Mixed Method Data


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Mixed Method Data

  1. 1. COMPARISON CHART Points ofS.# N. Article R. Article Proposal M. Thesis P. Thesis difference is an academic article A news article is an article published in a published in an academic print or Internet news medium such as a journal. The status of A proposal is a written A proposition that is maintained newspaper, newsletter, news magazine, academics is often document from a researcher by argument. A dissertation news-oriented website, or article directory A dissertation advancing an dependent both on how for the board or supervisor advancing an original point of1 Definition that discusses current or recent news of original point of view as a many articles they have had proposing a future research view as a result of research, either general interest (i.e. daily newspapers) result of research, published and on the with rationale of the contents especially as a requirement for or on a specific topic (i.e. political or trade number of times that their for approval to work on. an academic degree. news magazines, club newsletters, or articles are cited by authors technology news websites). of other articles. Research study for doctorate degree A thesis is a document written it performs three main in support of obtaining an functions: propose a research study for academic degree or • It begins to put forth your1 Purpose Publish in news article Publish in Journal approval qualification. It is usually longer ideas. than research paper and thus • It foreshadows your completed in a number of years. arguments. • It attracts a readers attention. Limited to the board but later2 Scope Very broad Limited to related field limited to supervisor or board Limited to the board can be broadened by deriving articles from it People in related field, Policy makers, strategy makers, Supervisors, and board people, Supervisors and board3 Readers General Public Supervisors and board Executives, Trainers, students, researchers people, students, researchers Researchers, students etc easy yet in specific terms of easy yet in specific terms of easy yet in specific terms of easy yet in specific terms of4 wording easy and general related field related field related field related field awaring, sharing, explianing convincing with rationality and argumentative, proving, and5 Tone interest oriented convincing and argumentative and concluding reasons generating theories Introduction, literature, Introduction, literature, significance, purpose, significance, purpose, Introduction, literature, Introduction, literature, objectives, R. Questions/ objectives, R. Questions/ based on one Hot issues, with no or limited Methodology, analysis6 Contents Methodology, significance, hypothesis, theoretical hypothesis, theoretical contents results discussion and purpose, theoretical framework framework, Methodology, framework, Methodology, conclusion analysis results discussion and analysis results discussion and conclusion conclusion7 Authenticity Not so authentic w.r.t. research Highest authenticity a mediating document Highest authenticity Highest authenticity A detailed report is A detailed report is A short report of few A short document of few8 Report formation prepared in the form of prepared in the form of pages is prepared. pages is prepared. booklet. booklet.
  2. 2. Lecture # 5
  3. 3.  Mixed Method is a philosophical assumption based on pragmatic grounds that integrates quantitative and qualitative research approaches within a single project. It is also called “Multitrait, Mulitimethod, integrated or combined”
  4. 4. A Multi-method designs Mixed methods designsUse more than one method butrestricted to methods selected Use and mix both qualitative andfrom within one worldview (i.e. quantitative data and methods.quantitative or qualitativeapproaches). Types:Types: Mixed method studiesMulti-method quantitative studies Mixed model studies.Multi-method qualitative studies
  5. 5.  Merge the data: Qualitative data Results Quantitative data connect the data: Qualitative data Quantitative data Results Embed the data Quantitative data Results Qualitative data
  6. 6. It offset the weaknesses of both quantitativeand qualitative research by providingcomprehensive evidence as being “practical”in the sense that the researcher is free touse all methods possible to address aresearch problem.
  7. 7. Types/Approaches of Mixed Method StudyTriangulation Embedded Explanatory Exploratory Design Design Design Design Convergence Experimental Follow-up Instrument Model Model explanation development model Data tranformation Correlational Participant Taxonomy Model Model selection development Model model Validating quantitative Model Multilevel Model
  8. 8. 1.The Triangulation Design QUAN QUAL Interpretation based on QUAN + QUAL results  Variants of the Triangulation Design  Convergence Model  data transformation Model  Validating quantitative model  Multilevel Research
  9. 9.  Convergence Model QUAN QUAN QUAN Data Data Results Collection Analysis Compare Interpretation & QUAN + QUAL Contras QUAL QUAL QUAL Data Data Results Collection Analysis
  10. 10.  Data transformation Model QUAN QUAN data analysis Data Collection Compare & Interpretation Interrelate QUAN + QUAL Two QUAN data sets QUAL QUAL Transform QUAL into Data Data quan data Collection Analysis
  11. 11. Validating quantitative Data QUAN data QUAN QUAN Collection: Data Results Survey Analysis Validate Interpretation QUAN results with qual QUAN + QUAL results Qual data Qual Qual Collection: data Results Open ended Analysis Survey items
  12. 12.  Multilevel Research Level 1: QUAN Data collection, analysis, results Level 2: Overall QUAL Interpretation Data collection, analysis, results Level 3: QUAN Data collection, analysis, results
  13. 13. 2.The Embedded Design Interpretation or QUAN Interpretation QUAL Based on qual Based on QUAN (qual) quan QUAL (quan) results results  Variants of the Triangulation Design  Experimental Model  Correlational Model
  14. 14.  Experimental Model qual Qual QUAN QUAN Before after Interpretation premeasur post measure Intervention based on Intervention e QUAN(qual) results Qual During interventio n
  15. 15.  Correlational Model QUAN Pridictors QUAN Interpretation QUAN outcome Based on Pridictors QUAN (qual) QUAN results Pridictors Qual process
  16. 16. 3.The Explanatory Design Interpretation based QUAN Qual QUAN Qual results  Variants of the Triangulation Design  The follow-up explanations  The participant selection model
  17. 17.  The follow-up explanations QUAN QUAN QUAN Identify Qual Qual Qual results for Data Data Results follow-up Data Data results collection analysis collection analysis Interpretation QUAN qual
  18. 18.  The participant selection model quan quan quan QUAL QUAL QUAL QUAL participant Data Data results Data Data Results selection collection analysiscollection analysis Interpretation quan QUAL
  19. 19. 4.The Exploratory Design Interpretation based QUAL quan QUAL quan results  Variants of the Triangulation Design  The instrument development model  Taxonomy development model
  20. 20.  The instrument development model qual qual qual Develop QUAN Data QUAN Data QUAN instrument collection analysis results Data Data Resultscollection analysis Interpretation quan QUAN
  21. 21.  Taxonomy development modelQUAL Data QUAL Data QUAL Develop Quan Data Quan Data Quancollection analysis Results taxonomy collection analysis results or theory for testing Interpretation QUAN Qual
  22. 22. The major mixed method design typesDesign Type Variants Timing Weighting Mixing Notation Usually equal Merge the data Convergence Concurrent: during the QUAN + QUAL Data transformation quantitative and interpretation or Validating quantitative qualitative at analysisTriangulation data same time multilevel Unequal Embed one type of data within a larger QUAN(qual) OR QUAL(quan) Concurrent or design using the embedded sequential other type of data Embedded experimental embedded correlational Usually Connect the Sequential: quantitative QUAN qual data between follow-up explanation quantitative Explanatory the two phases participant selection followed by qualitative Usually Connect the Sequential: qualitative QUAL quan data between instrument qualitative Exploratory the two phases development followed by taxonomy quantitative development
  23. 23. Phases in the Data Collection Process for Qualitative and Quantitative Research Qualitative Data Collection Phases in the process of Quantitative Data Collection ResearchPurposeful sampling strategies random samplingsmall number of participants and Sampling Procedures adequate size to reduce sampling errorsites and provide sufficient powerfrom individual providing access to from individual providing access tosites Permissions needed sitesinstitutional review boards individual review boardsindividuals individualsopen-ended interviews instrumentsopen-ended observations Information to be collected checklistdocuments public documentaudiovisual materialsinterview protocols Recording the data instrument with scores that are reliableobservational protocols and validattending to field issues standardization of proceduresattending to ethical issues Administering data collection attending to ethical issues
  24. 24.  The data collection procedures will vary depending on the type of mixed method design. In mixed method apaches data will be collecting concurrently or sequentially When data are collected concurrently, the two forms (quantitative and qualitative) of data are independent of each other; when collected sequentially, the two forms of data are related or connected. Regardless of the concurrent or sequential data collection, always use precise quantitative and qualitative procedures.
  25. 25. There are two types of issues that were faced during the mixedmethod data collection  concurrent data collection issues  Participation selection  The sample size question  When contradictory results occur Sequential data collection issues  sampling the same or different individuals  using the same or different sample sizes Designing an instrument
  26. 26. Procedures Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis General Procedures in Quantitative Procedures Data Analysis Qualitative ProceduresCoding data by assigning numeric valuesCleaning the database Preparing the data for analysis Organizing documents and visual dataRecoding or computing new variables for Transcribing textcomputer analysis Preparing the data for computer analysisEstablishing codebookVisually inspecting dataConducting a descriptive analysis Exploring the data Reading through the dataChecking for trends and distributions Writing memos Developing qualitative codebookChoosing an appropriate statistical test Analyzing the data Coding the dataAnalyzing to answer research questions or test Assigning labels to codeshypotheses Grouping codes into themes (or categories)Reporting inferential tests, effect sizes, Interrelating themes (or categories) or abstractingconfidence intervals to smaller set of themesusing quantitative statistical software programs Using qualitative software programsRepresenting results in statements of resultsProviding results in tables and figures Representing the data analysis Representing findings in discussions of themes or categories Presenting visual models, figures, tablesUsing external standardsValidating and checking the reliability of scores Validating the data Using researcher, participant, and reviewerfrom past instrument use standardsEstablishing validity and reliability of current Employing validation strategies (e.g., memberdata checking, triangulation, peer review)
  27. 27. QUAL data analysis: QUAN data analysis:Stage 1. Separate QUAL and QUAN analysis Prepare the data Prepare the data Explore the data Explore the data Analyze the data Analyze the data Represent the results Represent the resultsStage 2. Merge the two Merge the two datasets datasets Transform the data and relate or compare the data Compare the results (discussion or matrices)
  28. 28. Stage 3. ApplyStage 1. Stage 2. select QUANSeparate Identify QUAN results to qualQUAN data results to use phaseanalysis Options OutliersQUAN data Extreme cases Select casesanalysis Significant-no Explain results significant results Compare groups Demographics Comparisons groups a. Sequential Embedded and Explanatory Designs
  29. 29. Stage 3. ApplyStage 1. Stage 2. select QUALSeparate Identify QUAL results toQUAL data results to use quan phaseanalysis OptionsQUAL data To recruit casesanalysis Codes and themes T o shape intervention Significant To test QUAL model statements To develop an Models instrument b. Sequential Embedded and Exploratory Designs
  30. 30.  General Guidelines choice of a design needs to be partly based  Point of view of researcher  review of past research for giving strength to the research project  It also aids the reader when the writer takes care to tell a coherent and cohesive story throughout the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the research study.
  31. 31. Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development11-Feb-13 Superior University Lahore
  32. 32.  To introduce the basic philosophical and methodological approaches currently used as a foundation for research in Business, Management and Social Sciences.  To discuss critically the conventional distinction between “quantitative and qualitative” research and its usefulness in planning and evaluating research.  To develop the skills of literature review and critical analysis of research reports by giving practical exposure to locating literature and reviewing critically by argumentation, reading analysis and mapping.  To provide a comprehensive knowledge about the research design including introduction, purpose statement, research questions, hypothesis, use of theory limitations and significance for the development of rationale in research.  To provide a comprehensive understanding about quantitative research and develop their skills in different areas like operationalization, quantitative methods and ensure the reliability and validity of the data. Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development11-Feb-13 Superior University Lahore
  33. 33.  To make a clear understanding for the use of SPSS (which is related to their previous course “Quantitative Techniques”).  To provide a comprehensive understanding about qualitative research and develop their skills in using valid and reliable qualitative methods.  To discuss various ways of designing research which focuses on the purpose of research, the use of theory and the research significance, its limitations and delimitations.  To present a range of ethical issues relevant to the conduct and publication of research.  To give an introduction of Nvivo (for qualitative data analysis). Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior11-Feb-13 University Lahore
  34. 34. Classification Topics At the end of this module, successful students will be able to demonstrate the knowledge of: A range of methodological approaches and philosophical assumptions to organizational and professional research. Ways of formulating and defining business and management research problems, Knowledge and significance or limitations. Comprehension Understanding of Literature Review and critical Analysis Issues in, and methods of, research design. The importance of ethics and values in business research. The requirements for effective analysis and interpretation of quantitative, qualitative data and mixed methods. At the end of this module, the successful students will be able to: Make informed decisions about different research approaches, strategies, design and methods which are relevant to different purposes To write a literature review related to business research problems. Application and Skills To conduct interviews and interpret them to develop results. To conduct surveys and develop analysis & interpretation of them. Write a successful research proposal which outlines and evaluates the research process and method(s) most appropriate to investigate the student’s own research questions/subject. At the end of this module successful students will be able to: Critically evaluate the range of qualitative and quantitative data and information Analysis and Synthesis collection strategies in a meaningful manner to solve problems. To analyze the research and findings of other people. Analyze the quantitative & Qualitative data for interpretation of results. Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development11-Feb-13 Superior University Lahore
  35. 35. TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR AN APPROVED RESEARCH PROBLEM Guidelines and Assessment Criteria: Write a research proposal for a specific project of research, addressing in ananalytical way, the following issues:(a) Abstract(b) Aims of the investigation: Including the need for / value of the research(c) Problem formulation: Relevant social / business context Main research questions / hypotheses Brief summary of theoretical / conceptual bases of the project Target population of interest(d) Selective literature review: Brief summary (max. 3000 words) of the areas to be addressed, and of illustrative resources, including selective bibliography in recognized format(e) Initial choice of methodological approach * and research strategy (ies)(f) Fieldwork: An outline (only) of plans for methods of data production / sources, and for negotiating access(g) Research design: Outline of plans for indicators / descriptors for key concepts Methods for ruling out alternative explanations (or descriptions) Sampling procedures / selection of cases (organizations or individuals)(h) Discussion of issues of validity and reliability – or alternative criteria for research quality (to be clearly specified)(i) Ethical and other commitments: Brief discussion of any major ethical or legal dilemma and political or organizational constraints etc. Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development11-Feb-13 Superior University Lahore
  36. 36. Presentation  The aim of the presentation is to allow students to gain constructive feedback from their peers regarding their comparative reports as well as allowing them to demonstrate their presentation skills. The structure of the presentation will largely mirror the structure of the report and thus contain the comparison on the basis of three basic research approaches i.e. qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods.  Points to consider when marking presentations are: ◦ Timing of presentation. ◦ Clarity of concepts. ◦ Structure of the presentation. ◦ Quality of overheads, handouts etc. ◦ Application of theory to practice. ◦ Ability to answer questions effectively. ◦ Use of sources of information. Criteria of Assessment  Clarity and conciseness of your specification of various aspects of the proposal.  The relation of details of your research design specifically to the aims of your particular study (That is, credit will not be given for the production of generalities about research design that are unrelated to any particular study).  Justification of key decisions made.  Completeness of coverage of guidelines. Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development11-Feb-13 Superior University Lahore
  37. 37. Weighting: 20 Marks ◦ Guidelines (a,b,c) (5% + 5% + 15%) 25% ◦ Guidelines (d,e) 15% ◦ Guidelines (f,g) 40% ◦ Guideline (h) 10% ◦ Presentation (including bibliography in a recognized format) 10% Length:  Maximum 6000 words, plus references (at most 10) in selective bibliography (based on selective literature review). Weightage: 30% (project: 20%, presentation: 10%) Due dates: 13th Week Short Working Draft: 11th Week  (This draft only: max. 2000 words, submitted electronically to module tutor by the time announced; any draft submitted after that would not be given any feedback). Final Draft: To be announced later. 9. Reference Material Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development11-Feb-13 Superior University Lahore
  38. 38. Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development 3811-Feb-13 Superior University Lahore
  39. 39. Proposal is the written document that describes the topic, Problem, design, and methodologies to be adopted to conduct the proposed research. Why Proposal The development of proposal for any research study is essential because • It allows the researcher to plan and review the steps of the project. • It serves as a guide throughout the investigation. • It forces time and budget estimates Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development 3911-Feb-13 Superior University Lahore
  40. 40. Outline of the structure of a proposal1. Title2. Introduction • Background of the study (Sectoral Brief) • The research problem • Studies that have addressed the problem • Deficiencies in the studies • The significance of the study • The purpose statement3. Purpose • The purpose or study, aim of the project and reasons for the research design • The research questions and hypotheses4. Philosophical Foundations worldview and philosophical assumptions for using specific research approach.5. Literature Review Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development 4011-Feb-13 Superior University Lahore
  41. 41. Outline of the structure of a proposal6. Methodology and Methods • Site and sample • Data collection procedures • Data analysis procedures7. Potential Ethical issues8. Reference and appendixes Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development 4111-Feb-13 Superior University Lahore