Phonetics Ppt

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Phonetics Ppt

  1. 1. Lesson 17 Long and Short Vowels ♥ Luisa ♥
  2. 2. <ul><li>Problems of Spelling English </li></ul><ul><li>Vowel substitutions caused by the inconsistencies of English spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>The differences between the English and some other system of spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>More than twice as many vowel sounds in English as there are five vowel letters. </li></ul><ul><li>The symbols ω and y are used to represent both consonant and vowel sound. </li></ul><ul><li>English has borrowed words and elements of foreign spelling systems from other languages. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The system of Long and Short Vowels </li></ul><ul><li>The diacritical marks : </li></ul><ul><li>long vowels f ā t e ; short vowels f ă t </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the five English vowel letters -- a, e, i, o, u -- </li></ul><ul><li>has two most common sounds in stressed syllables, </li></ul><ul><li>a long sound and a short sound. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Each of the long sounds is a diphthong that includes </li></ul><ul><li>one or both of the glides / y / or / w /. The short sounds </li></ul><ul><li>are transcribed without glides. </li></ul><ul><li>English alphabet are the same as their long sounds </li></ul><ul><li>and the short sounds as their nicknames. </li></ul><ul><li>EX : /ey/ is the name of “a” and /æ/ is its nickname </li></ul><ul><li>The long vowels are sometimes called tense , since </li></ul><ul><li>they are often pronounced with more muscular tension </li></ul><ul><li>than the short vowels, which are sometimes called lax . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Each vowel letter is pronounced with its long sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is final in the syllable : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>p ā -per, sh ē , f ī -nal, n ō , d ū -ty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is followed by an unpronounced e , or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a consonant plus an unpronounced e : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>m ā ke, ē ve, d ī e, ū se, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each vowel letter is pronounced with its short sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is followed in the same syllable by a consonant : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>m ă t-ter, w ĕ nt, r ĭ v-er, d ŏ c-tor, c ŭ t </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These rules only apply to vowels in stressed syllables . </li></ul><ul><li>we already know that in unstressed syllables vowel </li></ul><ul><li>letters are normally pronounced as / ə /, / ı /, or / u / </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Vowel Sounds and Syllable Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Q : It does not enable us to predict the pronunciation of </li></ul><ul><li>a large groups of words of more than one syllable. </li></ul><ul><li>EX : ́ ever and ́ even </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is to know where one syllable ends and </li></ul><ul><li>the next syllable begins. </li></ul><ul><li>If the stressed vowel in ́ ever is final in the syllable, pronounced as /iy/. And if the stressed vowel is followed in the same syllable by a consonant, pronounced as / ε /. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Actually, the situation varies depending on the letter that represents the stressed vowel sound. </li></ul><ul><li>The letter i usually has a short sound. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short / ı / : add i tion, c i ty, f i nish, cons i der, g i ven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long /ay/ : Ch i na, cl i mate, f i nal, Fr i day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The letter e usually has a short sound. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short / ε / : b e nefit, cr e dit, l e vel, Am e rican </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long /iy/ : e qual, e vil, fr e quent, r e cent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The letter a has long and short sounds with almost equal frequency. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short / æ / : a nimal, h a bit, f a mily, b a lance, s a lary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long /ey/ : A sia, b a by, f a mous, f a vor, l a dy </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The letter o has long and short sounds with almost equal frequency. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short /a/ : b o dy, c o py, h o liday, m o del </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long /ow/ : br o ken, l o cal, m o tion, m o ment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The letter u almost has a long sound. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short / ə/ : p u nish, st u dy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long /yuw/ : f u ture, h u man, m u sic, u sual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember that long vowels usually end a syllable (except when followed by a consonant plus an unpronounced e ), but short vowels do not end a syllable. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Vowels before l or r </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the lowering and backing of the tongue that are involved in producing the two liquid, /l/ and /r/ tend by assimilation to make any vowel that precedes them have a more open or back sound than it would have. </li></ul><ul><li>EX : actor / ́ æ ktər/ v.s. alter / ́ כ ltər/ </li></ul><ul><li>It is not always true long vowels take more time to pronounce than do short vowels. It is true a long vowel lasts longer than a short vowel when the two occur in the same linguistic environment. </li></ul><ul><li>EX : We’ll t a ke it up v.s. We’ll t a ck it up </li></ul><ul><li>bid /b ı d/ v.s. bite /bayt/ </li></ul>
  10. 10.           
  11. 12. Lesson 13 <ul><li>Consonant Substitutions </li></ul><ul><li>Part 1 </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Consonant Substitutions </li></ul><ul><li>【 def 】 Consonant substitution refers to the speech error in which one consonant is incorrectly used in place of another. Lots of substitutions involve the replacement of a voiced consonant by its voiceless counterpart. </li></ul><ul><li>EX : those /dowz / instead of /owz/ </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>/ θ /,/t/, and /s/ ; / ð /, /d/,and /z/ </li></ul><ul><li>Toward/ θ / and/ð /, most ESL students have trouble and often try to replace them by other, such as/t/ and /d/ instead of / θ / and / ð /,sometimes /s/ and /z/ heard also. </li></ul><ul><li>/ θ / and / ð / make up a voiced-voiceless pair. </li></ul><ul><li>/ ð / is usually a bit shorter sound than / θ /. </li></ul><ul><li>EX : thigh / θ ay/ v.s. thy / ð ay/ </li></ul><ul><li>When /t/ is substituted for / θ /, it means that a stop has been substituted for a continuant. The same thing happens when /d/ replaces / ð /. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: thing as /tıŋ/ instead of / θ ıŋ/ </li></ul><ul><li>the as /də/ instead of / ð ə/ </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Both substitutions can be avoided by making a longer but a less firm contact with the tongue, and by making this contact between the teeth rather than against the tooth ridge. </li></ul><ul><li>When /s/ is substituted for / θ /,or /z/ for / ð /, the primary problem is with the place of articulation </li></ul><ul><li>The substitution can be avoided by advancing the tip of the tongue and allowing the air to escape between it and the teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Such substitutions can be corrected when the speaker makes effort to form them well, but this kind of error is persistent in the short, unstressed words of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>EX : of the // knew that </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>/d ž / and /y/ </li></ul><ul><li>/y/ is a glide, a semi-vowel that occur after a vowel sound in diphthongs such as / כ y / and /ay/. /y/ also occurs at the beginning of a syllable and thus before a vowel sound, as in young / y əŋ /. This means /y/ can’t very well be pronounced alone or separated from the following vowel; / d ž / is an affricate and voiced sound. </li></ul><ul><li>The essential difference is this contact at the beginning of /d ž / between the tongue and the upper tooth ridge. For /y/, no part of the tongue touches the roof of the mouth; only light contacts are made between the tongue tip and lower teeth and between the sides of the tongue and the upper bicuspids. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>/ š / and /t š / </li></ul><ul><li>/ š / and /t š / are the voiceless counterparts of / ž / and /d ž /. In the production of / š / and /t š / , there is more sound of the outrush of air to make up for the lack of voicing. When / š / is substituted for /t š /. It means that the brief contact between the tongue tip and upper tooth ridge, necessary for /t/, has been omitted. </li></ul><ul><li>EX : question /kw ε s š ən/ instead of /kw ε s t š ən/ </li></ul><ul><li>sheep / š iyp/ v.s. Cheap / t š iyp/ </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>♥ Thank you for your attention ♥ </li></ul><ul><li>﹡ (σ ゚∀゚ *)σ </li></ul>

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