Sultan Qaboos University
College of Education
Department of Instructional & Learning Technologies
Done by: Ekhlas Alsaadi
How accessible is a particular technology for learners?
The mobile learning is easy to access because learners can access any where
(class, taxi, laundry room …) any time and any pace. It also can easy connect to
the network with wireless connection. It is fixable for everyone in the world to
access only using their mobile phone.
How flexible is it for a particular target group?
The size, shape, weight and portability of mobile devices make them flexible to
use any where any time for users, particularly effective for users with disabilities.
PDAs incorporate dictionaries and thesauruses, which provide handy reference
tools for learners with dyslexia or other learning difficulties. Tablet PCs include
text-to-speech and voice recognition as standard tools, which are valuable for
users with disabilities or learning difficulties. The devices can also be attached to
wheelchairs with the use of small brackets.
However, many of the other features are not so user friendly. For instance, the
small buttons can be difficult for people with little manual dexterity to manipulate.
The stylus pens are often narrow and small, and require accurate use to work
correctly. You can purchase attachable keyboards for PDAs, but these are also
quite small, and options for switch or mouse access are limited. They can be also
being a little flimsy. The small screen sizes of PDAs and mobiles are not ideal, as
the display tends to be cramped, which is unhelpful for people with dyslexia and
other learning difficulties.
What is the cost structure of each technology?
Mobile communication is still expensive especially from abroad. Its cost depends
on the type of technology weather it’s a mobile phone, Smart phones, Games
consoles, Tablet pc or PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants).
What is the unit cost per student?
AC ( N ) V
What are the opportunity costs vs. other technology choices?
M-learning is a low cost when comparing with other distance learning
technologies, such video conferencing or the full PC.
Teaching and Learning:
What kinds of learning are needed?
o Collaborative learning
o Independent learning
What are the best technologies for supporting teaching and learning in
o Mobile or smart phones
o Tablet PC
o Multi-game devices
o Personal media players (PMPs)
o Personal digital assistants (PDAs)
Can the content be adapted to the technology?
Yes, it can display any type of content and multimedia. However, it takes money,
efforts and time to adapt the content because of the screen size of mobile devices.
Designing for mobile learning becomes a critical challenge .We need to develop
theory, strategies and techniques.
What skills does the technology develop?
Helps learners to improve literacy and numeric skills, communication skills to
recognize their existing abilities, identify where they need assistance and support,
to raise self-esteem and self-confidence
Interactivity and User-friendliness:
What kind of interaction does this technology enable?
It supports four types of interaction, Student-student, Student-teacher, Student-
content and student -machine. The social interaction could be Asynchronous or
How easy is it to use and learn?
Mobile technologies are a familiar device for most teachers and students today, it's
easy to learn and use because learners can access any where and any time. It
doesn't need much technological pre-requisites.
What are the organizational requirements to provide stability and
Require Technical support, resources, financial and maintenance.
What are the barriers to using this technology successfully within the
o Small Screen size
o Small key size.
o Limited Performance, in terms of processor capability, available memory,
and storage space and battery life.
o Slow Connectivity of the internet
o Multiple standards, multiple screen sizes, multiple operating systems
o Repurposing existing e-Learning materials for mobile platforms
o Left- to-right scrolling, web sites too big to see effectively on small screen
o Risk of theft, rain, mud, breakability, and so on
How new is the technology?
The new technology in mobile learning is touch screen, small device, and portable
and wireless connection.
What are its technical capabilities?
o It Allows users to have access to course resources.
o It allows users to exchange and share resources with others.
o It also allows users to have access to the many applications.
o It allows users to have access to the resources in different formats (voice,
text, picture and video).
o It allows the reuse of materials.
o It also allows users to carry out the functions.
How quickly can courses be created and distributed with this
Repurposing existing e-Learning materials for mobile platforms can take a long
time to do it e.g. Left- to-right scrolling, web sites too big to see effectively on
small screen, so we have to develop a new websites for mobile device. But we can
distribute the courses very quickly by mobile devices by using the internet and
How quickly can materials be changed?
Mobile devices is changing and improving every day, the materials and the
content are easy to change and modified so it should be improve as well.