Understanding Creative Processes

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  • Thanks Sir, I've read your article published at Procedia. It was very helpful to me that I could manage various kinds of projects. First of all, there are some researchers belongs to 'Niklas Luhmann Discussion Room' featured at Facebook Page(by Korean). Some people are studying at Bielefeld Univ. where Luhmann lectured. I am applying Luhmann's system theory to our workplace. Yesterday I introduced your articles related to Luhmann. Thanks again to share the information.
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  • Thank you so much Takashi Iba for sharing those great presentations and also for translating them into english! I appreciate it so much!! thanks!
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Understanding Creative Processes

  1. 1. Innovation & Leadership 2011 (SFC/G-SEC) Understanding Creative Processes Takashi Iba Ph.D. in Media and GovernanceAssociate Professor, Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University, Japan http://twitter.com/takashiiba
  2. 2. Mass  Collabora%on Conceptual  AgeOpen  Collabora%on Crea%ve  Class Collabora%ve  Innova%on  Networks  (COINs) Coolhun%ng  &  Coolfarming Swarm  Crea%vity Collec%ve  Crea%vity Organiza%onal  Crea%vity Crea%ve  Collabora%on Design  Thinking Group  Genius Innova%on Group  Crea%vity
  3. 3. Creativity matters!
  4. 4. What is Creativity ?
  5. 5. What is Creativity ?• Can’t one call a process “creative” without the evaluation of novelty by others?• How can we formulate creative processes that contain much of contingency?• Are there any difference between individual and group creativity?
  6. 6. What is Creativity ? Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 6610–6625 6305–6625 COINs2009: Collaborative Innovation Networks Conference An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity Takashi Ibaab a MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, Cambridge MA, USA bFaculty of Policy Management, Keio University, JapanCreative Systems Theory A bstract In this paper, a new, non-psychological and non-sociological approach to understanding creativity is proposed. The approach is based on autopoietic system theory, where an autopoietic system is defined as a unity whose organization is defined by a particular network of production processes of elements. While the theory was originally proposed in biology and then applied to sociology, I have applied it to understand the nature of creation, and called it "Creative Systems Theory". A creative system is an autopoietic system whose element is "discovery", which emerges only when a synthesis of three selections has occurred: "idea", "association", and "consequence". With using these concepts, we open the way to understand creation itself separated from psychic and social aspects of creativity. On this basis, the coupling between creative, psychic, and social systems is discussed. I suggest, in this paper, the future of creativity studies, re-defining a discipline "Creatology" for inquiring creative systems and propose an interdisciplinary field as "Creative Sciences" for interdisciplinary connections among creatology, psychology, and so on. Keywords; creativity; systems theory; autopoiesis; pattern language 1 . I ntroduction In this paper, a new, non-psychological and non-sociological approach to understanding creativity is proposed. The approach is based on autopoietic system theory, where an autopoietic system is defined as a unity whose organization is defined by a particular network of production processes of elements. While the theory was originally proposed in biology and then applied to sociology, I have applied it to understand the nature of creation, and called it "Creative Systems Theory". A creative system is an autopoietic system whose element is "discovery", which emerges only when a synthesis of three selections has occurred: "idea", "association", and "consequence". With using these concepts, we open the way to understand creation itself separated from psychic and social aspects of creativity. On this basis, the coupling between creative, psychic, and social systems is discussed. I suggest, in this paper, the future of creativity studies, re-defining a discipline "Creatology" for inquiring creative systems and propose an interdisciplinary field as "Creative Sciences" for interdisciplinary connections among creatology, psychology, and so on. There are several reasons why study of creativity is pursued from so many angles today. First, against the backdrop of the shift from labor-intensive work to knowledge-intensive work, many people involved in business need to make full use of intelligence and creativity for obtaining 1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.04.071 Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  7. 7. Creative Systems Theory based on the autopoietic systems theoryA creative process is defined as an autopoietic system whoseelements are discoveries.Creative process is a (re-) production network of discoveries.Each discovery is emerged only when a synthesis of thefollowing three selection occurs: idea, association, and finding. Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  8. 8. Production Network of Discoveries in CreationEach discovery is produced based on previous discovery,associating the on-going creation.What is most important is successive production of discoveries.Discovery, in this context, does not imply it is novel, true, anduseful. Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  9. 9. Production Network of Discoveries in Creation• “They succeed by way of many small sparks, and by drawing on collaboration over time to build those sparks into something tremendous. Many of the idea turn out to be wildly off the mark, but it turns out many not-so-good ideas are needed on the way to that rare great idea.” (Sawyer 2007; p.105)• "Darwins notebook show that he reached many dead ends and produced a lot of ideas that scientists now consider weird.” (Sawyer 2007, p.106) Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  10. 10. Creative Systems Theory based on the autopoietic systems theoryA creative process is defined as an autopoietic system whoseelements are discoveries.Creative process is a (re-) production network of discoveries.Each discovery is emerged only when a synthesis of thefollowing three selection occurs: idea, association, and finding. Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  11. 11. “Creation” asCoupling of Creative, Psychic, and Social Systems Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  12. 12. Two Phases of Creative ThinkingDivergent Thinking Convergent Thinking
  13. 13. Brain Storming as a method for Divergent Thinkingproposed by Alex F. Osborn, thepresident of Advertising AgencyBBDO, 1939 Focus on quantity Withhold criticism Welcome unusual ideas Combine and improve ideas
  14. 14. Exercise: Brain Storming
  15. 15. Collaboration Skills Workshop2004 2008@Keio University
  16. 16. Collaboration Skills Workshop2004 2008@Keio University
  17. 17. Collaboration Skills Workshop2004 2008@Keio University
  18. 18. Collaboration Skills Workshop2004 2008@Keio University
  19. 19. Iba Lab.2004 @Keio University
  20. 20. Iba Lab.2004 @Keio University
  21. 21. Iba Lab. & Tama Lab.2004 @Keio University
  22. 22. Learning Patterns Project, Iba Lab.2008 2009@Keio University
  23. 23. Learning Patterns Project, Iba Lab.2008 2009@Keio University
  24. 24. Learning Patterns Project, Iba Lab.2008 2009@Keio University
  25. 25. Presentation Patterns Project, Iba Lab.2011@Keio University
  26. 26. Presentation Patterns Project, Iba Lab.2011@Keio University
  27. 27. Presentation Patterns Project, Iba Lab.2011@Keio University
  28. 28. Presentation Patterns Project, Iba Lab.2011@Keio University
  29. 29. Brain Storming as a method for Divergent Thinkingproposed by Alex F. Osborn, thepresident of Advertising AgencyBBDO, 1939 Focus on quantity Withhold criticism Welcome unusual ideas Combine and improve ideas
  30. 30. Creative Systems Theory based on the autopoietic systems theoryA creative process is defined as an autopoietic system whoseelements are discoveries.Creative process is a (re-) production network of discoveries.Each discovery is emerged only when a synthesis of thefollowing three selection occurs: idea, association, and finding. Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  31. 31. Production Network of Discoveries in CreationEach discovery is produced based on previous discovery,associating the on-going creation.What is most important is successive production of discoveries.Discovery, in this context, does not imply it is novel, true, anduseful. Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  32. 32. “Creation” asCoupling of Creative, Psychic, and Social Systems Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  33. 33. System Formation of an Autopoietic System(1) Element as Momentary Event(2) Boundary Reproduction of the System(3) Element Constitution based on the System Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  34. 34. Creation-Centered ViewpointWhat is most important is successive production of discoveries.It doesn’t matter where and how discoveries come from.• Maybe from deliberation, spark, or merely by accident.• Maybe by somebody alone or collaboration by more than one person. Both of human and source of ideas are located in the environment of the creative system! Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  35. 35. Creation-Centered Viewpoint
  36. 36. Emergence of Momentary ElementsDiscovery is emerged from a synthesis of following threeselections: idea, association, and finding.Discovery happens only when a finding is obtained as a result ofthat an idea is associated to on-going creation. self-reference alter-reference Iba, T. (2009) “An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity”, COINs2009.
  37. 37. Discovery MediaThere are intrinsically uncertainties for realization of discovery.• Association of idea.• Far-reaching finding from association of idea.• Success of the discoveryMedia is evolutionary achievements for overcoming theseuncertainties• Media for inspiration• Media for inference• Media for success
  38. 38. Coupling of Creative, Psychic, and Social Systems
  39. 39. ImplicationsThink and communicate for successive production of discoveries!Remember that ideas are always outside your creation!Design your media for promoting creative processes!
  40. 40. Innovation & Leadership 2011 (SFC/G-SEC) Understanding Creative Processes Takashi Iba Ph.D. in Media and GovernanceAssociate Professor, Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University, Japan http://twitter.com/takashiiba
  41. 41. 2011 11 12 3 4 DC Center for Doctor of Collective IntelligenceNPO ETIC. Philosophy in Economics and Education τ11

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