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Cultural changes

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Cultural Changes

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Cultural changes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5
  2. 2. What is MULTICULTURALISM ? According to Harrison (1984), multiculturalism is a theory about the foundations of a culture rather than a practice which subsumes cultural ideas. Multiculturalism is a systematic and comprehensive response to cultural and ethnic diversity, with educational, linguistic, economic and social components and specific institutional mechanisms.
  3. 3. Whenever two or more people come together with a shared purpose, they form a culture with its own written and unwritten rules for behavior. Our families, workplaces, and communities all have cultures. These cultures have a tremendous, though rarely recognized, impact upon our behavior as individuals. Changes in culture that are initiated by a group need cultural support of members of the group, or else they will not last long. A supportive cultural environment is needed for lasting change.
  4. 4. Multiculturalism as a model of democratic policy response to culture and ethnic diversity is of to UNESCO, in so far as it corresponds to the ideal of a culture of peace, based on respect of diversity, as well as universally shared values and norms. Multiculturalism is a policy that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures, especially as they relate to one another in receiving in nation.
  5. 5. Three interrelated, but nevertheless distinctive, referents of multiculturalism and its related adjective multicultural are presented below : The demographic-descriptive usage occurs where the word multicultural refers to the existence of linguistically, culturally and ethnically diverse segments in the population of a society or state.
  6. 6. Ideological-normative usage of multiculturalism generates the greatest level of debate since its constitutes a slogan and basis for political action. Programmatic- political usage of multiculturalism refers to the specific policies developed to respond and manage ethnic diversity.
  7. 7. What is MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION ? Banks and Banks(1995) define multicultural education as a field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal educational opportunities from diverse racial, ethnic, social class and cultural group. According to James Banks(2001), the primary goal of multicultural education is to transform the school so that male and female students, exceptional students, and students from diverse cultural, social class, racial, and ethnic groups experience an equal opportunity to learn.
  8. 8. A related goal of multicultural education is to help all students develop more positive attitudes toward different racial, ethnic, cultural and religious group. One way of achieving this goal is to transform the curriculum by integrating these groups. James Banks says that there are four approaches for accomplishing this..
  9. 9. LEVEL 2 : ADDITIVE Special units and topics about various groups are added to, but do not fundamental alter, the curriculum. LEVEL 1 : CONTRIBUTIONS Heroes, holidays and food become special focus on a particular day, recognizing the contributions of various groups. LEVEL 3 : TRANSFORMATION Curriculum is changed, so that student see the world from different perspective of various groups. LEVEL 4 : SOCIAL ACTION Students make decisions about their world and become directly involved in social action.
  10. 10. Multicultural education is progressive approach for transforming education that holistically critiques and addresses current shortcomings, failings and discriminatory practices in education.
  11. 11. Multicultural education acknowledges that schools are essential to laying the foundation for the transformation of society and the elimination of oppression and injustice.
  12. 12. Multicultural education applies content from these field and disciplines to pedagogy and curriculum development in educational settings.
  13. 13. Despite a multitude of differing conceptualizations of multicultural education, several shared ideals provide a basis for its understanding. While some focus on individual students or teachers, and others are much more “ macro “ in scope, these ideals are all, at their roots, about transformation: Every students must have an equal opportunity to achieve her or his full potential. Every students must be prepared to competently participate in an increasingly intercultural society.
  14. 14. Teachers must be prepared to effectively facilitate learning for every individual student, no matter how culturally similar or different from themselves.
  15. 15. Schools must be active participants in ending oppression of all types, first by ending oppression within their own walls, then by producing socially and critically active and aware students.
  16. 16. Education must become more fully student-centered and inclusive of the voices and experiences of the students.
  17. 17. Educators, activists and other must take a more active role in reexamining all educational practices and how they affect the learning of all students : testing methods, teaching approaches, evaluation and assessment, school psychology and counseling.
  18. 18. MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION is a concern affecting every phase and aspects of teaching enabling teachers to scrutinize their options and choices to clarify what social information they are conveying overtly and covertly to their students.
  19. 19. Dimensions of Multicultural Education There are five dimensions of multicultural education according to Banks (1997 ). They are : 1. Content Integration 2. Knowledge Construction Process 3. Prejudice Reduction 4. Equity Pedagogy 5. Empowering school culture and social structure
  20. 20. 1.CONTENT INTEGRATION - it deals with the extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, generalizations, and issues within their subject area or disciplines. 2.KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS – it describe how teachers help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the biases, frames of reference, and perspectives within a discipline influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it.
  21. 21. 3. PREJUDICE REDUCTION – it describe lessons and activities used by teachers to help students to develop positive attitudes toward different racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. 4. EQUITY PEDAGOGY - it exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, and social class groups.
  22. 22. 5. EMPOWERING SCHOOL CULTURE AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE – is created when the culture and organization of the school are transformed in ways that enable students from diverse racial, ethnic, and gender groups to experience equality and equal status.
  23. 23. The Growth of Student Subcultures Sociologists define subculture as cultural patterns that set apart some segments of a society’s population. Subcultures can be based on age, ethnicity, residence, sexual preference, occupation, and many factors. A subculture group can develop around any number of social activities( family, work, education, religion, geographic region, and so forth.
  24. 24. Subcultures can be based on variety of factors, including religion, race, ethnicity, age, and sexual orientation. Gay male and lesbian subcultures have flourished in large urban areas and in smaller towns where there are meetings and organizations to support their social and political activities.
  25. 25. Every individual participates in numerous subculture groups. The norms and sometimes the values that apply in one group may be different to the norms that apply to another. The norms that apply when you are at home with your family may be very different from those that apply when you are out with your friends.
  26. 26. Some groups of people share a particular way of life and we term these smaller groups’ subculture. Although we will be looking in much more detail at the idea of subculture groups, we can use the example of being part of a “college student subculture”, to illustrate a couple of other sociological ideas.
  27. 27. First, by becoming a college student you have chosen to join a particular sub-cultural group with its own particular way of life( attending classes, learning, meeting your friends, doodling aimlessly in class ). However, just because you are a part of other subcultural groups or indeed the society as a whole.
  28. 28. Secondly, we have started to introduce the idea that an individual’s place in society can be looked at on two basic levels : 1. In terms of a general sense of culture. 2. In terms of a specific sense of subcultures.
  29. 29. Sometimes subcultures develop that are not just distinct dominant culture, but that are oriented toward challenging that culture or deliberately trying to change it. Sociologists call them countercultures. ( Farley, 1990 ). A countercultures exists when subculture adopts values and beliefs that are predominantly in opposition to those of larger society.
  30. 30. Functions of Subcultures Subcultures perform specific functions such as : 1. Permitting specialized activity 2. Identity in mass society 3. Cultural adaptation and change
  31. 31. Cultural Dimensions of Learning, Teaching and Educational Processes As our nation continues to change, teachers as well as the students interact with others from quite different background from their own in the classroom. The manner in which we respond to others who seem different can have a serious impact on success in school, work, and harmonious relationship with others. It is important to remember that different is not “deficient”. Cultural differences imply the transmission of ideas from generation to generation by significant members of the older generation.
  32. 32. What is a culturally-Responsive Teaching ? Culturally Responsive Instruction covers areas related to : Inclusive content in the curriculum that reflects the diversity of society. In effect, students from diverse backgrounds see themselves and their experiences in the curriculum. Students’ prior knowledge, including their culture and language.
  33. 33. The idea that culture is central to student learning because there is strong evidence that cultural practices thinking process. Culturally Responsive Teaching encompass elements such as : Communication of high expectations Active teaching methods that promote student engagement Teacher as facilitator Positive perspective on parents and families of culturally and linguistically diverse students
  34. 34. Culturally responsive teaching acknowledges cultural diversity in classrooms and accommodates this diversity in instruction. It does this in three important ways. 1. By recognizing and accepting student diversity, it communicates that all students are welcome and valued as human beings. 2. By building on students’ cultural backgrounds, culturally responsive teaching communicates positive images about the students’ home cultures. 3. By being responsive to different student learning styles, culturally responsive teaching builds on students’ strengths and uses these to help student learn.
  35. 35. 4. Cultural sensitivity 5. Reshaping the curriculum so that it is culturally responsive to the background of students. 6. Culturally mediated instruction that is characterized by the use of culturally mediated cognition, culturally appropriate social situations for learning, and culturally valued knowledge in curriculum content. 7. Small group instruction and academically – related discourse

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