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English Fhonology (I Bimestre)

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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Inglés
English Fhonology
I Bimestre
Abril - Agosto 2007
Ponente: Dra. Carmen Benítez

Published in: Technology
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English Fhonology (I Bimestre)

  1. 1. ESCUELA : PONENTE : BIMESTRE : ENGLISH FHONOLOGY CICLO : INGLÉS I BIMESTRE Dra. Carmen Benítez ABRIL – AGOSTO 2007
  2. 2. <ul><li>LANGUAGE AS A SET OF SPEECH HABITS </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>THE SPEECH HABITS </li></ul><ul><li>NATIVE LANGUAGE INTERFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>THE FOREIGN ACCENT </li></ul>
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF PHONOLOGY IT IS A BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS, WHICH STUDIES THE SPEECH SOUNDS IN GENERAL, ACCORDING TO THEIR PRODUCTION, COMPOSITION, DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION WITHIN THE LANGUAGE.
  4. 4. DIVISION OF PHONOLOGY <ul><li>PHONETICS ( Production and articulation of speech sounds ) </li></ul><ul><li>ACOUSTIC PHONETICS (Properties of sounds) </li></ul><ul><li>AUDITORY PHONETICS (Perception of sounds) </li></ul><ul><li>ARTICULATORY PHONETICS Articulation of sounds) </li></ul><ul><li>PHONEMICS (Phonemes) Distribution and function of sounds in the language. </li></ul>
  5. 5. SOME IMPORTANT CONCEPTS <ul><li>PHONEME: It is one of the functional units of sound which contrast in the same environment with all others enabling the speakers to distinguish one utterance from another. </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOPHONE: are positional variants or the individual sounds of the same phoneme </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>SEGMENTAL PHONEMES: </li></ul><ul><li>A VOCOID OR VOWEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>continuous, uninterrupted, frictionless resonant and open sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phonetic features, horizontal and vertical plane of the mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A CONTOID OR CONSONANT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short duration sound, lack of sonority or friction noise, or various combinations of these features. (oral and nasal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>classified according to point and manner of articulation. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>SUPRASEGMENTAL PHONEMES.- superimposed on, or added to, the vowels and consonant sounds that make up the individual words. (prosodic features of speech) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STRESS is the force in articulation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PITCH is the intonation or speech melody, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JUNCTURE is the transition from one segmental phoneme to another. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS. Symbols for vowel phonemes /ɪ/ as in ‘pit’ pɪt /e/ as in 'pet' pet /æ/ as in 'pat' pæt /ʌ/ as in 'putt' pʌt /ɒ/ as in 'pot' pɒt /ʊ/ as in 'put' pʊt /i:/ as in 'key' ki: /ɑ :/ as in 'car' k ɑ : /ɔ:/ as in 'core' kɔ: /u:/ as in 'coo' ku: /ɜ :/ as in 'cur' kɜ: /ə/ as in 'about, 'upper' əbaʊt, ʌ pʊ /eɪ/ as in 'bay' beɪ /aɪ/ as in 'buy' baɪ /ɔɪ/ as in 'boy' bɔɪ /ɪə/ as in 'peer' pɪə /eə/ as in 'pear' peə /ʊə/ as in 'poor' pʊə /əʊ/ as in 'go' gəʊ /aʊ/ as in 'cow' kaʊ
  9. 9. SYMBOLS FOR CONSONANT PHONEMS /p/ as in 'pea' pi: /b/ as in 'bee' bi: /t/ as in 'toe' t əʊ /d/ as in 'doe' d əʊ /k/ as in 'cap' k æ p /g/ as in 'gap' g æ p /f/ as in 'fat' f æ t /v/ as in 'vat' v æ t /θ/ as in 'thing' θɪŋ /ð/ as in 'this' ðɪ s /s/ as in 'sip' sɪp /z/ as in 'zip' z ɪ p /ʃ/ as in 'ship' ʃɪp /ʒ/ as in 'measure' meʒə /h/ as in 'hat' hæt /m/ as in 'map' mæp /n/ as in 'nap' næp /ŋ/ as in 'hang' hæŋ /I/ as in 'led' led /r/ as in 'red' red /j/ as in 'yet' jet /w/ as in 'wet' wet /ʤ as in 'gin' ʤɪn
  10. 10. THE FIVE PARTS INVOLVED IN THE ACT OF SPEAKING <ul><li>Motor </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrator </li></ul><ul><li>Resonator </li></ul><ul><li>Articulators </li></ul><ul><li>Points of articulation </li></ul>
  11. 11. DIAGRAM OF THE SPEECH TRACT
  12. 12. THE THREE POSITIONS OF THE VOCAL CORDS <ul><li> position 1 position 2 position 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Position 1: Wide apart normal breathing and VOICELESS SOUNDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Position 2: for impeding the flow of air. </li></ul><ul><li>Position 3: light contact for VOICED SOUNDS. </li></ul>
  13. 13. THE ARTICULATORS are mobile organs that can be brought close to, or into contact with various locations in the speech tract (known as points of articulation) so as to stop or impede the free passage of the air stream.
  14. 14. THE POINTS OF ARTICULATION <ul><li>fixed locations </li></ul><ul><li>are places of interference or interruption of the free flow of the airstream. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>DEFINITION OF CONSONANTS </li></ul><ul><li>PHONETICALLY.- made by a closure or narrowing in the vocal tract, the air flow is blocked, an audible friction is produced. place , manner of articulation and voicing </li></ul><ul><li>PHONOLOGICALLY.- sounds at the margins of syllables, either singly or in clusters. </li></ul><ul><li>called CONTOID, short duration, lack of sonority or a predominance of friction noise or combinations of these features. Oral or nasal. </li></ul>
  16. 16. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS <ul><li>MANNER OF ARTICULATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stops or plosives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fricatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affricates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R-sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiconsonants </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS </li></ul><ul><li>PLACE OF ARTICULATION </li></ul><ul><li>Bilabials </li></ul><ul><li>Labiodentals </li></ul><ul><li>Dentals or Interdentals </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolars </li></ul><ul><li>Palatals </li></ul><ul><li>Velars </li></ul><ul><li>Glottals. </li></ul>
  18. 18. DISTRIBUTION OF CONSONANT PHONEMES Phonetically speaking, the term DISTRIBUTION is used to refer to the total set of contexts or environments, in which a sound unit can occur.
  19. 19. <ul><li>CONSONANT ALLOPHONES </li></ul><ul><li>A small (h) located at the upper-right side of the consonant symbol, </li></ul><ul><li>Two parallel hyphens (=) located at the lower-right of the consonant </li></ul><ul><li>An (r) with an apostrophe (') in its upper side, </li></ul><ul><li>A slanted line (/) crossing the consonant /l/, </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>CONSONANT CLUSTERS </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>INITIAL CLUSTERS: (fifty-two) </li></ul><ul><li>FINAL CLUSTERS: (170) </li></ul>

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