Security Issues And Attacks inMobile Ad hoc Network
1. Objective2. Motivation3. Introduction To MANET4. Flooding attack and its types5. DSR Routing protocol6. Literature survey7. Proposed Technique8. About Simulator (NS-2)9. Results and analysis10. Conclusion11. Future Work
The general objectives can be outlined as follows: Get a general understanding of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Literature survey of various intrusion detection systems for MANET. Analysis of effect of node Mobility Speed and Pause time. Analysis of RREQ flooding Attack in MANET. Simulation and Analysis of our flooding attack prevention algorithm for the networks with higher node mobility.
Mobile ad hoc networksare the autonomouscollection devicesconnected in a peer-to-peer and multi-hopfashion without the useof central base stationsor access points.
Each node have communication capabilities. Nodes can communicate directly with each other if they falls in the radio coverage range of each other otherwise use the concept of multi hop. Each node behaves like station and Router. All the nodes participate in the routing and the performance depend upon the cooperation between the nodes. MANET are useful where infrastructure is absent or installation is not possible.
Characteristics of MANET Operating without any central coordinator/base station. Dynamic topology. Energy-constrained operation Longer transmission range due to multi-hop relay. Self-configuring. Constraint Bandwidth. Distributed Operation
The following are the advantages of MANETs: Rapid deployable. Self Configurable. Mobility. Does not requires any infrastructure to work. Cost Effective. Less time consuming. More robust than cellular system.
Security problems in MANET Open Media Routing Protocol Does not have any security mechanism Continuous changing topology. Unavailability of central coordinator Requires cooperation between the devices
Attacks in MANET can be classified as Passive Attack Active Attacks.
Attacker snoops the data exchanged in the network without altering it. This attack target the confidentiality attribute of the system. Passive attack is very difficult to detect because the operation of the network is not affected by this type attack. Passive attacks are generally used to gather the information about the network or know the communication pattern between the communicating parties. This attack is easy to launch and it may lead to active attack.
Attacker attempts to modify or alter the data being exchanged in the network. It may disrupts the normal functioning of the network. In active attack the intruders can modify the packets, inject the packets, drops the packet, or it can use the various feature of the network to launch the attack. Active attacks are very dangerous.
ATTACKS IN MANET (Classification-II)Attacks in MANET can also be classified as External Attack: Carried out by nodes that do not belong to the domain of the network. Internal Attack: Internal attacks are from compromised nodes, which are actually part of the network.
• A Black-hole is a malicious node that falsely replies for route requests without having an active route to the destination and exploits the Routing Protocol to advertise itself as having a shortest route to destination.• By advertizing the shortest route ,source station starts sending data through the black hole node and it become the active element in the route.
• In this Attack, an attacker records packets at one location in the network and tunnels them to another location.• This tunnel between two colluding attackers is referred as a wormhole .• Routing can be disrupted when routing control messages are tunnelled.• when a wormhole attack is used against an on-demand routing protocol the attack could prevent the discovery of any routes other than through the wormhole.
Byzantine Attack• A compromised intermediate node works alone, or a set of compromised intermediate nodes works in collusion and carry out attacks.• These attacker node creates routing loops, forwarding packets through non-optimal paths or selectively dropping packets, which results in disruption or degradation of the routing services
Sleep Deprivation It is also called as resource consumption attack An attacker or a compromised node can attempt to consume battery life by requesting excessive route discovery, or by forwarding unnecessary packets to the victim node.
Location Disclosure An attacker reveals information regarding the location of nodes or the structure of the network. It gathers the node location information, such as a route map, and then plans further attack scenarios. Adversaries try to figure out the identities of communication parties and analyze traffic to learn the network traffic pattern the traffic pattern. The leakage of such information is devastating in security sensitive scenarios.
Eavesdropping The main goal of eavesdropping is to obtain some confidential information that should be kept secret during the communication. This confidential information may include the location, public key, private key or even passwords of the nodes.
Flooding Attack can belaunched by flooding thenetwork with fakeRREQs or data packetsleading to thecongestion of thenetwork and reduces theprobability of datatransmission of thegenuine nodes.
Depending upon the types of packet used to flood thenetwork, flooding attack is classified in two categories: RREQ FLOODING DATA FLOODING
In the RREQ flooding attack, the attacker broadcast the many RREQ packets for the IP which does not exists in the network. To perform RREQ flooding ,Intruders disable the RREQ_ratelimit parameter.Effects:1.Consumes network bandwidth2.consumes nodes battery power3.Legitimated user can not able to use the network for valid communication.
In the data flooding, data packets are used to flood the network.In this, first malicious node built a path to all the nodes then sendsthe large amount of bogus data packets. These useless datapacket exhausts the network resources.Effects:1.Hard to detect2. Can be detected by the application layer of the receiver.3. Exhausts the network resources.
Security Mechanism Preventive Mechanism: Conventional authentication and encryption schemes are based on cryptography Cryptography Hash functions Digital signature Reactive Mechanism:An intrusion detection system is used as a second line of defence Anomaly based IDS Signature based IDS
Due to the mobility and open media nature ,the mobile ad hoc networks are more prone to security threats compared to the wired network. Therefore security needs are higher in mobile ad hoc networks compared to the traditional networks There is a need of comprehensive security solution which can deal with attack the types of attacks
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