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Applications of-plant-tissue-culture

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Applications of-plant-tissue-culture

  1. 1. Table A 1.2. Different Techniques of Plant Tissue Culture and Their Applications in Plant Improvement (Adapted from: Murashige, 1979; Pierik, 1987; Brar and Khush, 1994; Brown and Thorpe, 1995). Tissue Culture Technique Applications Seed Culture  Increasing efficiency of germination and germling production in seeds, difficult to germinate in vivo.  Precocious germination by application of plant growth regulators.  Induction of multiple shoot formation and organogenesis by application of plant growth regulators.  Elimination of viruses as seeds do not carry viruses. Embryo Culture  Overcoming embryo abortion due to incompatibility barriers.  Overcoming seed dormancy and self-sterility of seeds.  Embryo rescue in distant (interspecific or intergeneric) hybridization where endosperm development is poor.  Production of monoploids.  Shortening of breeding cycle.  For development of callus cultures. Ovary or Ovule Culture  Production of haploid plants.  Recovery of hybrid embryos overcoming embryo abortion at very early stages of development of zygote due to incompatibility barriers.  Achievement of In vitro fertillization. Anther and Microspore Culture  Production of haploid plants.  Production of homozygous diploid lines through chromosome doubling, thus reducing the breeding cycle.  Genetic transformation using microspores.  Production of useful gametoclonal variations.  Mutation investigations easier with single set of chromosomes.  Fixation of certain genetic characters from heterozygous source materials. In vitro Pollination  Production of hybrids difficult to produce by embryo rescue. In vitro Fertilization  Production of distant hybrids avoiding style and stigmatic incompatibility that inhibits pollen germination and pollen tube growth.  Production of transgenics by injecting exogenous DNA in the nuclei of gametes and zygotes. Organ Culture  Mass production of plants of elite and rare germplasm.  Production of calli, shoots and roots for production of secondary metabolites.
  2. 2.  Development of germplasm banks for rare and endangered plants. Shoot Apical Meristem Culture  Production of virus free germplasm.  Mass production of desirable genotypes.  Facilitation of international exchange.  Cryopreservation or In vitro conservation of germplasm.  Phytosanitary transport. Somatic Embryogenesis  Mass multiplication of elite germplasm.  Production of artificial seeds.  As source material for embryogenic protoplasts.  For genetic transformation.  Production of primary metabolites specific to seeds such as lipids in oil seeds.  Amenable to mechanization and for bioreactors. Organognesis and Enhanced Axillary Budding  Mass multiplication of elite germplasm.  As source material for protoplast work, genetic transformation and mirografting.  Conservation of endangered genotypes either at normal or at sub- zero temperatures. Callus Cultures  Production of plantlets through somatic embryogenesis or organogenesis.  For obtaining virus-free plants.  For generation of useful somaclonal and gametoclonal variants.  As a source of protoplasts and suspension cultures.  Production of useful secondary metabolites.  For biotransformation studies.  Selection of cell lines with valuable properties such as resistance to disease, herbicides, overproduction of secondary metabolites etc.  For mutagenetic studies. In vitro Production of Secondary Metabolites  Production of useful compounds such as drugs, aromatic substances, pigments, flavors etc. without destruction of mother plants.  Production of novel metabolites normally not produced by the parent plant.  Biotransformation and elicitor studies. Cell Culture and In vitro Selection at  Production of somatic embryos, morphognetic nodules and entire
  3. 3. Cellular Level plantlets.  Over-production of secondary metabolites.  Over-production of primary metabolites.  Induction and selection of useful mutants or somaclones at cell level for disease resistance, stress tolerance and improved nutritional quality in less time and space. Somaclonal Variations (Genetic or Epigenetic)  Isolation of useful variants in well-adapted, high yielding genotypes lacking in a few desirable traits.  Isolation of useful variants overproducing primary or secondary metabolites.  Isolation of useful variants with better disease resistance, stress tolerance capacities.  Creation of additional genetic variation without hybridization in useful cultivars. In vitro Mutagenesis  Induction of polyploidy for consequent increase in biomass or yield.  Introduction of genetic variability and rapid selection as well as multiplication of useful mutants.  As a tool for developmental genetics and for elucidation of biochemical processes. Protoplast Isolation, Culture and Fusion  Combining distant genomes to produce somatic hybrids,asymmetric hybrids and cybrids.  Production of organelle recombinants.  Transfer of CMS (cytoplasmic male sterility) in elite lines.  Source material for genetic transformation.  Creation of genetic variants. Genetic Transformation  Introduction of foreign DNA to generate novel genetic combinations.  Transfer of desirable genes for disease and pest resistance from related or unrelated plant species into high yielding susceptible cultivars.  Study of structure and function of genes.  Induction of hairy roots or shooty terratomas for over-production of secondary metabolites, naturally present in mother plant.  Production of novel secondary metabolites absent in parent plant. In vitro Flowering  Reduction in long life cycle in perennials such as Bamboo.  Continuous supply of flowers, fruits and seeds irrespective of season. Micrografting  Overcoming graft incompatibility.  Rapid mass propagation of elite scions grafted on rootstocks having desirable traits like resistance to soil-borne pathogens and diseases.  Multiplication and survival of difficult to root species as well as of transformants.
  4. 4.  Development of virus free plants. Cryopreservation or Storage at Low Temperature  Long term preservation of useful germplasm (cell lines, meristems, plant organs, morphogenetic callus cultures).  Conservation of natural genetic variability. Culture of protoplasts, cells, tissues and organs As a tool in Phytopathological Research.  Virus preparation and replication.  Culture of obligate parasites.  Host-parasite interactions.  Culture of nematodes (Excised root cultures).  Testing of phytoalexins and phytotoxins.  Nodulation studies. As a tool in Plant Physiological Research.  Cell cycle studies.  Metabolic studies.  Nutritional studies.  Morphogenetical and developmental studies. Culture of hairy roots  For understanding and manipulating root-specific metabolism.  For co-culture with VAM fungi to increase secondary metabolite production.  For co-culture with insects to study pathogenesis.  For study and commercial exploitation of bioactive root exudates.  For co-culture with shooty teratomas to exploit both root and shoot based metabolism for biotransformations and also for metabolite production specific with both these locations.  For development of "green hairy roots" which are photoautotrophic and hence display a different spectrum of secondary metabolites.
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Hand outs for applications of plant tissue culture

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