Sultan Qaboos University
               College of Education
Department of Instructional & Learning Technologies




     ...
What is mobile learning?
M-learning, or "mobile learning", now commonly abbreviated to "M-Learning", has
different meaning...
    Not much technological pre-requisites
      Cost is pretty affordable as comparatively less recurring cost and one-t...
Limitation/challenges of M-learning:
M-learning challenges are divided in tow type:


1/ Technical challenges:

      Sma...
Concerns and issues:
Learning Across Contexts:

      Mobile learning is not just about learning using portable devices, ...
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Review Of A De Technology (Report)

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Review Of A De Technology (Report)

  1. 1. Sultan Qaboos University College of Education Department of Instructional & Learning Technologies Done by: Ekhlas Alsaadi ID: 68704 TECH: 4101
  2. 2. What is mobile learning? M-learning, or "mobile learning", now commonly abbreviated to "M-Learning", has different meanings for different communities. Although related to e-learning and distance education, it is distinct in its focus on learning across contexts and learning with mobile devices. “… M-learning is the exciting art of using mobile technologies to enhance the learning experience. Mobile phones, PDAs, Pocket PCs and the Internet can be blended to engage and motivate learners, any time and anywhere. …” History:  1990s: Universities in Europe and Asia develop and evaluate mobile learning for students.  2000s: The European Commission funds the major multi-national M-Learning projects. Companies were formed that specialize in three core areas of mobile learning.  Authoring and publishing  Delivery and Tracking  Content Development  The International Association for Mobile Learning: The International Association for Mobile Learning has been formed as a membership organization to promote excellence in research, development and application of mobile and contextual learning.  2008: Assistant Professor Matthew Kam from Carnegie Mellon University developed mobile phone learning games for children in rural India. Why Mobile Learning? According to Attewell (2005) as quoted by Yousuf (2007) and Becking et al (2008), There are several advantages inherent in mobile learning over Internet:  Helps learners to improve literacy and numeric skills  Helps learners to recognize their existing abilities  Can be used for independent and collaborative learning experiences  Helps learners to identify where they need assistance and support  Helps to overcome the digital divide  Helps to make learning informal  Helps learners to be more focused for longer periods  Helps to raise self-esteem and self-confidence  It is portable form one place to another.  More wide spread and popular than Internet
  3. 3.  Not much technological pre-requisites  Cost is pretty affordable as comparatively less recurring cost and one-time  Investment  Provides real time and location independency Features of mobile learning system:  Allows users to have access to course resources impendent from time and place.  Allows authenticated users to have access to the system.  Allows users to have access to the resources in different formats (voice, text, picture and video)  Allows the reuse of material  Allows users to carry out the functions defined as an education component.  Offers flexible environment in which other services and components can be added.  However we have to keep in mind that content of the mobile devices is based on their capabilities. Advantages of M-learning:  Students have access to test and assignment results, and may obtain lecture notes and sample spreadsheets electronically, allowing for more focused in- class learning.  Students use e-mail, Web sites, online discussion groups and other chat forums to collaborate with peers, faculty and experts in their area of study.  Learning can be done anytime and anywhere.  An instructor can get immediate feedback on the lesson  Student’s can be assessed on multiple choices, true/false questions in the classroom.  Real-time experiments can take place in classrooms.  Instructors can provide examples such as simulations and web based documents  Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed.  There are limited storage capacities for mobiles and PDAs.  Batteries have to be charged regularly, and data can be lost if this is not done correctly.  They can be much less robust than desktops.
  4. 4. Limitation/challenges of M-learning: M-learning challenges are divided in tow type: 1/ Technical challenges:  Small Screen size  Small key size  Limited Performance, in terms of processor capability, available memory, and storage space and battery life.  Slow Connectivity of the internet  Multiple standards, multiple screen sizes, multiple operating systems  Repurposing existing e-Learning materials for mobile platforms  Left- to-right scrolling, web sites too big to see effectively on small screen  Risk of theft, rain, mud, breakability, and so on. 2/ Social and educational challenges:  Accessibility  How to assess learning on mobile phone  Developing an appropriate theory of learning for the mobile age  Tracking of results and proper use of this information  No demographic boundary  Mobile communication is still expensive – especially from abroad Support and Delivery: Most personal technologies can support mobile learning, including:  Personal Digital Assistant, in the classroom and outdoors  Tablet PC UMPC mobile phone, camera phone and Smartphone  Learning Mobile Author, e.g. for authoring and publishing WAP, J2ME and Smartphone  Personal audio player, e.g. for listening to audio recordings of lectures  Handheld audio and multimedia guides, in museums and galleries  Handheld game console, modern gaming consoles such as Sony PSP or Nintendo DS Technical and delivery support for mobile learning:  3GP For compression and delivery method of audiovisual content associated with Mobile Learning  Wi-Fi is popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and other electronic devices.  GPRS mobile data service, provides high speed connection and data transfer rate
  5. 5. Concerns and issues: Learning Across Contexts:  Mobile learning is not just about learning using portable devices, but learning across contexts  Focus should be on the learner and the learning, not on the systems behind the devices. Design:  Designing for mobile learning becomes a critical challenge, we need to develop theory, strategies and techniques. Evaluation:  How can we effectively measure learning in mobile environments?  Evaluation overlaps with design. Mobile learning is often blended with other types of learning.

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