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Cultural Changes


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Cultural Changes

  1. 1. CULTURAL CHANGES Christine May P. Petajen Louie A. Sicio Kia S. Soneja
  2. 2. CULTURAL CHANGES Multiculturalism  Multicultural Education  Dimensions of Multicultural Education Subcultures - Growth of Student Subcultures - Functions of Subcultures  Cultural Dimensions of Learning  Culturally Responsive Teaching
  4. 4. Multiculturalism Multicultural Education is at least three things:  An idea or concept  An educational reform movement  A process
  5. 5. Multiculturalism  A theory about the foundations of a culture rather than a practice which subsumes cultural ideas  Harrison (1984)  A systematic and comprehensive response to cultural and ethnic diversity, with educational, linguistic, economic and social components and specific institutional mechanisms  A policy that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures especially as they relate to one another in receiving nations.
  6. 6. Multiculturalism Advantages of Multiculturalism Lead cultural exchanges Add variety in the life of all citizens Bridges the chasm of ignorance and arrogance
  7. 7. Multiculturalism Disadvantages of Multiculturalism Brings anxiety to stability of national identity Creates national disunity Questionable loyalties
  8. 8. 1. Demographic-Descriptive 2. Ideological-Normative 3. Programmatic-political Three Referents of Multiculturalism
  9. 9. Demographic-Descriptive Occurs where the word multicultural refers to the existence of linguistically, culturally and ethnically diverse segments in the population of a society
  10. 10. Different Cultures in the Philippines
  11. 11. Ideological-Normative This usage of multiculturalism constitutes a specific focus towards the management and organization of governmental responses to ethnic diversity
  12. 12.  Exclusion process of progressive social rupture, detaching groups and individuals from social relations and institutions and preventing them from full participation in the normal, normatively prescribed activities of the society in which they live.  Apartheid Inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over any other racial group of persons and systematically oppressing them
  13. 13.  Ethnic cleansing the attempt to create ethnically homogeneous geographic areas through the deportation or forcible displacement of persons belonging to particular ethnic groups.  Genocide the deliberate and systematic destruction of a group of people because of their ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race.
  14. 14. Programmatic-political Usage of multiculturalism refers to the specific policies developed to respond and manage ethnic diversity
  15. 15. Multicultural Education
  16. 16. Multicultural Education  Field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal educational opportunities from racial, ethnic, social class and cultural groups  Banks and Banks (1995) • a progressive approach for transforming education that holistically critiques and addresses current shortcomings, failings and discriminatory practices in education.
  17. 17. A progressive approach for transforming education that hollistically critiques and addresses current shortcomings, failings and discriminatory practices in education 4–17Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
  18. 18. Goals of Multicultural Education  To transform school so that male and female students, exceptional students from diverse cultural, social-class, racial and ethnic groups experience an equal opportunity to learn.  To help students to acquire knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to function effectively in pluralistic democratic society
  19. 19. Goals of Multicultural Education  To help students to acquire knowledge and commitments needed to make reflective decisions  To promote democracy and democratic living  To help students develop more positive attitudes toward different racial, ethnic, cultural and religious groups.
  20. 20. Four Approaches in Achieving Multicultural Education
  21. 21. Level 4: SOCIAL ACTION Students make decisions about their world and become directly involved in social actions Level 3: TRANSFORMATION Curriculum is changed so that students see the world from the different perspective of various groups Level 2: ADDITIVE Special units and topics about various groups are added to, but not fundamentally alter the curriculum Level 1: CONTRIBUTIONS Heroes, holidays and food become a special focus on a particular day, recognizing the contributions of various groups
  22. 22.  Every student must have an equal opportunity to achieve her or his full potential  Every student must be prepared to competently participate in an increasingly intercultural society  Teachers must be prepared to effectively facilitate learning for every individual student Shared Ideals of Multicultural Education
  23. 23.  Schools must be active participants in ending oppression of all types  Education must become more fully student- centered  Educators, activists and others must take a more active role in reexamining all educational practice and how they affect the learning of all students Shared Ideals of Multicultural Education
  24. 24. - Dr. James A. Banks  Content Integration  Knowledge Construction Process  Prejudice Reduction  Equity Pedagogy  Empowering School Culture and Social Structure Dimensions of Multicultural Education
  25. 25. Content Integration  deals with the extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures, and groups to illustrate key concepts, generalizations, and issues within their subject area or disciplines
  26. 26. Knowledge Construction Process  describes how teachers help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the biases, frames of reference, and perspectives within a discipline influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it
  27. 27. Prejudice Reduction  describes lessons and activities used by teachers to help students to develop positive attitudes towards different racial, ethnic, and cultural groups
  28. 28. Equity Pedagogy  exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, and social class groups
  29. 29. Empowering School Culture and Social Structure  is created when the culture and organization of the school and transformed in ways that enable students from diverse racial, ethnic, and gender groups to experience equality and equal status
  30. 30. SUBCULTURE
  31. 31.  refers to cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population  can be based on age, ethnicity, residence, sexual preference, occupation, and many factors  are much smaller groups formed within a society
  32. 32. • A subcultural group can develop around number of social activities (family, work, education, religion, geographic region, and so forth). • They must have opportunities for communicating with one another, both directly (face-to-face contact) and indirectly (through The Growth of Student Subcultures
  33. 33. Subculture Sociologically  refers to a group of people whose behavior has features that set apart from the wider (or dominant) culture of the society in which it develops  they retain links to and features of the wider culture The Growth of Student Subcultures
  34. 34. Two Main Types of Sub-cultural Groups  Reactive - members of subcultures do not necessarily reject the dominant culture, but they embrace their own culture as valid and important  Independent - while actively participating in the dominant culture, they often participate in a subculture containing shared norms and values The Growth of Student Subcultures
  35. 35.  Some groups of people share a particular way of life and we term these smaller groups subculture. Example: being a part of “college student subculture”  You chose to join a particular subcultural group with its own particular way of life. But it doesn’t mean that you cannot be a part of other sub-cultural groups or indeed the society as a whole. The Growth of Student Subcultures
  36. 36.  Deviant Cultures - subcultures that directly oppose dominant norms and values  Countercultures - subcultures that are oriented toward challenging dominant culture or deliberately trying to change it The Growth of Student Subcultures
  37. 37.  Dominant Culture - refers to the values, norms, and practices of the group within society that is most powerful in terms of wealth, prestige, status, and influence.  Subculture - is a group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms, and lifestyle. The Growth of Student Subcultures
  38. 38. 1. Permitting specialized activity 2. Identity in mass society 3. Cultural adaptation and change Functions of Subcultures
  39. 39.  Children of various cultures may think and act differently and carry these differences into the classroom.  Helping children of various cultures to achieve as fully as possible, while simultaneously adapting to each other, demands innovative strategies on the part of the parents, teachers, and administrators. Cultural Dimensions of Learning, Teaching and Educational Processes
  40. 40. Culturally Responsive Teaching
  41. 41. Culturally responsive Instruction covers areas related to:  Inclusive content in the curriculum that reflects the diversity of society.  Students’ prior knowledge, including their culture and language.  The idea that culture is central to student learning because there is strong evidence that cultural practices affect thinking process.
  42. 42. Culturally Responsive Teaching encompass elements such as:  Active teaching methods that promote students engagement  Teacher as facilitator  Positive perspectives on parents and families of culturally and linguistically diverse students.  Culturally sensitive
  43. 43. Culturally Responsive Teaching encompass elements such as:  Reshaping the curriculum so that it is culturally responsive to the background of students.  Culturally mediated instruction that is characterized by the use culturally mediated cognition, culturally appropriate social situations for learning, and culturally valued knowledge in curriculum content.  Small group instruction and academically- related discourse
  44. 44. Culturally responsive teaching acknowledges cultural diversity in classrooms and accommodates this diversity in instruction.
  45. 45. It does this in three important ways: 1. By recognizing and accepting student diversity, it communicates that all students are welcome and valued as human beings. 2. by building on students’ cultural backgrounds, culturally responsive teaching communicates positive images about the students’ home cultures. 3. By being responsive to different student learning styles, culturally responsive teaching builds on students’ strengths and uses these to help students learn.
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