Learning teaching chapter6 7


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Learning teaching chapter6 7

  1. 1. Speaking Part three: Fluency and communication 主讲: XULUOSHA 制作:浙江外国语学院 08 英本 3 班 指导教师: VICTORGAO 教材: Learning Teaching Chapter 6
  2. 2. Here are some things you will probably hear people say <ul><li>But I don’t want to talk to other students .They speak badly. I just want to listen to you speak. </li></ul><ul><li>I speak a lot but what is the point if you never correct me? I will never improve. </li></ul><ul><li>You should be teaching them-not just letting them chatter away. That’s lazy teaching. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Here are some things you will probably hear people say <ul><li>I don't need to speak. Teach me more grammar. I will speak later. </li></ul><ul><li>There’s no point doing this task if we use bad English to do it. </li></ul><ul><li>This is just a game. I paid a lot of money and now I have to play a game. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Task 1 <ul><li>Take sides. Rehearse your arguments and replies to some or all of the above. </li></ul>
  5. 5. From a conversation we can summarize the teacher’s arguments <ul><li>There are times in class when a focus on accuracy (and therefore a greater use of instant correction) is appropriate. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>There are other times in class when the focus is on fluency. At these times instant correction is less appropriate and could interfere with the aims of the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher needs to be clear about whether her main aim is accuracy or fluency, and adapt her role in class appropriately. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Task 2 <ul><li>What is the teacher’s role likely to be in an activity mainly geared towards encouraging fluency? </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine yourself in the classroom while the students are doing the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Where are you? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you doing? </li></ul><ul><li>How ‘involved’ are you? </li></ul>
  8. 8. commentary <ul><li>If the main aim is to get the students to speak, then one way to help that would be for teachers to reduce their own contributions. Probably the less they speak, the more space it will allow the students </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, getting out of the way might be a help. </li></ul>
  9. 9. a basic procedure for a communicative activity <ul><li>Teacher introduces and sets up activity (teacher centre-stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Students do activity (teacher out of sight, uninvolved) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher gets feedback, does follow-on work, etc (teacher centre-stage again) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Some ideas for correction work <ul><li>The teacher writes up a number of sentences used during the activity and discusses them with the students. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher writes a number of sentences on the board. She gives the pens/chalks to the students and encourages them to make corrections. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The teacher invents and writes out a story that includes a number of errors she overhead during the activity. She hands out the story the next day and the students, in pairs or as a whole group, attempt to find the errors and correct them. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher write out two lists headed ‘A’ and ‘B’. on each list she writes the same ten sentences from the activity. On one list she writes the sentence with an error; on the other she writes the corrected version. Thus the correct version of sentence 3 might be on either list ‘A’ or list ‘B’ and the other list has an error. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The teacher divides the students into two groups, ‘A’ and ‘B’, and hands out the appropriate list to each group. The groups discuss their own list (without sight of the other list) and try to decide if their version of each sentence is correct or not. If it is wrong they correct it. When they have discussed all the sentences, the groups can then compare the two sheets (and perhaps come to some conclusions). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Speaking Part four: drama and roleplay 主讲:许罗莎 制作:浙江第二师范学院外国语学院 08 英本 3 班 指导教师:高歌 教材: Learning Teaching Chapter 6
  14. 14. Drama <ul><li>an excellent way to get students using the language </li></ul><ul><li>It essentially involves using the imagination to make oneself into another character, or the classroom into a different place </li></ul><ul><li>It can be a starting point for exciting listening and speaking work and it can be utilized as a tool to provide practice in specific grammatical, lexical, functional or phonological areas </li></ul>
  15. 15. Six types of drama activities <ul><li>Roleplay. Students act out small scenes using their own ideas and information an role-cards. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation. This is really a large-scale roleplay. Role-cards are normally used and there is often other background information as well. The intention is to create a much more complete, complex ‘world’, say of a business, television studio, government body, etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Drama games. Short games that usually involve movement and imagination. </li></ul><ul><li>Guided improvisation. A scene is improvised. One by one the students join in in character, until the whole scene and possibly story take on a life of their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Acting play scripts. Short written sketches or scenes are acted by the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared improvised drama. Students in small groups invent and rehearse a short scene or story that then perform for the others. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Task 1 <ul><li>Here are three role-cards. A fourth card is missing. Write it. </li></ul>You are a store detective. You can see a suspicious-looking person at a clothes rail who appears to be putting something into her bag. Go over and firmly but politely ask her to come to the office.
  18. 18. You bought a sweater from this shop yesterday but you have brought it back, because it is too small. You want to go to the assistant to return it and get your money back, but before you do, you start looking at the other sweaters on the rail and comparing them with the one you got yesterday, which is in your bag.
  19. 19. <ul><li>You are a shop assistant. You have just noticed a customer coming in who was very rude to you yesterday. She wanted to buy a sweater, which you told her was the wrong size, but she insisted was right. Finally she stormed out without buying it. You hope she isn’t going to cause more trouble. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Write it!
  21. 21. Running a roleplay: some guidelines <ul><li>Make sure the students understand the idea of ‘roleply’. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the context or situation is clear </li></ul><ul><li>Do they understand the information on their own card? Allow reading time, dictionary time, thinking time </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Give them time to prepare their ideas before the speaking starts; maybe encourage note-making. </li></ul><ul><li>… but when the activity starts, encourage them to improvise rather than rely on prepared speeches and notes. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Drama games </li></ul>
  24. 24. Walking <ul><li>The students stand up and walk around the room, as a character of their choice. </li></ul><ul><li>After a while, various people can meet each other and have short conversations (eg Marilyn Monroe meeting Shakespeare). </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Variation 1 : the teacher calls out names of characters from a story, or the news or history, etc and the students all try to act in character. </li></ul><ul><li>Variation 2 : the students must walk in the manner of the word: for example, happy, young, tired, could, tense. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Making a picture <ul><li>The teacher calls out a subject; the students must all together quickly form a frozen ‘tableau’ of that scene </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>An amusing variation : </li></ul><ul><li>Dividing the class in two. One half has two minutes to make their scene, while the other waits outside the room or in another room. When they return to view the tableau they must guess what the scene is. They are only allowed to ask questions that would have yes/no answers (eg Are you a table? No. Are you holding something? Yes.) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Puppets and dubbing <ul><li>Puppets : Two people (A and B) sit. Two other people (C and D) sit directly behind them. A and B now hide their arms behind their backs while C and D put their arms out in front, so that they look as if they are A and B’s real arms. A and B attempt to carry on a conversation while C and D move their arms and hands appropriate. Can be hilarious! </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Dubbing : This time C and D sit slightly to one side of A and B. they provide the words that A and B speak by whispering into their ears. A and B are not allowed to say anything except what they are told to say. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Interesting situations <ul><li>Students call out any interesting or ‘difficult’ situation involving two people and two other students act it out. For example, a well-meaning hostess serving meat to a polite vegetarian. This technique could, in appropriate circumstances, be used to ‘real-play’ (ie act out and explore some of the students’ own real-life problem situations). </li></ul>
  31. 31. Vocabulary Part one: Introduction 主讲:许罗莎 制作:浙江第二师范学院外国语学院 08 英本 3 班 指导教师:高歌 教材: Learning Teaching Chapter 7
  32. 32. Vocabulary <ul><li>Vocabulary is a powerful carrier of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Beginners often manage to communicate in English by using the accumulative effect of individual words </li></ul>
  33. 33. questions <ul><li>What words have a similar meaning to this word? How do they differ in meaning? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this word part of a family or group of related words? What are the other members? How do they relate to each other? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Questions <ul><li>What other words typically keep company with this word (often coming before or after it in a sentence)? </li></ul><ul><li>What other words can be formed by adding to or taking away bits of this word? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the situations and contexts where this word is typically found or not found? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Task 1 <ul><li>Which of the following items would you classify as vocabulary? In other words, which items would you consider appropriate for inclusion in a vocabulary lesson (as opposed to, say, a grammar lesson)? </li></ul><ul><li>pen; chair; compact disc; go off; paint the town red; it’s up to you; I would have given it to him. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Commentary <ul><li>When teaching, should we consider every set of letters that is bordered by spaces as a separate entity? </li></ul><ul><li>Or dose it make more sense to take some combinations of words as a single grouping, a single meaning, a single lexical item? </li></ul>
  37. 89. <ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul>