CHAPTER 16:IMPLICATIONS OF A SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVEFOR THE STUDY OF CREATIVITY Mihaly CsikszentmihalyiHandbook of Creativity: edited by Robert J. SternbergSamantha RuganiCatherine CacherisAVD 6383 Creativity as Problem Solving
BIOGRAPHY: MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI Professor of Psychology at Claremont Graduate University Director: Quality of Life Research Center Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1965 B.A., University of Chicago, 1960Image 1 Interests:Creativity and Innovation, Managing Flow Current Research Interests:Director of the Quality of Life Research Center (QLRC). A non-profitresearch institute that studies "positive psychology“: Human strengths suchas optimism, creativity, intrinsic motivation, and responsibility. Image 2 Biographical information source: www.cgu.edu Image: 1) http://educononline.com/tag/mihaly-csikszentmihalyi/ 2) http://www.cgu.edu/pages/1871.asp
OUTLINE OF MAJOR TOPIC AREAS: Introduction to the Systems Model Why is the systems approach necessary / important? Structure of the Systems Model Culture Culture as a set of domains Role of the domain in the creative process Society How society is relevant to creativity Role of the field within the Systems Model Personal Background The role of individuals in the creative process Concluding Thoughts
INTRODUCTION: WHY IS THE SYSTEMS APPROACH NECESSARY? External Variables: “…variables external to the individual must be taken into account if one wishes to explain why, when, and where new ideas or products arise from and become established in a culture” (Sternberg 313). The Systems Model has been developed in order to account for external variables: - The importance of public recognition- Social judgments as central to creativity
SYSTEMS MODEL OF CREATIVITY: Source: http://www.cultural-science.org/journal/index.php/culturalscience/article/view/11/48“Creativity is a process that can be observed only at the intersection where individuals, domains, and fields interact” (Sternberg, 314).
CULTURE :Cultures differ in the way that memes are storedAccessibilityDifferentiation: Number of Separate DomainsIntegration of the cultureOpenness
CULTURE : Domain System of notation Tightly integrated information versus too loosely organized Centrality of domain to culture (religion in the middle ages) Accessibility (innovation is more difficult in elite domains) How autonomous is the domain from the rest of the culture?(More difficult to produce variations in a subordinate domain)
SOCIETY: A new meme must be socially valued: - Importance of the reaction of society on creativity. - Example: Van Gogh Social conditions that influence creativity: - wealth, interests, external threats, location Role of the Field: - Questions who had the right to decide whether a particular meme should be implemented into society - In the systems model, these people are collectively designated to the field -Example: New CokeSource: http://www.arttoheartweb.com/starry_night.htm
INDIVIDUAL/PERSONAL BACKGROUND: Special Talents-Genetic Inheritance Curious/Interested/Intrinsically Motivated Divergent thinker interested in discovery-Necessary cognitive abilities (for producing novelty) Relevant personality traits-Vary depending on field and historical period-perseveranceopenness
CONCLUSION / INTERNALIZING THE CREATIVESYSTEM: One must internalize the rules of the systems model One must be confident in ideas Creativity must be recognized as it operates within a social system-must be supported by society“Instead of focusing exclusively on individuals, it will make more sense to focus on communities that may or may not nurture genius. In the lastanalysis, it is the community and not the individual who makes creativitymanifest” (Sternberg, 333).
Connection:Whats Behind Viral Success? GreatMeme Marketing “Memes are the ideas, symbols or practices that naturally spread throughout a culture. These thoughts are the things that just seem to "catch on," whether its coffee houses… or tight-rolling your jeans back in the 80s. The concept of measuring these "units of thought" is nothing new… the new opportunity marketers have now is to apply this study of memes (or, memetics) to how they create messages for their clients.” http://adage.com/digitalnext/article?article_id=139609
Memes: Social Media is the new flintblade “I can take a video clip and replicate the entire viewing experience on my blog or Facebook or MySpace. And in doing so, Ive validated that meme, because the people watching it on my blog know ME. If they want to pass on the meme in the same way, all they have to do is copy- paste. Simply put, great memes are easy for consumers to reproduce.” -Eric Swayne, What’s Behind Viral Success? Great Meme Marketing
“ What’s the most resilient parasite? An Idea. A single ideafrom the human mind can build cities. An idea can transformthe world and rewrite all the rules. Which is why I have tosteal it.”-Cobb, Inception
CONNECTION 2:ADVERTISING Tropicana Discovers Some Buyers Are Passionate About Packaging New York Times, February 2009 New York Times, February 2009 Adage, April 2009 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/23/business/media/23adcol.html?pagewanted=all http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJ4yF4F74vc
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:1. Do you think that any one of the three parts of the systems model is more important to the creativityprocess than others?2. Can you think of ways in which the ideals of the systems model could negatively influencecreativity? More specifically, how can the three areas of culture, society, and personal backgroundhave a negative impact on creativity?3. What are, if any, the flaws of the systems model?4. What are some examples of domains within our culture today that are particularly attractive and thus may result / have resulted in creative expansion?5. How do you think the systems model study of creativity compares to the psychological study ofcreativity? Do you think the two should be examined separately or in conjunction with each other?
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:6. Csikszentmihalyi states that “Original thought does not exist in a vacuum. It must operate on a set ofalready existing objects, rules, representation, or notions (315). If this is true, then how do we know ifsomething is original and can be defined as creative if it is always based on something from the past?7. What is the relationship between a culture and a domain? How does this relationship play out in thesystems model?8. Society today has an extremely large influence on the success or failure of a product. With newtechnological advances such as social media, it has become increasing easier for the public toexpress their opinions. Do you think that social media is changing the role that both society and cultureplay in the systems model and how is this influence affecting the success of products?9. What is an example of a meme that is used in today’s society? How can this meme contribute to othercreative innovations?10. What are some of the ways that US culture affects creativity both positively and negatively? http://prezi.com/jcyppt0lrir5/discussion-questions/