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Can Cities Learn from Each Other? The Hong Kong- Malmö Sustainability Collaboration


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Presentation on a City-to-City learning and innovation exchange at the World Environmental Education Congress WEEC2015) in Gothenburg, Sweden

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Can Cities Learn from Each Other? The Hong Kong- Malmö Sustainability Collaboration

  1. 1. An analysis of the Hong Kong - Malmö Sustainability Collaboration Waltraut Ritter, Björn Gunnarsson Knowledge Dialogues World Environmental Education Congress 1 July 2015 Gothenburg Can Cities Learn From Each Other?
  2. 2. Background: Malmö Hong Kong Sustainability Charter "We share a common vision of the vital role of sustainable development to our community and future generations" Hong Kong, China-Malmö, Sweden "Sustainability Charter", 2011. Can an open innovation approach be applied to sustain the collaboration? 2011 The cities of Malmö and Hong Kong signed the sustainability charter. Renewable energy, waste treatment, sustainable transport, innovation and technologies. Share information, experiences, best practices to the environment. Strengthen the link between Hong Kong and Malmö. Achievements: Study visits between Malmö and Hong Kong. Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks as third party of the collaboration. Innocarnival in Malmö inspired by Hong Kong and supported by Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks. Waste management in Hong Kong inspired by Malmö.
  3. 3. Research Questions: How can local community activities strengthen learning exchanges between Malmö and Hong Kong? Who are the current and potential stakeholders in the collaboration? Can an open innovation approach be applied to sustain the collaboration?
  4. 4. The cities Hong Kong Population: 7.3 million Density: 6690 inhabitants/km² Area: 1 108 square kilometers where 443km2 is country park Green space per capita: 3m²  Bikes: 0.5% of daily transport,  62 000 bike trips a day. Environmental Ranking: 2012: Above average (Asian Green City Index, Siemens.) 5.7 tonnes CO2 production per capita, 2012 Distance between Hong Kong and Malmo: 8648 km or 5374 miles Malmö Population: 316 000 Density: 897 inhabitants/km² Area: 355 km² Green space per capita:35.01m2 Bikes: 25% of all transport is by bikes. 100 000 bike trips a day Environmental Ranking: 2014: No 1 in Sweden 2015: No 23 in Sweden Miljöaktuellt, 4 Tonnes CO² production per capita, 2012 • . (
  5. 5. Aims of the project Developing a workable collaboration platform for cities (communities, academia, business and government) Defining urban practices, where community groups in different cities can learn from each other on: Urban Gardening (Food Resilience) Green Buildings (Old and New Buildings) Mobility (Increasing non-motorized mobility) Flooding (Mitigation strategies) Innovation Spaces (e.g. Living Labs, Innocarnival) Exploring common grounds for exchange and communication. Defining benefits from international community collaboration. Contributing to open innovation research
  6. 6. Theory: Urban sociology Collaborative Planning Theory: Citizen participation is a crucial tool to gain credibility for government. Citizen participation can improve quality of environment, programme and planning since participants have special knowledge contributing to quality. Participation shall increase responsibility and inclusivity. Participation shall decrease anonymity and alienation in neighbourhoods. Empowerment through collaborative learning. Training and resources enabling members to participate as real and equal partners. Local communities recognized as dynamic, diverse entities and as actors in innovation.
  7. 7. Urban Gardening We consider urban gardening as a tool for: Greening the city Self-sufficient food supply Integration Educating about sustainable living Meeting point for and different cultures and generations Learning how to collaborate cross generations and cultures
  8. 8. Urban Gardening examples Malmö: Odla i Stan (Cultivate in the City) Strengthen community and get children and elderly to meet each other. Creating a safe and attractive neighbourhood. Finding and testing crops from participants native countries to create inclusivity. Hong Kong: Time to Grow Teaching the Hong Kong community to grow vegetables in the city and to live a low- carbon life. Lack of space to be self-reliant from food. Rooftop gardens, implying that community groups and social enterprises get access to roof space.
  9. 9. Green Buildings A major focus area with regard to GHG reductions. Sustainable approach to waste management. Sustainable energy systems. Buildings are major contribution to CO² production in cities  Built area in Hong Kong: 264 km² of a total of 1108 km². Equals to 24% of the total area. Built area in Malmö: 38.07km² of a total of 158,36 km². Equals to 24% of the total area. Buildings take up 61% of all greenhouse emissions in Hong Kong. Both cities experience challenges with space and need to densify the city. Malmö Municipality limits extension of the city to the outer highway since the best soil of northern Europe is next to the city border. Country parks in Hong Kong covers 443km² .
  10. 10. Green Buildings examples Malmö: Greenhouse (Augustenborg, Malmö) Each flat has a large balcony with space for gardening. Passive design, solar energy, innovative green design. Social aspect: garden as meeting place, theater, pre-school. Hong Kong Energizing Kowloon East Office Saving space by revitalize unwanted land under a fly over. Reusable material. Steel structures that can be reused in the future. Passive design.
  11. 11. Mobility Malmö (mobility) Strategic plan for pedestrian Hong Kong (transport) No dedicated strategy for pedestrians
  12. 12. Innovation Spaces Innovation Space in cities are public spaces where different groups can meet: citizen/city halls, libraries, living labs etc. What spaces are there in Hong Kong and Malmo? How are they used? Innovation activities involving different groups: Example: InnoCarnival, originally organised in Hong Kong by the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks. Online idea management:
  13. 13. Outline for an inter-city collaboration platform for cities Community involvement in Western Harbour (“Green Buildings”) as a model for an inter-city collaboration platform. “Det goda samtalet” (The Good Conversation), dialogue between developers, municipality and citizens, as inspiration. Users, entrepreneurs and developers can share information and experience to create new ideas in both cities. Ongoing learning space of exchanging knowledge and values.
  14. 14. Different experiences of urban gardening Malmö Integration of marginalised groups. Strengthening the community. Inclusive and accessible for everyone to participate. Easy access to land due to space anc acceptance and support from authorities. Not technically advanced growing methods. Hong Kong Education of a healthy living. Self-reliance of food supply. Not very accessible since they are limited to roofs and walls. Technically advanced due to urban circumstances demanding technical solutions.
  15. 15. Current status and next steps: Dialogue between the cities started autumn 2014 in the context of the BODW (Business of Design Week), where Sweden was partner country We are now exploring partnerships, funding and needs of the communities to sustain the project. Next step is to establish networks between communities in the two cities.
  16. 16. Presentations and seminars WEEC 2015 (World Environmental Conference), in Gothenburg, June 29 - July 2nd, 2015. Presentation of research project.
  17. 17. The Hong Kong – Malmo sustainable collaboration project is open to anyone interested in the topic. Please contact: Or
  18. 18. References  Atkins China Ltd, Cycling Study, Transport Department,2004.  Chadwick, M, Francis, R, Urban Ecosystems: Understanding the Human Environment, Routledge, New York, 2013.  Delshammar, T, "MALMÖ, SWEDEN Case Study City Portrait; part of a GREEN SURGE study on urban green infrastructure planning and governance in 20 European cities", Green Surge, 2015.  EMSD (2012a). Hong Kong Energy End-use Data, 2012  Energizing Kowloon East, (from internet 23rd June, 2015).  Gatukontoret, Malmö Stad, "Mobility in Malmö", (from internet 20150710).  Maginn, P. J. (2007), Towards more effective community participation in urban regeneration: “the potential of collaborative planning and applied ethnography”, in Thousand Oaks and New Delhi vol. 7(1) 25–43, 2007.  Miljöbarometern, Malmö Stad, utslapp/koldioxidutslapp-per-invanare-rus/ , 2012 (from internet 20150721)  MKB Fastighet, “Greenhouse Vertical Urban Farming, (from internet 20150624)  Orange, R., etc," How safe are the world's cities for cyclists?",The Guardian, safe-are-worlds-cities-for-cyclists (from internet 20150710).  Wandersman, A., Florin, P. (2000), “Citizen Participation and Community Organizations” in Rappaport, J. Seidman E, (2000), Handbook of Community Psychology, 2000.  Information Services Department, Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government “Hong Kong: The facts”, January, 2014.  The World Bank, (from internet 20150721)