Multiculturalism in school setting


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Multiculturalism in school setting

  1. 1. Cultural changes  Whenever two or more people come together with a shared purpose, they form a culture with its own written and unwritten rules of behavior.  Changes in culture that are initiated by a group need cultural support of the members of the group, or else they will not last long.
  2. 2. What is Multiculturalism?  According to HARRISON (1984), MULTICULTURALISM is a theory about the foundations of a culture rather than a practice which subsumes cultural ideas.  MULTICULTURALISM is a systematic and comprehensive response to cultural and ethnic diversity, with educational, linguistic, economic, and social components and specific institutions mechanisms.
  3. 3. 3 INTERRELATED REFERENTS OF MULTICULTURALISM  DEMOGRAPHIC-DESCRIPTIVE – usage occurs when the word multicultural refers to the existence of linguistically, culturally, and ethnically diverse segments in the population of a society or state.  IDEOLOGICALLY-NORMATIVE – usage of multiculturalism generates the greatest level of debate since it constitutes a slogan and basis for political action.  PROGRAMMATIC-POLITICAL – usage of multiculturalism refers to the specific policies developed to respond and manage ethnic diversity.
  4. 4. What is Multicultural Education?  BANKS AND BANKS (1995) – define multicultural education as a field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal educational opportunities from diverse racial, ethnic, social class, and culture.  JAMES BANKS (2001) – the primary goal of multicultural education is to transform the school so that male and female students, exceptional students, and students from diverse cultural, social-class, racial and ethnic groups experience an equal opportunity to learn.
  5. 5. 4 APPROACHES IN ACCOMPLISHING MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION (James Banks)  CONTRIBUTIONS APPROACH – The ethnic heroes and holidays are included in the curriculum.  ADDITIVE APPROACH – A unit or course is incorporated (for example, a unit on women in history), but no substantial change is made to the curriculum as a whole.  TRANSFORMATION APPROACH – The entire Eurocentric nature of the curriculum is changed. Students are taught to view events and issues from diverse ethnic and cultural perspectives.  SOCIAL ACTION APPROACH – It goes beyond the transformation approach. Students not only view issues from multiple perspectives but also become directly involved in solving related problems. Rather than political passivity, the typical by-product of many curricular programs, this approach promotes decision-making and social action in order to achieve multicultural goals and a more vibrant democracy.
  6. 6. MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION is a progressive approach for transforming education that holistically critiques and addresses current shortcomings, failings and discriminatory practices in education. It is grounded in the ideals of social justice, educations equity and a dedication to facilitating educational experiences in which all students reach their full potential as learners and as a socially aware and active beings, locally, nationally, and globally.
  7. 7. SCOPES OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION  Every student must have an equal opportunity to achieve her or his full      potential. Every student must be prepared to completely participate in an increasingly intercultural society. Teachers must be prepared to effectively facilitate learning for every individual student, no matter how culturally similar or different from themselves. Schools must be active participants in ending oppression of all types, first by ending oppression within their own walls, then by producing socially and critically active and aware students. Education must become more fully student-centered and inclusive of the voices and experiences of the students. Educators, activists and others must take a more active role in reexamining all educational practices and how they affect the learning of all students: testing methods, teaching approaches, evaluation and assessment, school psychology and counseling.
  8. 8. DIMENSIONS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION There are 5 dimensions of multicultural education according to Banks (1997). •CONTENT INTEGRATION – it deals with the extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, generalizations, and issues within their subject area or disciplines. •KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS – it describes how teachers help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the biases, frames of reference, and perspectives within a discipline influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it. Students also learn how to build knowledge themselves in this dimension.
  9. 9. •PERJUDICE REDUCTION – it describes lessons and activities used by teachers to help students to develop positive attitudes toward different racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. •EQUITY PEDAGOGY – it exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, and social class groups. •EMPOWERING SCHOOL CULTURE AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE – this dimension is created when the culture and organization of the school are transformed in ways that enable students from diverse racial, ethnic, and gender groups to experience equality and equal status.
  10. 10. THE GROWTH OF STUDENT SUBCULTURES  Sociologists define subculture as cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population. Subcultures can be based on age, ethnicity, residence, sexual preference, occupation, and many factors.  Sometimes , the special cultural traits of a particular group are too numerous and too interwoven to be called specialties.
  11. 11. FUNCTIONS OF SUBCULTURES Subcultures perform specific functions such as:  PERMITTING SPECIALIZED ACTIVITY - because subcultures (particularly occupational subcultures) carry the knowledge necessary to perform specialized tasks, they are essential to the division of labor which is essential in any society which is becoming larger and more complex.  IDENTITY IN MASS SOCIETY – subcultures also provide a source of identity in mass society, thus preventing feelings of isolation and anomie.  CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND CHANGE – another important function of subcultures is to serve as a source of adaptation to society. Often a subculture is the mechanism through which cultural diffusion occurs.
  12. 12. WHAT IS A CULTURALLY-RESPONSIVE TEACHING? Culturally Responsive Instruction covers areas related to:  Inclusive content in the curriculum that reflects the diversity of society.  Students’ prior knowledge, including their culture and language.  The idea that culture is central to student learning because there is strong evidence that cultural practices thinking process.
  13. 13. Culturally Responsive Teaching encompasses elements such as: •Communication of high expectations •Active teaching methods that promote student engagement •Teacher as facilitator •Positive perspectives on parents and families of culturally and linguistically diverse students. •Cultural sensitivity •Reshaping the curriculum so that it is culturally responsive to the background of students. •Culturally mediated instruction that is characterized by the use of culturally mediated cognition, culturally appropriate social situations for learning, and culturally valued knowledge in curriculum content. •Small group instruction and academically-related discourse.
  14. 14. Culturally responsive teaching acknowledges cultural diversity in classrooms and accommodates this diversity in instruction. It does this in 3 important ways. 1. By recognizing and accepting student diversity, it communicates that all students are welcome and valued as human beings. 2. By building on students’ cultural backgrounds, culturally responsive teaching communicates positive images about the students’ home cultures. 3. By being responsive to different student learning styles, culturally responsive teaching builds on students’ strengths and uses these to help students learn.
  15. 15. Effective teachers accept and value their students as human beings. This is true for all students, but it is particularly important for cultural and ethnic minorities who may feel some form of alienation from school. This is amplified when teachers communicate that all students can learn and are expected to do so. There are cultural changes that influence the behavior and ways of life of people in the different countries throughout the world such as; MULTICULTURALISM and STUDENT SUBCULTURES. Teachers are in the best position to understand and recognize that students have diverse cultural backgrounds and can adapt their instruction to meet these diverse learning needs.
  16. 16. Hazel A. Tapaoan Of Occidental Mindoro State College Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro Philippines