Augmented Reality - Possibilities for Libraries (presentation notes)
Augmented Reality – Possibilities For Libraries(a presentation given during the Summer of 2010)What is AR?The most widely accepted definition is the one give by Rob Azuma,Research Leader for the Nokia Research Center in Hollywood:“AR allows the user to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or composited withthe real world.” (Azuma, 1997)Azuma’s Three Characteristics of Augmented Reality:- combines real and virtual- interactive in real time-registered in 3D.The term was first coined in 1992 by a Boeing researcher named Tom Caudell to distinguish it fromVirtual Reality.Virtual Reality is a completely computer-generated environment, while AR blends computergenerated and real-world elements.History of ARIn 1968, Ivan Sutherland created the first augmented reality interfaceFirst mobile application was The Touring Machine, made by Steve Feiner et al. in 1997. This devicehad a handheld component, and incorporated GPS.2001: Rob Kooper and Blair MacIntyredevelop the Real World Wide Web Browser, the first AR Webbrowser.Current ApplicationsWikitudehttp://www.wikitude.com/en/Point of interest can be searched by current position and viewed on a map, list, and on anAugmented Reality (AR) camera viewUsers can create their own Wiki Worlds and upload them.Wikitude Drive:The system works by attaching your mobile phone on top of your dashboard with the camera facingthe road. The application then overlays video captured through the camera with driving instructions.This allows users to literally drive through their phone, watching the road even while they are lookingat directions.
Layarhttp://www.layar.com/“Layers can provide services, such as finding ATMs, houses for sale and restaurants includingreviews. Layers can also provide an experience with interactivity, 3D objects and sounds for gamesand engaging guided tours. Many layers provide both.There are many layers to choose from, for example Architecture 3D, Foursquare, Google localsearch, Twitter, Wikipedia, Yelp, Gowalla and Yellowpages.There are thousands of layers; both international and local, paid and free.Has Layers aimed at information as well as social interests such as Tweeps Around, which showswhat Twitter tweets were posted in the area.Users can create their own Layers and upload them.Junaiohttp://www.junaio.com/Aimed more at social uses, such as entertainment or social media.Users can create their own Channels and upload them.Uses image recognition (using online image search) and “glueing” capability to attach virtualinformation to a physical object.Aurasma (Currently iPhone only)http://www.aurasma.com/“Available on smartphones, the app was created out of technology that is capable of recognizingimages, symbols and objects in the real world and understanding them. It can then deliver relevantcontent in real time, including videos, animations, audio or webpages.”HappeningsHappenings are Auras that are posted in a specific geographical location - paintings in a gallery, forexample. Press to see what is nearby, or, by setting your smartphone to vibrate, you will beautomatically alerted to when there are Happenings in your area.AnywheresAnywheres are Auras that can be recognized in any place independent of geographic location -newspapers, for example. Create your own Anywheres by pressing , capturing distinctive imagesthat you and your friends will be able to see, share and bring alive on your smartphones.Super AnywheresSuper Anywheres are just like Auras except they were made by the Aurasma team.This has the best potential for libraries – similar to Junaio, uses any image as an AR code (bookcover, logo, etc.)
AR Markers and QR CodesAR Markers look like simpler QR Codes, but are used differently. AR Codes are simple locators usedby software to pinpoint a location, where QR Codes have embedded information that leads tosomething.Sample AR Markers:Sample QR Codes:
Suggestions for library uses of QR and AR:Kelly Tenkley, founder of iLearn Technology blog:AR Markers on books and shelves to trigger information and multimedia events (video book review,3D visualization of image from inside)Connect items and areas to Shelfari, LibraryThing, etc.Literary book tour, where locations trigger information relevant to a book or authorJulie Strange, founder of The Strange Librarian blog:“A customer holds her device up to the shelf of books she’s looking at and it tells her that the libraryhas databases on her subject and that on tuesday there is a guest lecture program she might beinterested in. Or perhaps that the next in the series is due in the library next month and she canreserve it now!”Library UsesARToolKithttp://www.hitl.washington.edu/artoolkit/projects/ARToolKit is aimed specifically at developers, and doesn’t have an app for phones. However, itenables the design of a wide range of applications.SmartLibraryhttp://www.mediateam.oulu.fi/press/news/53/?lang=enDeveloped by Oulu University Library in Finland, SmartLibrary enables map-based guidance to adesired book or collection, uses RFID and a Wi-Fi–based location tracking system to display aperson’s location in relation to the item she or he seeksExpanded books:AR code:
RFID:RFID:Awesome shelf checking app:http://www.users.muohio.edu/brinkmwj/ar/(Also can be used for cataloging)ReferencesAzuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality.Presence: Teleoperators& Virtual Environments,6(4), 355-385.Caudell, T.P., &Mizell, D. W., (1992). Augmented Reality: An application of heads-up displaytechnology to manual manufacturing processes. Proceedings of 1992 IEEE Hawaii InternationalConference on Systems Sciences, pp. 659-669.Feiner, S., MacIntyre, B., Höllerer T.,&Webster, A.(1997). A touring machine: Prototyping 3D mobileaugmented reality systems for exploring the urban environment. Proceedings of First IEEEInternational Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC 97), pp 74–81.Kooper, R., &MacIntyre, B. (2003). Browsing the Real-World Wide Web: Maintaining Awareness ofVirtual Information in an AR Information Space. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction,16(3), 425-446.Strange, J. (2010, January 26).(geolocation + augmented reality + QR codes) libraries. Retrievedfrom http://strangelibrarian.org/2010/01/geolocation-augmented-reality-qr-codes-libraries/Sutherland, I., (1968). A head-mounted three dimensional display. Proceedings of Fall JointComputer Conference, 757-764.Tenkley, K. (2010, September 9). The augmented reality library. Retrieved fromhttp://ilearntechnology.com/?p=3035