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Venkat
Terminology
BENCH: Ledge that forms a single level
of operation above which mineral or
waste materials are mined from the
...
Terminology
BENCH HEIGHT: Vertical distance between the
highest point on the bench (crest) and the lowest
point or the ben...
Terminology

BENCH SLOPE or BANK ANGLE :
Horizontal angle of the line connecting
bench toe to the bench crest.




       ...
Terminology
BERM: Horizontal shelf or ledge within the ultimate pit
wall slope left to enhance the stability of the a slop...
Terminology
OVERALL PIT SLOPE ANGLE: The angle measured
from the bottom bench toe to the top bench crest. It is
the angle ...
Terminology

The overall pit slope angle is affected by the width and
grade of the haul road.




                        ...
Terminology

HAUL ROADS: During the
life of the pit a haul road
must be maintained for
access.


HAUL ROAD - SPIRAL
SYSTEM...
Terminology

HAUL ROAD – SWITCH BACK SYSTEM: Zigzag pattern on
one side of the pit.

HAUL ROAD WIDTH:
Function of capacity...
Haul Road Effect on Pit Limits




                                 10
Terminology

ANGLE OF REPOSE: Maximum slope of the
broken material.

SUBCROP OR ORE DEPTH: Depth of waste
removed to reach...
Terminology
ULTIMATE PIT LIMITS: Vertical and lateral extend of
the economically mineable pit boundary. Determined on
the ...
Terminology
STRIPPING RATIO: Expressed in tons of waste to tons
of ore in hard rock open pit operations. Critical and
impo...
Single Working Bench




                       14
Shovel in Working Bench




                          15
Two Working Benches




                      16
Final
 Pit
Limit



        17
Example Mine
2001         2007     2011




                             18
Pit
Sequence
   (1)




           21
Pit
Sequence
   (2)




           22
Pit
Sequence
   (3)




           23
Pit
Sequence
   (4)




           24
Section of Pit Sequence




                          25
25
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Openpit fundamentals

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Openpit fundamentals

  1. 1. Venkat
  2. 2. Terminology BENCH: Ledge that forms a single level of operation above which mineral or waste materials are mined from the bench face. 2
  3. 3. Terminology BENCH HEIGHT: Vertical distance between the highest point on the bench (crest) and the lowest point or the bench (toe). It is influenced by size of the equipment, mining selectivity, government regulations and safety. 2
  4. 4. Terminology BENCH SLOPE or BANK ANGLE : Horizontal angle of the line connecting bench toe to the bench crest. 2
  5. 5. Terminology BERM: Horizontal shelf or ledge within the ultimate pit wall slope left to enhance the stability of the a slope within the pit and improve the safety. Berm interval, berm width and berm slope angle are determined by the geotechnical investigation. 5
  6. 6. Terminology OVERALL PIT SLOPE ANGLE: The angle measured from the bottom bench toe to the top bench crest. It is the angle at which the wall of an open pit stands and it is determined by rock strength, geologic structures and water conditions. 5
  7. 7. Terminology The overall pit slope angle is affected by the width and grade of the haul road. 5
  8. 8. Terminology HAUL ROADS: During the life of the pit a haul road must be maintained for access. HAUL ROAD - SPIRAL SYSTEM: Haul road is arranged spirally along the perimeter walls of the pit. 8
  9. 9. Terminology HAUL ROAD – SWITCH BACK SYSTEM: Zigzag pattern on one side of the pit. HAUL ROAD WIDTH: Function of capacity of the road and the size of the equipment. Haul road width must be considered in the overall pit design. 9
  10. 10. Haul Road Effect on Pit Limits 10
  11. 11. Terminology ANGLE OF REPOSE: Maximum slope of the broken material. SUBCROP OR ORE DEPTH: Depth of waste removed to reach initial ore. PRE-PRODUCTION STRIPPING: Stripping done to reach initial ore. 11
  12. 12. Terminology ULTIMATE PIT LIMITS: Vertical and lateral extend of the economically mineable pit boundary. Determined on the basis of cost of removing overburden or waste material vs. the mineable value of the ore. PIT SCHEDULING: Material may be mined from the pit either in: 1) sequential push backs 2) conventional push backs. 12
  13. 13. Terminology STRIPPING RATIO: Expressed in tons of waste to tons of ore in hard rock open pit operations. Critical and important parameter in pit design and scheduling. AVERAGE STRIP RATIO: Total waste divided by total ore within the ultimate pit. CUTOFF STRIPPING RATIO: Costs of mining a ton of ore and associated waste equals to net revenue from the ton of Ore.
  14. 14. Single Working Bench 14
  15. 15. Shovel in Working Bench 15
  16. 16. Two Working Benches 16
  17. 17. Final Pit Limit 17
  18. 18. Example Mine 2001 2007 2011 18
  19. 19. Pit Sequence (1) 21
  20. 20. Pit Sequence (2) 22
  21. 21. Pit Sequence (3) 23
  22. 22. Pit Sequence (4) 24
  23. 23. Section of Pit Sequence 25
  24. 24. 25

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