History UNIT 1- Germany 1918-39


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This is a revision powerpoint of this area of history, for GCSE really

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  • Nice and concise... But slide 4 has a mistake: should be £6600 million instead.
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History UNIT 1- Germany 1918-39

  1. 1. HistoryGermany from 1918-39
  2. 2. ConstitutionProportional Representation There was a Large number of Parties so that meant no majority was met This lead to no decisions being madePresident Elected every 7 years Had the power of Article 48
  3. 3. Army Leaders of the army wanted to retain under the KaiserCivil servants and Judges Many senior judges and civil servants disagreed with the liberal views of the Weimar government
  4. 4. Treaty of VersaillesTerritorial Losses Economical Financial Losses LossesAll colonies Only allowed £6600 ingiven to the allies 100,000 men and reparations to(especially 15,000 sailors make up for theAfrican) No tanks, warAlsace-Lorraine submarines or any Sheep andgiven to France Air Force Cattle given toPolish Corridor 6 naval Ships France andSaar under Rhineland Belgiumcontrol of the demilitarised BuildLeague of Nations replacement ships for the Allies
  5. 5. Spartacist Uprising Lead by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg On the 6th of January 1919 tries to overthrow the government and create a communist state They used the army and the Freikorps to put down the rebellion The leader were found dead days later. In March more communist uprisings happened It resulted in 1000 people dead
  6. 6. Kapp Putsch The leader of the Freikorps, Wolfgang Kapp, tried to seize Berlin on the 13th March 1920 The government asked people to strike against it, this left them easy to beat More communist uprising happened but defeated However 2 Weimar ministers were assassinated, ???
  7. 7. NSDAP In February 1920- 25 point programme They brought the Volkischer Beobatcher to spread their message Hitler became their Leader in July 1921 They then adopt the Swastika In July 1920 = 1100 members In November 1922 = 55,000 members
  8. 8. Invasion of the Ruhr Reparations a £100 million a year. Couldn‟t pay so France invaded the Ruhr They confiscated raw material and manufactured goods. The workers went on passive resistance but it was met with violence This disrupted the economy further
  9. 9. Hyperinflation They still couldn‟t pay so they printed more money They had 300 paper mills and 2000 printing shops Imports dried up and people lost their savings 1919- 1mark= £1 1923- 20 billion marks= £1
  10. 10. Plans and PactsNovember 1923- Rentenmark Based on gold reserves Led to stabilityAugust 1924- Dawes Plan Reparations to increase from 1 billion to 2.5 million over 4 years USA loans of 800 million marks
  11. 11. 1925- Locarno Treaty Between Britain, France, Italy and Germany Agreed on the BordersSeptember 1926- League of Nations Permanent Seats Confirmed Germany having a power status
  12. 12. 1928- Kellogg-Briand Pact Germany and 64 other nations Said that armies were only for self defence1929- Young Plan Reduced payments from £6600 to £1850 They had to pay 2.05 billion for 59 years
  13. 13. Great Depression October 1929 the US stock market fell, they recalled their loans. This left the German government and companies poor So they sacked workers, this left them unemployed By January 1932 6million people were unemployed People were desperate and turned towards extremist parties
  14. 14. Economic Crisis In March 1930 elections there was no majority So Bruning relied on Hindenburg - Article 48 In September Nazi Party had 107 seats and were the second most popular Bruning cut unemployment benefits because the government had no money Bruning resigned in May 1932
  15. 15. Nazi party in 1924 Created branches around Germany called Guae Ernst Rohm became the leader of the SA They had 27,000 members in 1925 It exceeded 100,000 members in 1928 In the 1928 elections they won only 12 seats
  16. 16. Josef Goebbels He was the propaganda leader from 1929-33 The Nazi had: Mass rallies, posters, banners By 1930s Nazis owned 120 newspapers Radio- 70% of Germans owned a radio Planes to visit cities
  17. 17. Nazi party offered Strong government A united Germany Scrap Treaty of Versailles Blame Jews
  18. 18. Presidential Election Election 1932 In the first round Hindenburg failed to get over 50% of the vote In the second round he did However Hitler received 11,340,000 votes in the first round
  19. 19. Financial support 1932, 600,000 copies of the Nazi programme was produced Funds from big business that was scared of communism Used the SA to disrupt meetings In 1931 SA had increased from 100,000 to 170,000
  20. 20. Elections July 1932- 117 people killed - won 230 seats Largest party so Hitler demanded to be chancellor but Hindenburg elected Von Papen Papen had no support so Von Schleicher was elected (possibly communist) 30 Jan 1933 Von Papen and Hitler joined forces and became Chancellor and Vice chancellor
  21. 21. Reichstag Fire 27th February 1933 Reichstag building set alight by the Dutch communist, Marius van der Lubbe. “Decree for the protection of People” allowed Nazis to arrest communists and suspend peoples civil rights March 1933 won 288 seats but still need a coalition government
  22. 22. Effects of the Fire Enabling Bill was passed but by foul means on 24 March 1933, and it was the end of the Weimar constitution and democracy 14th July 1933, Law against the formation of Parties which left the NSDAP as the only party In November 1933 they won 95.2% of the votes but 3 million were spoilt
  23. 23. Nazi regime Enabling Bill meant Nazis had control over all the Laws 2nd May 1933 trade unions were banned and the Nazi Labour Front was set up They also made concentration camps They released 130 emergency decrees and centralised the country
  24. 24. Night of the Long Knives SS had been a key part of Nazi growth However the Leader Ernst Rohm had too much power over SA and army On the 30th June 1934 four hundred people were killed This included Rohm and Von Scheilcher SA was absorbed by the SS and army
  25. 25. Army They had previously had loyalty to Ernst Rohm In August 1934 Hindenburg Died The army swore a oath of Loyalty to Hitler 90% of Germany agreed with his actions
  26. 26. SS and Gestapo SS and Gestapo were run by Himmler By 1934 the SS had 55,000 members The Gestapo wore plain clothes and could arrest and imprison anyone they suspected to opposing the state By 1939, 160,000 people were arrested for political crimes
  27. 27. Legal system In October 1933 the German Lawyers Front was set up. It immediately had 10,000 members In 1934, the People‟s court was set up to try cases of treason By the end of 1934 Hitler controlled the army and the legal system
  28. 28. Concentration campsThe SA and SS ran them. The earliest was Dachau, near Munich. They arrested: Jews and Black people Professional Criminals Foreign Forced Labour groups Religious groups Sex offenders Political prisoners Work shy Disabled
  29. 29. Catholic Church Almost a third of Germans were Catholic Catholic had 1st allegiance to the Pope not Hitler. Also they had catholic schools and youth groups He signed the concordat in July 1933 protecting Catholic In a few months later he arrested priests, abolished catholic schools, closed youth movements and closed monasteries
  30. 30. Protestant Church Leader was Reich-bishop Ludwig Muller, September 1933 They praised Hitler and Mein Kampf However many protestants opposed Nazism Pastor Niemoller set up the Confessional Church against Hitler. He was arrested in 1937 and the confessional was banned
  31. 31. PropagandaRallies- An annual rally was held at Nuremburg to show the power of the Nazis. Local rallies were run by the SARadio- The Nazi mass produced cheap radios so the whole nations could hear Hitler speakPosters- They cleverly used posters to put across the Nazi message and ideologies especially targeted at the young
  32. 32. CensorshipNewspapers- All papers were owned by the Nazis and editors were told what they could printBooks- May 1933 20,000 books were burnt because they were Jewish or anti-NaziCinema- The Nazi produced 100 films a year, which in 1933 250 million people saw. All films started with Nazi messages
  33. 33. The ArtsMusic- banned jazz because it was too black. Encouraged German folk music and Bach or BeethovenTheatre- concentrated on German history and political dramas. The tickets were cheap to encourage people to watch themArt- all modern art was banned because it was „backward and Jewish‟. Traditional only
  34. 34. Olympics The games were designed to impress the world, with the modern and well organised society However Hitler refused to give 9 athletes their gold medals because they were black. This included Jesse Owens who won 4 gold medals and had broken 11 Olympic records
  35. 35. Controlling the Young- p86Teachers- swear an oath of loyalty and join the Nazi teachers leagueTextbooks- Were rewritten to fit the Nazi view. Mein Kampf was a regular textLessons- Began and ended with “Heil Hitler”.Curriculum- 15% was devoted to sport. Girls took needlework and cookery. They introduced race studies
  36. 36. Hitler Youth Hitler youth for boys between 14-18. They were prepared for the army by camping, athletics, marching and map reading From 1936 membership was compulsory By 1939 there were 7million members The League of German maidens did the same as the HY except they also did domestic skills and motherhood
  37. 37. Youth Gang appeared that played their own music and boys and girls were free to be together. They grew their hair long and wore their choice of clothes. They even beat up members of the HY The Edelweiss pirates listened to swing music and produced anti-Nazi graffiti. They had membership of 2000 in 1939
  38. 38. WomenChange Weimar Women Nazi WomenPolitically Women over 20 had the vote. By Women were to have no 1933 10% of the Reichstag was interest in politics femaleEconomically Many had careers in teaching, Women would be medicine and in the civil service. mothers and Plus the civil servants earned the homemakers. If they did same as men. By 1933 100,000 work they earned women teachers and 3000 doctors considerably less than menSocially Women went out unescorted. They Women were always smoke and drank in public. They escorted. They would were slim and fashion conscious. never smoke, drink or They had short hair and wore make- diet. They would have up hair in a bun and would not wear make up
  39. 39. Idyllic Nazi Womano Did not wear make-up oWas blonde, either in plait or bun. oWas athletic oDid not smoke
  40. 40. oWore flat shoes oWore a full skirt oDid all household duties, especially cooking
  41. 41. Women 1933 the Law for encouragement of Marriage meant loans were given to new couples Medal were given out on 2nd may In 1938 the divorce Law changed Lebenborn was set up and the German‟s Women‟s Enterprise From 1937 onwards women were forced to work a „duty year‟ because of rearming
  42. 42. Reducing UnemploymentJob creation schemes- Spent 37 billion on it in 1938. They subsided the construction industry. They introduced the building of the autobahnsInvisible unemployment- Jews taken from there jobs, unmarried men sent to the Labour service Corps, Women dismissed from jobs for homemaking and opponents of the Nazis held in concentration camps
  43. 43. Rearmament- introduced conscription in 1935, army had 1.4 million men in 1939. Heavy industry expanded. This meant coal and chemicals doubled in 1933-39. Billions was spent creating tanks, aircraft and ships. This gave people more jobs
  44. 44. Better off under the Nazi’s Strength through joy – organisation to replace the trade unions. It organised holidays and day trips for workers. They were low cost so ordinary workers could afford them Beauty of work- this improved working conditions i.e. by better lighting Volkswagen- scheme for people to save 5 marks a week for a car Wages- average wage rose from 86marks in 1932 to 109marks in 1938
  45. 45. Worse off under the Nazi’s Lack of freedom- trade unions were banned so workers couldn‟t negotiate for better wages Strength through joy – hardly any workers could afford the holidays Volkswagen- By the time the war broke out not one person had a car, and their money wasn‟t refunded Cost of living- all groceries cost more in 1939 compares to 33. This is because food was in short supply, the was to keep farmers benefits Hours of work- increases from 42.9% of the week to 47% in 1939
  46. 46. Why persecute the Jews? Traditionally- they were different and blamed for the execution of Christ. Also some Jews were moneylenders and became wealthy. People resented them for this Hitler- when he was homeless in Vienna (where there is a tradition of anti-Semitism) the despised the wealthy Jews Master Race- this did not include the 100,00 Jews living in Germany
  47. 47. Jewish persecutionApril 1933- Boycott of Jewish ShopsThe SA painted „Jude‟ on Jewish shops and urged people not to enter1934- Ban on Public PlacesJews could not enter public parks, fields and swimming poolsMay 1935- No armyJewish people banned from the army
  48. 48. September 1935- Nuremburg LawsJews weren‟t citizens, they could not vote and could not marry a German (Law for protection of German blood)1936- nothing because of the OlympicsMarch-October 1938Register possessions , carry identity cards, star of David on their clothes, add „Israel‟ or „Sarah‟ to their names, stamped „J‟ on their passports
  49. 49. Kristallnacht 8th November 1938, a polish Jew kills a Nazi official in the German embassy in Paris 9th-10th Jewish shops, homes and synagogues were smashed up 91 Jews died and 20,000 sent to concentration camps They are fined 1 billion marks and are not allowed to run business‟ or send their children to school
  50. 50. Other groupsSterilisation Law- Passes in July 1933 allowed the Nazis the sterilise alcoholics and disabled peopleConcentration Camps- was were the locked up prostitutes, homosexuals, juvenile delinquents, gypsies, tramps and beggarsEuthanasia campaign- in 1939 the Nazis secretly began to kill mentally ill people. Around 6,000 disabled babies, children and teenagers were murdered by starvation or lethal injection