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Assessor training 2013


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Assessor training 2013

  1. 1. • This set of slides has been amended from the one used in the training sessions, so that you can use it for self directed learning and recap/refresh. • Consider the answers, and gapped exercises before moving on to the answer slide, don’t cheat! • If you are not yet practicing as an Assessor – consider the questions hypothetically i.e.. what you would do.... • Links are given to other resources on Learner Zone and One File, including video clips • Remember that this information covers those assessing using paper and electronic portfolios • If you have any questions or problems – just contact any member of the Learning and Development Team Using this presentation
  2. 2. Aim To refresh or re-cap the presentation shown in the training sessions, or for those who have prior knowledge of the subject
  3. 3. Historically…….. NVQs have been around since 1986, they are based on National Occupational Standards (NOS) . They are work-related, competence- based qualifications, and go up to degree level and beyond. NVQ's are achieved through assessment and training. Assessment is normally through on the job observation and questioning. Candidates produce evidence to prove they have the competence to meet the standards. Assessors sign off units when the candidates are ready. The assessor tests candidates’ knowledge, understanding and work-based performance to make sure they can demonstrate competence in the workplace.
  4. 4. These standards are statements of performance that describe what competent people in a particular occupation are expected to be able to do. They cover all the main aspects of an occupation, and are re-visited regularly to make sure they are up to date with changes in technology, for example. National Occupational Standards
  5. 5. • Good Communication skills • Empathy • Persistence • Knowledge • Listening and questioning • Observation • Fairness • Organisation Assessor Skills
  6. 6. • Why is it important for an Assessor to demonstrate these skills? • Honestly reflect on your own abilities in these areas • How can you improve? Question ?
  7. 7. • In the learner/assessor relationship YOU are the learning professional, you must set an good example, and give the learner (who may be nervous and anxious) confidence. • One way to improve, is to reflect after you have met your learner and ask your self some questions – – What was I pleased with? – What would I do differently next time? – Some people are naturally reflective and some are not! – There are models to help you with this process (See Learner Zone) Answer
  8. 8. How do we learn? Electrical impulses act like switches in our brains, as we practice or repeat practical or thought processes, the pathways become more established and result in the learning becoming ‘second nature’
  9. 9. We all learn by moving through the processes illustrated below, although we may not be aware of it! Think of something you have learned recently, and see if you can recognise the steps. As Assessors we will be supporting our candidates as they learn, therefore it is vital that we understand how they like to do this. We can identify learning styles in several ways..... The Learning Cycle
  10. 10. • There are many ways to classify learning styles, the 2 most common are ; • Honey and Mumford – Activist/Reflector/Theorist/Pragmatist (Learning Styles Inventory in Resources) • VARK Visual/Auditory/Read/Kinaesthetic ( Learning Styles
  11. 11. Questions? • Why is it important to take into account how people like to learn? • How could your own learning preferences impact on the assessment process? • How can you find out your learner’s preferences?
  12. 12. • Understanding how people learn best will allow you to plan the best approach for them, and get the best results. • We tend to assume that our way is the best way ! but this may not suit your learner • You could carry out an on-line or written test, and discuss the results together. Answer
  13. 13. With re-cap, practice, and repetition, learning progresses from a hesitant faint path through the grass , to a clear, broad thoroughfare!
  14. 14. Research has shown that this is the way the whole communication message is broken down Surprised? Communication
  15. 15. • What are the implications for the assessment process? • What non-verbal clues could you pick up from your learners? Question?
  16. 16. • Understanding the communication message will allow you to pick up non-verbal clues, such as nervousness, and alter your approach accordingly. • Many – fear/confusion/stress, the list is endless.... you can then react accordingly, and may be able to eliminate these barriers to learning. Answer
  17. 17. Behaviour What we observe of an individual is behaviour – this is just the tip of the iceberg, behaviour is driven by a whole raft of issues going on underneath the waterline – they are invisible. Watch for verbal and non-verbal clues to identify and then address such issues. For example your learner may be distracted by worries about child care – discussing this and altering meeting times may help the learner to concentrate and therefore learn and progress quicker.
  18. 18. Barriers to Learning • Assumptions • Stereotypes • First Impressions • Jargon (NVQ and your industry) • Disability • Past experience – bad memories of learning in the past • Time , for meetings and completing work • Shift work • Any learning need such as : access to a PC or a printer, literacy issues • Learner not interested in getting a qualification • Lack of confidence • No opportunity to practice skills
  19. 19. • List 5 assumptions a Learner may make • List 5 assumptions an Assessor may make • How can we make sure we do not jump to conclusions? • How can such barriers impact on the assessment process? Question?
  20. 20. • There are numerous assumptions that may be made, on both sides, so any that you have thought of will be relevant! • Make sure you keep an open mind, build rapport with the learner, carry out an effective initial assessment (more later on this ) • Barriers on either side will impact on learning/progress and an effective working relationship. Answer
  21. 21. Unconscious incompetence We discussed this model in the training session, using learning to drive as an example. Research the web to learn more.
  22. 22. Ok , we have looked at the skills and behaviour that underpin an Assessor’s performance, we will now move on to look at the ‘nuts and bolts’ of the Assessor role.... First a re-cap ( Remember those electrical impulses and the path through the grass!)
  23. 23. Re-Cap, we have looked at.... • NOS • Assessor Skills • How we learn • Learning cycle • Learning styles • Communication • Barriers to learning • Unconscious incompetence Check that you have understood these key areas before you move on
  24. 24. Qualifications are evidence based, so what is evidence? Learners provide sufficient evidence to a qualified assessor that they have the skills, knowledge and understanding in a real work environment in each unit. Qualifications are broken down in this imaginary qualification as follows....
  25. 25. Structure of qualifications All qualifications follow this basic structure....
  26. 26. It would be impossible to check every decision made with learners across the country, so quality is managed through a system of checks and balances. We will look at the quality process in detail later , but everyone involved in delivering qualifications has a role to play, let’s look at these roles.... Quality Control
  27. 27. • The Trainer - often involved prior to assessment, providing knowledge and skills to the learner. • The Assessor • The Internal Quality Assurer • The External Quality Assurer Roles of practitioners
  28. 28. Note down 3 key activities carried out by the Assessor IQA EQA Check your answers by referring to; • The Assessor’s Workbook • Ann Gravell’s reference book • Key source documents • Centre Guidance Roles
  29. 29. We refer to the learner’s time working on their qualification as the “Learner Journey”. As the Assessor you have a key role in this process, we will look at all these areas as we progress through the presentation.
  30. 30. • Initial – at the beginning of the qualification • Formative - Assessment, looking at pieces of evidence as they come along, throughout the qualification. • Summative – at the end, deciding if a particular unit or whole award is complete. Types of Assessment
  31. 31. Types of assessment Initial Assessment - all learners are individuals! This will allow the identification of; •Any learning needs •The appropriate level, both for the qualification and any functional skills requirements •Learning style preferences •Barriers •Anything else! You can refer to the Total People Initial Assessment guidance document, found on Learner Zone or your centre's own information.
  32. 32. Initial Assessment Effective IA leads to better planning......
  33. 33. Planning is an unnatural process; it is much more fun to do something. The nicest thing about not planning is that failure comes as a complete surprise, rather than being preceded by a period of worry and depression. (Sir John Harvey-Jones Management Guru) Remember the old saying ? “ To fail to prepare is to prepare to fail” Not only will planning make your life as an assessor easier , it is a requirement of your centre and awarding organisation, and is not optional!
  34. 34. Planning is a joint process between the learner and the assessor, the more involved the learner is, the more likely they are to remember what they have to do, and produce evidence for your next visit. It should be documented clearly, however your centre specifies. Unless you have an exceptional memory, good planning and recording will benefit you immensely, and mean that you comply with centre and awarding organisation requirements – “The Rules”. Follow the simple process above and you won’t go wrong. Planning
  35. 35. • What planning documents does your centre or awarding organisation use? • What impact may learning styles have on the planning process? • What common issues might you identify when you review ? Question
  36. 36. • Check strategies, websites and guidance documents to find this out, if unsure and already linked to a centre , speak to your counter signer or IQA • Some learning styles like small, short targets and activities, others like lots of detail. Remember that your own preference will pay a significant role here too! • Lack of detail/specifics, barriers (such as time/shift work/holidays) have got in the way. The learner, or you, forgot, or did not understand what was required – (and many others!) Answer
  37. 37. • Are planned to take into account and minimise any issues identified at IA • There are a range of methods to use( you may utilise only a few in your vocational area) • Must be recorded, and your judgement must be fedback to the learner. • Must be clearly documented – remember plan/do/review Formative and Summative Assessment
  38. 38. Understand different assessment methods How do you decide which is appropriate ? • The Standards and log books give clear guidance • Select the best method for the learner • Match to the task – some methods are better suited to certain types of activity and job roles • Consider cost and time effectiveness
  39. 39. Assessment Methods Formal • Assignments • Learner Statements • Case Study • Projects • Recognition of Prior Learning • Skills Tests • Simulation • Witness Testimonies Informal • Observation • Oral Questioning • Product evidence • Professional Discussion Check your awarding organisation guidance to see what methods are considered appropriate for your vocational area
  40. 40. • There is a range of guidance on this area of practice on Learner Zone • Outcome 2 Unit 301 focuses on this area, this can be covered by completion of a Strengths and Limitations table ( document available on Learner Zone or One File resource area) Assessment methods
  41. 41. How could you effectively document this task?
  42. 42. • Why are these assessment methods appropriate for this task? • Why would you not use, for example, an assignment for this task? • How might any needs the learner has impact on your choice? Good choices?
  43. 43. • The methods match the type of task being performed i.e. practical and a skill • An assignment would not be a reliable test of a practical skill, more of writing and research ability, it would not be evidence that the learner can demonstrate this skill. • If the learner had poor literacy skills, you would not select a written method of assessment as this would be unfair. • All assessment decisions using any method must be VACS..... What does VACS mean? Answers
  44. 44. Making assessment decisions - VACS • Valid • Authentic • Current • Sufficient They also require to be; • Reliable and safe Refer to the Assessor’s Workbook or the Ann Gravell’s TAQA reference book for further information
  45. 45. • Evidence • Quality Assurance • Role of practitioners • Types of assessment – Initial – Formative – Summative • Assessment methods • VACS Re-cap - we have looked at...
  46. 46. Assessors must also consider at all times... • Transparency • Fairness • Objectivity • Working holistically Other considerations
  47. 47. Transparency “Transparency is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed.” We do this by; • Keeping good, clear records so that all involved with the qualification can see exactly what has happened. •Ensuring that the Learner understands exactly what is planned and involved – no surprises! •Communicating with any others, such as Managers •Carrying out an effective Initial Assessment so that the learner is working on the correct qualification and level , and is assessed using appropriate methods. •Any support that is identified is given.
  48. 48. • What would be the effect on the learner if all was not transparent? • What would be the effect on the Centre? • Can you think of an occasion where it might be very important to have good records? • Who is interested in the learner’s progress • What may be the positive effect of transparency on the learner? Questions
  49. 49. • They may not know what is happening and be confused. Not feel involved in their qualification, so be less motivated. • Planning of quality checks and monitoring of progress would be very difficult. If an Assessor left or was ill, it would be very difficult for another to support the learner effectively. • In the event of an appeal or grievance • Manager/Parent/centre/funding provider • Transparency helps the learner to ‘buy in’, and be more proactive and involved, resulting in better learning and faster progression. Answers
  50. 50. This is a difficult quality to explain ... a few definitions may help.... Fairness “the state, condition, or quality of being fair, or free from bias or injustice; even handedness” “the quality of treating people equally or in a way that is right or reasonable” “Fairness is the quality of making judgements that are free from discrimination, Judges and Umpires and Assessors should all practice this” Your awarding organisation and centre will have guidance and policies around fairness, it is also checked by the IQA when sampling and observing assessors. Good initial assessment, planning, feedback and decisions that are VACS will ensure fairness.
  51. 51. The term holistic assessment means looking at all the units of a qualification at once, rather than individually, sometimes referred to as ‘multi-assessing’ Many methods of assessment can capture evidence for several units, and as you become more familiar with your standards you will be able to do this. For example observing someone simply working at their pc may provide evidence to cover; • Health and safety criteria – work station risk assessment/good posture/ complying with organisational rules for breaks • Working with others- passing on information, working as part of a team, being part of a rota system, mentoring new staff • Developing their own performance- working towards performance targets, up-selling, cross-selling • Customer service, dealing with phone calls, giving information etc etc Holistic Assessment
  52. 52. The opposite of objectivity is subjectivity, as illustrated above. As an Assessor you must not allow your own feelings and opinions to affect your judgement, examples may be; • The level the learner is working at – your standards may be lower or higher than the national standard • You favour your own methods and techniques • You lack knowledge and experience in some areas Subjectivity may lead to unfair judgements Objectivity
  53. 53. • Why is fairness to all important? • How can holistic assessment benefit the learner? • How can holistic assessment benefit the assessor? • Give 4 examples of reasons why you may lose your objectivity and the effect this would have on the assessment process. Questions
  54. 54. • It is not only a moral requirement but is part of the awarding organisation's requirements and will be checked through quality processes. • Faster progression through the qualification, less repetition. • Faster progression, less recording, better matching of skill and knowledge to work tasks therefore VACS, more interesting and satisfying. • There are many ; the learner is your friend/you dislike the learner/ the manager may put pressure on you to complete the qualification quickly/ you feel sorry for the learner etc etc Answers
  55. 55. Providing feedback after assessment It may be helpful to think of a burger to remind you of this process.... Bun =praise Burger =development Bun =praise
  56. 56. Feedback – good practice • Right time and place - in private • Immediately after the assessment • Comments brief, factual and objective • Consider the learner’s level of confidence • Ask learner to self- assess... “what were you pleased with?” “what would do differently another time?” • Constructive – stress what has been achieved • Be positive, give encouragement to motivate • Offer alternatives and development rather than criticism • Make sure the learner understands the feedback • Summarise and record feedback plus any actions using correct documentation (your centre or awarding body will give guidance)
  57. 57. • After summative assessment; record decision, move on to next unit or document achievement of the qualification and pass for summative IQA sampling and certification • After formative assessment; identify gaps and plan activities to meet these. • Clear and detailed recording of these activities will ensure transparency. • Make your objectives SMART –”What can’t be measured , can’t be managed.” After feedback, what comes next?
  58. 58. • Specific • Measurable • Achievable • Relevant • Time-based Setting Objectives – see Learner Zone for more information, or research on the web S M A R T
  59. 59. “Try to collect a witness testimony about the recent incident...” Is this a SMART objective? Consider how you could re-write this to be more effective Examples...
  60. 60. “Request a short (1 A4 page)Witness Testimony from your manager about how you dealt with the customer complaint last Friday. Look at Unit 031 outcome 5 to see what needs to be covered. For our next meeting on the 23/7/13 @ 9.30 am” This is much more likely to happen – for more examples see the assessor’s Workbook
  61. 61. Setting objectives It is good practice to set targets and goals which are SMART, it is then much easier to check if they have been accomplished at the next meeting. •Record a narrative of the current meeting – gives a clear audit trail, aids transparency and helps to jog memories! Record any issues e.g. “Jenny did not have her portfolio with her today”. •Set a range of target dates (This is particularly useful for some learning styles) •If at all possible, get the learner to set and record their own targets – this aids transparency and motivation, and they are more likely to remember them! •Identify activities for all e.g. “Photocopy resources” for yourself •Identify any barriers – e.g. holidays that are coming up, discuss how to minimise the impact of this. •Always plan at least the next meeting – in detail, and finish with a re-cap of what each of you are doing before the next meeting.
  62. 62. • If effective feedback is given what will be the effect on the learners motivation and progress? • How can confidence be improved? • Why is it important that the learner understands the targets? • How can good feedback records help the centre to monitor progress? • When may effective and comprehensive records be particularly helpful? Questions?
  63. 63. • Transparency will motivate the learner, if they know and understand what they need to do, they are more likely to do it! • Confidence can be greatly improved by giving praise for achievements even if they are small, this can be built upon during the assessor/learner relationship. • Time pressures and jargon may mean that it is not really clear what has to be done, and that there are barriers that have not been discussed or taken into account. • The centre can monitor progression and give support if they can see it has slowed down . Changing assessor or covering sick leave is much more easily done. • In the event of an appeal or grievance Answers
  64. 64. Managing Assessments Prepare; Yourself • Documentation/resources/reference material • Directions/contact numbers/parking money and information • Hardware – digital recorder/phone/laptop/memory stick • Planning and feedback records • Any activities you agreed to carry out e.g. mark questions The learner Preparation for observation or a suitable place to meet, sufficient time for the meeting, and manager’s permission if required. (Some learners need to be reminded a few days before the meeting.)
  65. 65. • Standardisation Meetings or activity, Assessors and IQAs have a meeting to share good practice, and address any issues or problems • External Quality Assurance feedback following visits and sampling • Completing your centre’s paperwork correctly and keeping good records • Submitting your learner’s work (In a portfolio or via an electronic portfolio) for sampling – Formative sampling, as you are working on the qualification – Summative sampling at the end, to check quality before claiming the certificate. • Direct Observation and Learner/Employer Questionnaire – carried out by your IQA to check your skills • Completing an Assessor Training Needs Analysis to identify if you have any development or training needs. Even an experienced Assessor may have such requirements, if for example new standards or documentation have been introduced. Generic Quality Assurance Procedures – centres may vary, so check your key source documents for guidance and information
  66. 66. Policies /Procedures/Legislation referred to as the Key Source Documents • Complaints • Appeals • Health and Safety • Equal Opportunities • Data Protection/confidentiality If you are linked to a centre as a practicing assessor you will know where to find these documents. If you are not yet practicing refer to the generic documents in One File Resources area, or those found within Learner Zone.
  67. 67. Non-Compliance Tariff/Level of transgression Sanction Rationale 1 Entry in action plan Non-compliance with centre approval criteria 2 Removal of Direct Claims status Close scrutiny of the assessment decisions required 3 Suspension of registration Suspension of certification Threat to candidates Loss of the integrity of assessment decisions, risk of invalid claims for certification 4 Withdrawal of centre approval for specific NVQs Irretrievable breakdown in management and QA of specific NVQs 5 Withdrawal of centre approval for all NVQs Irretrievable breakdown in management and QA of all NVQs In the event that policies and strategies are not followed, the External Quality Assurer on behalf of the awarding organisation may impose the following sanctions;
  68. 68. • On the learner – No learning/qualification takes place, or slow progress – Damage to confidence – Loss of job! • On the Assessor – Damage to confidence and credibility, repeating assessments, bad habits may be hard to eradicate, redundancy. • The Centre – Loss of income stream, reputation and credibility • Stakeholders - qualifications not achieved as expected, may choose to not use the centre in future Effects of poor practice?
  69. 69. • Assessment considerations; – Transparency – Fairness – Holistic assessment – Objectivity • Feedback • Setting Objectives • Managing Assessments • Key Source documents • Non-Compliance • The effects of poor practice Re-cap
  70. 70. • If you are linked to a Centre you will get information, documentation and support from your Counter signer and Internal Quality Assurer. • If you are not yet practicing as an Assessor you can use the key source documents within One File or Learner Zone to refer to, or research through accessing the Awarding Organisation website for your vocational area. Finding out.....
  71. 71. Once you are familiar with the basics of One File, there are a choice of ways to produce evidence to demonstrate your knowledge: • Complete log sheets , which cover each outcome, performance criteria and range , these are found on the resource area in One File. (Remember that they must be saved away from a web environment to be worked on) • Create reflective accounts, either as a word document or directly into the supporting evidence box in an assessment. Reference to where you feel you have covered. • Create an assignment in a word document and upload/reference within One File. The briefs are available in the resource area • Prepare for a professional discussion with your assessor, by making notes/researching around a topic. Meeting the criteria for Unit 301
  72. 72. This unit is covered mainly by product or performance evidence, this comes from a range of sources: • Observations by your assessor and your IQA, relating to the units and learners below. Questionnaires carried out by the IQA with your learner and their employer. • Examples of your learner’s work, (2 learners x 2 units – 4 units in total) this is not uploaded until it has been countersigned and passed through summative IQA sampling. If using a paper portfolio we will photocopy and scan in the documents, if using an electronic portfolio, we will create screen shots to document the process. • Assessment documentation i.e. Planning/feedback/log sheets to match the learners and units above. • Centre documentation – sampling reports/counter signer reports and a testimony from your IQA to state that you have complied with all centre requirements and procedures, also a Training Needs Analysis identifying any development needs you may have. • There is a document which lists all the evidence requirements for unit 302 on Learner Zone – Evidence requirements Meeting the criteria for Unit 302
  73. 73. This unit is covered mainly by product or performance evidence, this comes from a range of sources: • Observations by your assessor and your IQA, relating to the units and learners below. Questionnaires carried out by the IQA with your learner and their employer. • Examples of your learner’s work, (2 learners x 2 units – 4 units in total) this is not uploaded until it has been countersigned and passed through summative IQA sampling. This needs to illustrate resources you have used e.g. Worksheets/tests • Assessment documentation i.e. Planning/feedback/log sheets to match the learners and units above. • Centre documentation – sampling reports/counter signer reports and a testimony from your IQA to state that you have complied with all centre requirements and procedures, also a Training Needs Analysis identifying any development needs you may have. • There is a document which lists all the evidence requirements for unit 303 on Learner Zone – Evidence requirements Meeting the criteria for Unit 303