ECOLOGY
By:
MARIA KRISIA
FAE DELOS
REYES DE ASIS,
BSN-RN
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
-process by which green plants
and certain other organisms use
the energy of light to convert
carbon dioxid...
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
-Plants use much of this
glucose, a carbohydrate, as an
energy source to build
leaves, flowers, fruits, and...
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
-humans and other animals depend
on glucose as an energy source,
but they are unable to produce it
on their...
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
-The pigment chlorophyll is
responsible for the green color
of plants as well as their
ability to photosynt...
WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
-Plant photosynthesis occurs in
leaves and green stems within
specialized cell structures
cal...
WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
-The chloroplast, an oval-shaped
structure, is divided by
membranes into numerous diskshaped ...
WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
-Embedded in the membranes of the
thylakoids are hundreds of
molecules of chlorophyll, a
ligh...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
-It is divided into two stages:
a. LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION
- the chloroplast traps light
energ...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
- Light energy causes the
electrons in chlorophyll and
other light-trapping pigments
to boost u...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
- Other pigments, called
accessory pigments, enhance
the light-absorption capacity
of the leaf ...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
- The electrons are then
passed down a chain of carrier
molecules, called an electron
transport...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
- At the end of the electron
transport chain lies the
molecule nicotine adenine
dinucleotide (N...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
- the electrons are then
transferred and passed through
a different electron transport
chain
- ...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
- electrons are replenished by
the water that has been
absorbed by the plant roots
and transpor...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
- Some of the hydrogen ions
may be used to produce NADPH
at the end of the electron
transport c...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
- The transfer of electrons in
a step-by-step fashion
releases energy and heat
slowly, thus pro...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
b. LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION
- The chemical energy required
for the light-independent
reaction...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?
- Termed the Calvin cycle after
the American chemist Melvin
Calvin who discovered it
- use the ...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?

- These reactions occur in the
stroma, the fluid in the
chloroplast surrounding the
thylakoids...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?

- begins in the stroma when
these carbon dioxide molecules
link to sugar molecules called
ribu...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?

- Several intermediate
steps, which require
ATP, NADPH, and additional
enzymes, rearrange the ...
HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS
OCCURS?

- This process occurs
repeatedly in each chloroplast
as long as carbon dioxide, ATP,
and NADPH...
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
VARIATIONS
- On hot days, they partially
close the pores in their leaves
to prevent the escape of water.
Wi...
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
VARIATIONS
- To get around this problem,
certain hot-weather plants have
developed a way to keep carbon
dio...
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
VARIATIONS
- Here they stockpile it in a
chemical form that releases the
carbon dioxide slowly and
steadily...
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
VARIATIONS
- Bacteria lack
chloroplasts, and instead use
structures called
chromatophores or membranes
form...
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
VARIATIONS
- Bacteria lack chloroplasts,
and instead use structures
called chromatophores or
membranes form...
Cactus
Many cacti, such as
the prickly pear
cactus shown here,
carry out
photosynthesis in
enlarged stems
rather than leav...
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
- process in which cells produce
the energy they need to survive
- cells use oxygen to break down
the...
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
- occurs within a cell
constantly, day and night, and
if it ceases, the cell—and
ultimately the organ...
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
- Cellular respiration sometimes
is referred to as aerobic
respiration, meaning that it
occurs in the...
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
- The process of cellular
respiration occurs in four
stages: glycolysis; the
transition stage; the Kr...
GLYCOLYSIS
- the first stage of cellular
respiration wherein glucose is
the primary fuel
- glucose is broken down with the...
GLYCOLYSIS
- The addition of the two
phosphate groups prepares
glucose for the action of
another enzyme
- This enzyme spli...
GLYCOLYSIS
- Both hydrogen atoms are
modified to hydrogen ions,
positively charged particles
- A hydrogen ion and two
elec...
GLYCOLYSIS
- The hydrogen ions and electrons
stored in each molecule of NADH
are used to make ATP in later
stages of cellu...
GLYCOLYSIS
- This step prepares the two
three-carbon compounds for
action by the next enzyme in
the pathway
- This enzyme ...
GLYCOLYSIS
- ADP is composed of three
carbon-based rings and a tail
of two phosphate groups. The
addition of the third pho...
GLYCOLYSIS
- The removal of the third
phosphate from ATP converts ATP
back to ADP, which is used
again in cellular respira...
TRANSITION STAGE
- The transition stage is a short
biochemical pathway that links
glycolysis with the Krebs cycle
- The py...
TRANSITION STAGE
- This extensive membrane is
studded with hundreds of
thousands of enzymes that
direct cellular respirati...
TRANSITION STAGE
- In this brief stage, enzymes
transfer hydrogens and
electrons from the two pyruvate
molecules to two mo...
TRANSITION STAGE
- These atoms combine to form
carbon dioxide, the primary
waste product of cellular
respiration, which di...
TRANSITION STAGE
- The two acetyl groups unite
with two molecules of coenzyme
A to form two acetyl coenzyme A
molecules
- ...
SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS
KREB’S CYCLE
- During the Krebs cycle, the
acetyl coenzyme A molecules are
processed
- As this complex pathway
progresses,...
KREB’S CYCLE
- Hydrogens and electrons then
are transferred to a molecule
of flavin adenine dinucleotide
(FAD++)to form FA...
KREB’S CYCLE
- By the end of the Krebs cycle,
most of the usable energy from
the original glucose molecule
has been transf...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- The reactions of the electron
transport chain occur in
several closely spaced
molecules embedde...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- The first molecule in the chain
has an attraction for electrons
and grabs them, but the
molecul...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- Oxygen has a stronger appetite
for electrons than any molecule
in the chain, and the electrons
...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- As NADH and FADH2 release
hydrogen and electrons in the
electron transport chain, they
are conv...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- As the electrons flow down the
electron transport chain, they
release a veritable windfall of
e...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- Together with the two ATP
molecules gained in glycolysis
and the four generated in the
Krebs cy...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- Glucose molecules enter the
cell by the hundreds of
thousands and are processed
simultaneously ...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- It is estimated that a single
human brain cell uses a
staggering 10 million ATP
molecules per s...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- The cellular respiration
pathway is connected to other
metabolic pathways that can
donate molec...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- Another product of fat
digestion, fatty acids, can
enter at the transition stage
- Glycerol is ...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- The cellular respiration
pathway is connected to other
metabolic pathways that can
donate molec...
Please bring out any piece of
paper and prepare for a quiz..
question:
1. What is responsible
for the green color of
plants as well as their
ability to
photosynthesize?
question:
2. What type of
pigments enhance the
light-absorption
capacity of the leaf?
question:
3. What color of light
is NOT absorbed by the
plants?
question:
4. What is this molecule?
question:
5-6. What are two
critical ingredients
required for cellular
respiration?
question:
7. What are the
molecules that enter
the Kreb’s cycle?
question:
8. What is the stage of
respiration wherein
glucose is the primary
fuel?
question:
9. Cellular respiration
sometimes is referred
to as
___________________,
meaning that it occurs
in the presence ...
question:
10. The electrons are
passed down the
electron transport
chain in a manner,
until they reach
______, the final
m...
question:
11. Who identified the
Kreb’s Cycle?
question:
12. The Kreb’s Cycle is
also known as what?
question:
13. What is a stack of
thylakoids called?
question:
14. What is the process
by which green plants
and certain other
organisms use the
energy of light to
convert car...
question:
15. What do bacteria
use for photosynthesis
since they do not have
chloroplasts?
question:
16. What molecule has
three carbon, three
oxygen, and three
hydrogen atoms?
question:
17. Cellular
respiration transfers
about ______ percent of
the energy of glucose
to ATP?
question:
18. In which stage does
glycerol enter the
cellular respiration
process?
question:
19. Cellular
respiration produces a
grand total of ____
molecules of ATP for
every molecule of
glucose processed
question:
20-21. What colors of
light wavelengths are
most effective in
photosynthesis?
question:
22-25. What are the
four stages of cellular
respiration?
question:
26. What is the process
wherein carbon dioxide
molecules link to sugar
molecules called
ribulose bisphosphate
(R...
question:
27. Light independent
reaction is also known
as __________ after the
American chemist who
discovered it.
question:
28-29. What molecules
produced in the light
dependent reaction
supply the chemical
energy required for the
light...
question:
30. Photosynthesis also
convert glucose to
____________, the
structural material
used in their cell
walls.
Ecology4
Ecology4
Ecology4
Ecology4
Ecology4
Ecology4
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Ecology4

  1. 1. ECOLOGY By: MARIA KRISIA FAE DELOS REYES DE ASIS, BSN-RN
  2. 2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS -process by which green plants and certain other organisms use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose -provides the basic energy source for virtually all organisms -occurs in green plants, seaweeds, algae, and certain bacteria
  3. 3. PHOTOSYNTHESIS -Plants use much of this glucose, a carbohydrate, as an energy source to build leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds -They also convert glucose to cellulose, the structural material used in their cell walls -Most plants produce more glucose than they use, however, and they store it in the form of starch and other carbohydrates in roots, stems, and leaves
  4. 4. PHOTOSYNTHESIS -humans and other animals depend on glucose as an energy source, but they are unable to produce it on their own and must rely ultimately on the glucose produced by plants -the oxygen humans and other animals breathe is the oxygen released during photosynthesis
  5. 5. PHOTOSYNTHESIS -The pigment chlorophyll is responsible for the green color of plants as well as their ability to photosynthesize -In common terrestrial plants photosynthesis is usually carried out in the leaves, although it can also occur in the stem or other parts of the plant
  6. 6. WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? -Plant photosynthesis occurs in leaves and green stems within specialized cell structures called chloroplasts -One plant leaf is composed of tens of thousands of cells, and each cell contains 40 to 50 chloroplasts
  7. 7. WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? -The chloroplast, an oval-shaped structure, is divided by membranes into numerous diskshaped compartments called thylakoids -A stack of thylakoids is called a granum or grana which lie suspended in a fluid known as stroma
  8. 8. WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? -Embedded in the membranes of the thylakoids are hundreds of molecules of chlorophyll, a light-trapping pigment required for photosynthesis -REMEMBER THE CARBON CYCLE. 
  9. 9. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? -It is divided into two stages: a. LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION - the chloroplast traps light energy and converts it into chemical energy contained in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used in the second stage of photosynthesis
  10. 10. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - Light energy causes the electrons in chlorophyll and other light-trapping pigments to boost up and out of their orbit - Certain red and blue wavelengths are most effective. They have the right amount of energy to energize chlorophyll electrons and boost them out of their orbits to a higher energy level
  11. 11. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - Other pigments, called accessory pigments, enhance the light-absorption capacity of the leaf by capturing a broader spectrum of blue and red wavelengths, along with yellow and orange wavelengths - None of the photosynthetic pigments absorb green light; as a result, green wavelengths are reflected, which is why plants appear green
  12. 12. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - The electrons are then passed down a chain of carrier molecules, called an electron transport chain - The electrons are passed from one carrier molecule to another in a downhill direction because electrons release energy as they move down the chain
  13. 13. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - At the end of the electron transport chain lies the molecule nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADP+) - Using the energy released by the flow of electrons, two electrons from the electron transport chain combine with a hydrogen ion and NADP+ to form NADPH
  14. 14. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - the electrons are then transferred and passed through a different electron transport chain - As they pass along the cascade of electron carrier molecules, the electrons give up some of their energy to fuel the production of ATP, formed by the addition of one phosphorus atom to adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
  15. 15. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - electrons are replenished by the water that has been absorbed by the plant roots and transported to the chloroplasts in the leaves - The movement of electrons and the action of an enzyme split the water into oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electrons
  16. 16. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - Some of the hydrogen ions may be used to produce NADPH at the end of the electron transport chain, and the oxygen from the water diffuses out of the chloroplast and is released into the atmosphere through pores in the leaf
  17. 17. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - The transfer of electrons in a step-by-step fashion releases energy and heat slowly, thus protecting the chloroplast and cell from a harmful temperature increase - It also provides time for the plant to form NADPH and ATP
  18. 18. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? b. LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION - The chemical energy required for the light-independent reaction is supplied by the ATP and NADPH molecules produced in the lightdependent reaction - is cyclic, that is, it begins with a molecule that must be regenerated at the end of the reaction in order for the process to continue
  19. 19. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - Termed the Calvin cycle after the American chemist Melvin Calvin who discovered it - use the electrons and hydrogen ions associated with NADPH and the phosphorus associated with ATP to produce glucose
  20. 20. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid in the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoids, and each step is controlled by a different enzyme - requires the presence of carbon dioxide molecules, which enter the plant through pores in the leaf, diffuse through the cell to the chloroplast, and disperse in the stroma
  21. 21. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - begins in the stroma when these carbon dioxide molecules link to sugar molecules called ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) in a process known as carbon fixation - With the help of an enzyme, six molecules of carbon dioxide bond to six molecules of RuBP to create six new molecules
  22. 22. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - Several intermediate steps, which require ATP, NADPH, and additional enzymes, rearrange the position of the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in these six molecules - when the reactions are complete, one new molecule of glucose has been constructed and five molecules of RuBP have been reconstructed
  23. 23. HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS? - This process occurs repeatedly in each chloroplast as long as carbon dioxide, ATP, and NADPH are available - The thousands of glucose molecules produced in this reaction are processed by the plant to produce energy in the process known as aerobic respiration, used as structural materials, or stored
  24. 24. PHOTOSYNTHESIS VARIATIONS - On hot days, they partially close the pores in their leaves to prevent the escape of water. With the pores only slightly open, adequate amounts of carbon dioxide cannot enter the leaf, and the Calvin cycle comes to a halt
  25. 25. PHOTOSYNTHESIS VARIATIONS - To get around this problem, certain hot-weather plants have developed a way to keep carbon dioxide flowing to the stroma without capturing it directly from the air - They open their pores slightly, take in carbon dioxide, and transport it deep within the leaves
  26. 26. PHOTOSYNTHESIS VARIATIONS - Here they stockpile it in a chemical form that releases the carbon dioxide slowly and steadily into the Calvin cycle - With this system, these plants can continue photosynthesis on hot days, even with their pores almost completely closed
  27. 27. PHOTOSYNTHESIS VARIATIONS - Bacteria lack chloroplasts, and instead use structures called chromatophores or membranes formed by numerous foldings of the plasma membrane or cytoplasm - The chromatophores house thylakoids similar to plant thylakoids, which in some bacteria contain chlorophyll
  28. 28. PHOTOSYNTHESIS VARIATIONS - Bacteria lack chloroplasts, and instead use structures called chromatophores or membranes formed by numerous foldings of the plasma membrane or cytoplasm - The chromatophores house thylakoids similar to plant thylakoids, which in some bacteria contain chlorophyll
  29. 29. Cactus Many cacti, such as the prickly pear cactus shown here, carry out photosynthesis in enlarged stems rather than leaves. The stems also serve to store water, essential for photosynthesis.
  30. 30. CELLULAR RESPIRATION - process in which cells produce the energy they need to survive - cells use oxygen to break down the sugar glucose and store its energy in molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - critical for the survival of most organisms because the energy in glucose cannot be used by cells until it is stored in ATP
  31. 31. CELLULAR RESPIRATION - occurs within a cell constantly, day and night, and if it ceases, the cell—and ultimately the organism—dies - Two critical ingredients required for cellular respiration are glucose and oxygen - cells must have a steady supply of glucose so that ATP production is continuous
  32. 32. CELLULAR RESPIRATION - Cellular respiration sometimes is referred to as aerobic respiration, meaning that it occurs in the presence of oxygen - transfers about 40 percent of the energy of glucose to ATP - The rest of the energy is released as heat, which warmblooded organisms use to maintain body temperature, and cold-blooded organisms release to the atmosphere
  33. 33. CELLULAR RESPIRATION - The process of cellular respiration occurs in four stages: glycolysis; the transition stage; the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle; and the electron transport chain. Each stage accomplishes different tasks
  34. 34. GLYCOLYSIS - the first stage of cellular respiration wherein glucose is the primary fuel - glucose is broken down with the help of enzymes and other molecules found in the cytoplasm - Enzymes first attach two phosphate groups to glucose to make it more reactive (A phosphate group is a cluster of one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms)
  35. 35. GLYCOLYSIS - The addition of the two phosphate groups prepares glucose for the action of another enzyme - This enzyme splits glucose in half to produce two threecarbon molecules, each with one phosphate group attached - In the next step, an enzyme removes one hydrogen atom and two electrons from each threecarbon molecule
  36. 36. GLYCOLYSIS - Both hydrogen atoms are modified to hydrogen ions, positively charged particles - A hydrogen ion and two electrons from each threecarbon molecule are transferred as a unit to a large molecule called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to form two molecules of NADH
  37. 37. GLYCOLYSIS - The hydrogen ions and electrons stored in each molecule of NADH are used to make ATP in later stages of cellular respiration - In the final steps of glycolysis, two hydrogen atoms are removed from each threecarbon compound - These hydrogen atoms bond to free-floating oxygen atoms in the cytoplasm to form water
  38. 38. GLYCOLYSIS - This step prepares the two three-carbon compounds for action by the next enzyme in the pathway - This enzyme removes the phosphate group from each three-carbon compound - Each phosphate group then bonds to a single molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
  39. 39. GLYCOLYSIS - ADP is composed of three carbon-based rings and a tail of two phosphate groups. The addition of the third phosphate group to the tail forms ATP - In this step, two new ATP molecules are produced - When cells require energy, another enzyme breaks off the third phosphate group, releasing energy that powers the cell
  40. 40. GLYCOLYSIS - The removal of the third phosphate from ATP converts ATP back to ADP, which is used again in cellular respiration to make more ATP - When the two three-carbon compounds are separated from the phosphate groups, the three-carbon compounds are converted to two molecules of pyruvate, each composed of three carbon, three oxygen, and three hydrogen atoms
  41. 41. TRANSITION STAGE - The transition stage is a short biochemical pathway that links glycolysis with the Krebs cycle - The pyruvate molecules move from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria, where the remaining steps of cellular respiration are carried out - Each mitochondrion contains a membrane that is folded back and forth many times
  42. 42. TRANSITION STAGE - This extensive membrane is studded with hundreds of thousands of enzymes that direct cellular respiration - The numerous enzymes enable great quantities of ATP to be produced simultaneously in one mitochondrion - Without mitochondria or a similar structure, most cells could not generate enough ATP to survive
  43. 43. TRANSITION STAGE - In this brief stage, enzymes transfer hydrogens and electrons from the two pyruvate molecules to two molecules of NAD+ to form two more molecules of NADH - Another enzyme breaks off one carbon and two oxygen atoms from each pyruvate molecule
  44. 44. TRANSITION STAGE - These atoms combine to form carbon dioxide, the primary waste product of cellular respiration, which diffuses out of the cell - As a result of these reactions, each pyruvate molecule is transformed into a two-carbon compound called an acetyl group
  45. 45. TRANSITION STAGE - The two acetyl groups unite with two molecules of coenzyme A to form two acetyl coenzyme A molecules - The acetyl coenzyme A molecules are the molecules that enter the Krebs cycle
  46. 46. SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS
  47. 47. KREB’S CYCLE - During the Krebs cycle, the acetyl coenzyme A molecules are processed - As this complex pathway progresses, six molecules of NADH are formed - Additional carbon dioxide is created, and this process releases energy that is used to build two molecules of ATP from a pool of ADP and phosphate groups in the mitochondria
  48. 48. KREB’S CYCLE - Hydrogens and electrons then are transferred to a molecule of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD++)to form FADH2, a molecule like NADH that temporarily stores hydrogen and electrons for later use
  49. 49. KREB’S CYCLE - By the end of the Krebs cycle, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule has been transferred to ten molecules of NADH (two from glycolysis, two from the transition stage, and six from the Krebs cycle); two molecules of FADH2; and four molecules of ATP, two of which were formed in glycolysis
  50. 50. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - The reactions of the electron transport chain occur in several closely spaced molecules embedded in the mitochondrial membrane - the NADH and FADH2 molecules dump off their load of electrons and hydrogen ions near these electron transport chain molecules
  51. 51. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - The first molecule in the chain has an attraction for electrons and grabs them, but the molecule next to it in the chain has an even stronger attraction and grabs the electrons away from the first molecule - The electrons are passed down the chain in this manner, until they reach oxygen, the final molecule in the chain
  52. 52. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - Oxygen has a stronger appetite for electrons than any molecule in the chain, and the electrons therefore are held by oxygen - They are joined by the hydrogen ions that were dropped off by NADH and FADH2 at the beginning of the electron transport chain - The combination of the electrons, hydrogen ions, and oxygen forms water, used by the cell in other biochemical
  53. 53. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - As NADH and FADH2 release hydrogen and electrons in the electron transport chain, they are converted back to NAD+ and FAD++, respectively, providing the cell with a steady supply of these molecules so that cellular respiration can be carried out over and over again
  54. 54. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - As the electrons flow down the electron transport chain, they release a veritable windfall of energy that is used by an enzyme to make more ATP - In most cells, the electron transport chain produces 32 molecules of ATP
  55. 55. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - Together with the two ATP molecules gained in glycolysis and the four generated in the Krebs cycle, cellular respiration produces a grand total of 38 molecules of ATP for every molecule of glucose processed
  56. 56. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - Glucose molecules enter the cell by the hundreds of thousands and are processed simultaneously to generate millions of ATP molecules every second - Some of the ATP molecules remain in the mitochondria to supply it with energy, but most stream from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, where they fuel the cell’s activities
  57. 57. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - It is estimated that a single human brain cell uses a staggering 10 million ATP molecules per second to carry out its tasks - Although glucose is the primary fuel for cellular respiration, cells can rely on other molecules to produce ATP
  58. 58. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - The cellular respiration pathway is connected to other metabolic pathways that can donate molecules to cellular respiration at different steps along the way - For example, glycerol, a breakdown product of fat, can enter the cellular respiration pathway in the middle of glycolysis
  59. 59. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - Another product of fat digestion, fatty acids, can enter at the transition stage - Glycerol is modified in glycolysis to pyruvate, and fatty acids are modified to acetyl coenzyme A in the transition stage. The pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A are processed through the remaining steps of cellular respiration to yield ATP
  60. 60. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN - The cellular respiration pathway is connected to other metabolic pathways that can donate molecules to cellular respiration at different steps along the way - For example, glycerol, a breakdown product of fat, can enter the cellular respiration pathway in the middle of glycolysis
  61. 61. Please bring out any piece of paper and prepare for a quiz..
  62. 62. question: 1. What is responsible for the green color of plants as well as their ability to photosynthesize?
  63. 63. question: 2. What type of pigments enhance the light-absorption capacity of the leaf?
  64. 64. question: 3. What color of light is NOT absorbed by the plants?
  65. 65. question: 4. What is this molecule?
  66. 66. question: 5-6. What are two critical ingredients required for cellular respiration?
  67. 67. question: 7. What are the molecules that enter the Kreb’s cycle?
  68. 68. question: 8. What is the stage of respiration wherein glucose is the primary fuel?
  69. 69. question: 9. Cellular respiration sometimes is referred to as ___________________, meaning that it occurs in the presence of oxygen.
  70. 70. question: 10. The electrons are passed down the electron transport chain in a manner, until they reach ______, the final molecule in the chain.
  71. 71. question: 11. Who identified the Kreb’s Cycle?
  72. 72. question: 12. The Kreb’s Cycle is also known as what?
  73. 73. question: 13. What is a stack of thylakoids called?
  74. 74. question: 14. What is the process by which green plants and certain other organisms use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose?
  75. 75. question: 15. What do bacteria use for photosynthesis since they do not have chloroplasts?
  76. 76. question: 16. What molecule has three carbon, three oxygen, and three hydrogen atoms?
  77. 77. question: 17. Cellular respiration transfers about ______ percent of the energy of glucose to ATP?
  78. 78. question: 18. In which stage does glycerol enter the cellular respiration process?
  79. 79. question: 19. Cellular respiration produces a grand total of ____ molecules of ATP for every molecule of glucose processed
  80. 80. question: 20-21. What colors of light wavelengths are most effective in photosynthesis?
  81. 81. question: 22-25. What are the four stages of cellular respiration?
  82. 82. question: 26. What is the process wherein carbon dioxide molecules link to sugar molecules called ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)?
  83. 83. question: 27. Light independent reaction is also known as __________ after the American chemist who discovered it.
  84. 84. question: 28-29. What molecules produced in the light dependent reaction supply the chemical energy required for the light-independent reaction?
  85. 85. question: 30. Photosynthesis also convert glucose to ____________, the structural material used in their cell walls.

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