modifies. I met the boy who had helped me. An apple that smells bad is rotten.
    22. 22. Cont… • An adjective clause can be restrictive or non restrictive. • A restrictive clause limits the meaning of preceding noun or pronoun. The table that costs Rs.1000 is made of steel. • A non restrictive clause tells us something about noun or pronoun but does not limit the meaning of noun or pronoun. The table, which costs Rs. 1000, is made of steel.
    23. 23. Cont… • Adverb Clause: The dependent clause that functions as an adverb in the sentence is called an adverb clause. It modifies the situation in the main clause in terms of time, frequency, cause and effect, contrast, condition and intensity. • Don’t go before he comes. • He takes medicine because he is ill. • I will go to the school unless it rains. • You are safe as long as you drive carefully.
    24. 24. Cont… The subordinating conjunctions used for adverb clauses are: Time Cause and Effect Contrast Condition When/whenever because Although If/only if Since/ until since even unless Before/after Now that Whereas Whether or not While/as As long as While Even if By the time so though Providing or provided that As soon as So that In case
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