Case Study Based Software Engineering Project Development: State of Art


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Publised in International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management Studies (IJSRCSAMS), Volume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013).

Step by Step Development of Software Project
An approach to learn Software Project Management Practically.
SDLC phases of Software Engineering

Project Completed at Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab, India.

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Case Study Based Software Engineering Project Development: State of Art

  1. 1. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.comCase Study Based Software Engineering ProjectDevelopment: State of ArtSukhpal Singh#1, Harinder Singh*2#1,*2Computer Science and Engineering Department, Thapar University, Patiala,— This research paper designates the importance andusage of the “case study” approach effectively to educating andtraining software designers and software engineers both inacademic and industry. Subsequently an account of the use ofcase studies based on software engineering in the education ofprofessionals, there is a conversation of issues in trainingsoftware designers and how a case teaching method can be usedto state these issues. The paper describes a software project titledOnline Tower Plotting System (OTPS) to develop a complete andcomprehensive case study, along with supporting educationalmaterial. The case study is aimed to demonstrate a variety ofsoftware areas, modules and courses: from bachelor throughmasters, doctorates and even for ongoing professionaldevelopment.Keywords— Software Engineering, Case Study, SoftwareProject Management, Software Designer, Software EngineerI. INTRODUCTIONCase study technique was first presented into social scienceby Frederic Le Play in 1829 as a handmaiden to indicators inhis studies of family financial plan [1]. Case studies arestudies of persons, actions, choices, stages, projects, strategiesand organizations are considered holistically by one or moreapproaches [2]. The situation that is the subject of the reviewwill be an instance of a class of occurrences that offers asystematic structure; an object, within which the revision isconducted and which the incident irradiates and elucidates [3].It is a research approach, an experimental analysis thatscrutinizes an occurrence within its real life perspective [4].Case study research can mean single and various case studiescan contain measureable substantiation, trusts on severalsources of substantiation, and paybacks from the previousdevelopment of hypothetical propositions [5]. Case studiesmust not be chaotic with qualitative research and they can bebased on any mix of reckonable and qualitative proof [6].Software engineering (SE) is the application of amethodical, well-organized, countable method to the strategy,development, procedure, and maintenance of software, and therevision of these methods; that is, the application ofengineering to software [7]. The usually acknowledgedthoughts of SE as an engineering discipline have beenidentified in the guide to the Software Engineering Body ofKnowledge (SWEBOK) [8]. The SWEBOK has become aworldwide recognized standard ISO/IEC TR 197 59:2005.Case studies and illustrations support you recognize realsystems and demonstrate some of the applied complications ofSE [9]. A Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) isfundamentally a sequence of phases that offer a model for thedevelopment and lifecycle management of software [10]. Theprocedure within the SDLC process can fluctuate throughindustries and administrations, but standards such as ISO/IEC12207 signify processes that inaugurate a lifecycle forsoftware, and provide an approach for the development,acquirement, and configuration of software systems [11].SDLC in SE, information systems and SE is a process ofgenerating or modifying information systems, and the modelsand approaches that people use to develop these systems [12].In SE, the SDLC model reinforces various types of softwaredevelopment practices [13]. These policies form theframework for forecasting and monitoring the establishmentof an information system i.e. the software developmentprocess [14].Software Project Management (SPM) is the talent andscience of development and leading software projects [15]. Itis a sub-discipline of project management in which softwareprojects are intended, realized, supervised and organized [16].The rest of the paper is structured as follows. Case Studybased Project Development has been presented in Section 2.In Section 3, a description of the Problem Identification hasbeen presented. Project Charter has been presented in Section4. Section 5 describes the Scope Management. Section 6presents the Time Management. Cost Management has beenpresented in Section 7. In Section 8, Quality Management hasbeen presented. Communication Management has beenpresented in Section 9. Section 10 describes the RiskManagement. Conclusions and the future works have beenpresented in Section 11.II. CASE STUDY BASED PROJECT DEVELOPMENTCase studies were first used in the Harvard Law School in1871 [4]. Meanwhile then, case studies have been a subject ofmuch study and research about their usefulness in teachingand learning [5]. They have become a supported andubiquitous way of teaching about professional training in suchfields as commercial, law, and medicine. In its most simpleform, it merely denotes to a genuine illustration used todemonstrate a thought. More formerly, and for the dedicationsof the Case Study Task, a case study encompasses theapplication of understanding and abilities, by an individualorgroup, to the identification and answer of a problem relatedwith a realistic situation. Such a case study would comprise an
  2. 2. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.comaccount of a practical activity, occurrence, or circumstances. Itmight be supported with background material (setting,qualities, series of actions, and difficulties and clashes),objects, and data, which is related to the situation portrayed.Case studies are intended to inspire contribution, discussionand understanding. Though they can be used in an informative,teacher-cantered pedagogics, they are most often used in adynamic learning, student-cantered system where theinstructor acts as an originator or instructor. Case studies areof distinctive value in problem-based learning, which focuseson the development of problem-solving skills, self-directedlearning abilities, and team skills [6]. In our project, werealize a case study as a means to pretend ―evolutionaryapproach‖ and to expose students to the disorder andunrestrained nature of real-life issues.A. Purpose of Case StudyThis research paper delivers an explanation of a currentsoftware engineering project in the Computer Science andEngineering Department at Thapar University, Patiala, India.Unceremoniously it is called the ―Case Study Mission‖. Theproject team includes of an Associate Professor of softwareengineering and two graduate students in the Master ofSoftware Engineering program. The preliminary stage of theproject, described in this paper, lasted for six months, in 2011.The Case Study project has the same determination, with thefollowing more specific goals: Create software development items, which offer a―practical‖ foundation for teaching SE. Design and consolidate the real-world softwaredevelopment objects into a set of case modules (minicase studies), which can be used during a computingprogram. Deliver SE resource materials, which can be adapted toseveral teaching and learning styles and methods. Involve software engineering gurus in the valuation, use,and development of the case study materials.The shorter term project objective was to create anagendafor support of a full case study, which wouldinclude thefollowing activities: Establish the project, process and planning procedures. Conduct research into case study lessons. Determine a problem area and select an application inthat area, which would be the subject of the case study. Create a basis situation for the case study application(e.g., explanation of real-life circumstances that foundsthe need for the case application, presents people whowill be part of the case study, and presents conditionsthat will restrain and guide the applicationdevelopment).B. Problems in SE Project DevelopmentTeaching SE in a bachelor and masters program has twomain obstacles: SE is a fresh and evolving discipline. It is not so faradvanced and some even query whether it isengineering. This partially describes the shortage ofmaterial to support teaching SE. The ACM/IEEECSRecommendations on SE Teaching [17] should supportadvance and sustenance not only the teaching of SE, butthe development of critical support materials (e.g.,workbooks and web resources). SE is a proficient field and scholars need more thancourses in basics and theory; they want to do study aboutand experience professional practice. One of theprospectus strategies in [17] states that ―The prospectusshould have an important real-life foundation‖. Anotherguideline states ―SE theories, philosophies, and issuesmust be accomplished as recurring refrains during theprospectus to help scholars develop a SE mentality‖. Thequestion is how to superlative provide this ―real-life‖experience and explain ―recurring themes‖ that developa ―SE mentality‖.C. Case Study SolutionThe Case Study Project (OTPS) focuses on developing casemodules, which are associated by being part of and derivedfrom a single case, the development of a single softwareproduct. Each case module relates to a movement involved inthe development of the product. In addition, each casecomponent is outlined as part of a product developmentdescription, using a scenario format, which involvescharacters and occurrences that might be part of a real SPM(e.g., creation of a software project team, communication withupper management, customer and customer meetings,Creation of Problem Identification, Project Charter, ScopeManagement, Time Management, Cost Management, QualityManagement, Communication Management, RiskManagement., etc.). Though the case study materials focus onone domain area and one development method (process andpractice), it can also assist as an illustration of how to developrelated case studies, using other domain areas and otherdevelopment methods. A case module could be considered a―mini-case study‖.The Case Study Project is intended to cover the completeSDLC (project management, requirement analysis andspecification, design, implementation, testing andmaintenance). For the preliminary phase of the case studyproject it was decided to focus on constructing a basis forcomplete development: research into case study teaching;recognize a case study problem; describe a launch of thesoftware development team; develop a software developmentplan to be used as part of the case study; and developnumerous related case components.D. Case Study Elements
  3. 3. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.comThe long-term plan is to write approach, develop OTPSartifacts, and create processes, data and reports that pretend allof the development team’s work on the OTPS project. Thusfar, three phases (Project Inception, Project Launch, andPlanning) have been accomplished. In these phases thefollowing OTPS case study documents were developed:Approaches Inception Approach Team Real Drafts Launch Approach Planning ApproachOTPS Artifacts Project Charter Scope Statement Software Requirement Specification Data Flow Diagram Data Dictionary UML Diagrams Work Breakdown Structure Time Management Cost Management Quality Policy Quality Management Plan Quality Review Test Plan Test Case Test Result Control Flow Graph Linearly Independent Path Audit Report Communication Management Plan Stakeholder communication Analysis Risk Management PlanIII. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATIONThe project team considered and studied a number ofpossibilities for the case study problem: a computer game, airtraffic control software, an academic planner, a matheducation application, an immune system simulation, aweather reporting system, and the software system for―Plotting towers‖. After consultation with colleagues teachingsoftware engineering at other schools and interactions withundergraduate and graduate software engineering scholars, theteam decided that the best candidate for the case study was amap generator. For the purposes of the Case Study project, aSmart Map is defined as an OTPS that allows plotting towerson the defined map. After some additional research onGraphical Information System (GIS) technology, including adiscussion with a Reliance Telecom, the team settled ondevelopment of a software system that would support a smarttower plotting system called OTPS. This Project will bedesign for the Telecom Company. It helps in plotting thetower images on Satellite Map. Site engineer can selectparticular shape and colour of the mark that will reflect theposition of a particular tower on the satellite map. It holds theinformation about all the towers of operators in various sitelocations which control different MSCs in company andgetting tower information by clicking on the image. In this wecan create, delete and update the tower information. Thissoftware system helps in calculating the distance between twotowers in a particular MSC. The search option will be therefor searching a particular tower by name, site identity number,latitude and longitude. For adding information about aparticular site, the Site engineer can upload the file in a formatsupported by the software, which is the indirect mean ofadding information regarding new sites/towers into thedatabase. For security reasons this project provides usernamesand passwords to control the information. Also a site engineercan create new login ids for his/her subordinates (like traineeetc.) who can also manage the sites in concurrently. The usercan move to any location by dragging the mouse over theSatellite map window and user can also zoom in and zoom outby using zoom slider.IV.PROJECT CHARTERProject Charter is a statement of the scope, purposes andcontestants in a project. It deliversaninitialexplanation ofcharacters and accountabilities, frameworks the project aims,identifies the keyparticipants, and describes the power of theproject manager. It works as a reference of power for thefuture of the project.A. Project Charter Attributes Project Title: Online Tower Plotting System. Project Start Date: 2 August, 2011 Project Finish Date: 10 November, 2011 Budget Information: An initial estimate provides atotal 18 hours per week including lab work. Project Manager: Dr. Inderveer Chana, AssociateProfessor (CSED, Thapar University, Patiala).B. Project ObjectivesDevelop an automated OTPS for Telecom Company helpssite engineer to manage the information about towers, sitesand users effectively. OTPS manages the various types ofnetworks like GSM and CDMA. The different mobileswitching controls are allocating to different site engineers tomaintain the whole database. OTPS is replacing the existing inwhich information is managing manually.C. Software Development Approach Develop a survey in various telecom companies todetermine the important features of OTPS. Review the documents of other similar systems relatingto the OTPS.
  4. 4. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) Develop online tower plotting system using RapidApplication Development. Collecting the whole information about the towers andsites from Telecom Company.D. Software Development TeamThe Roles and Responsibilities of OTPS are shown inTable 1.TABLE IROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIESName Role Position Contact InformationDr.InderveerChanaSupervisorandInstructorProjectManager inderveer@thapar.eduHarinderSinghTeammemberDeveloper singh.harinder@outlook.comSukhpalSinghTeammemberDeveloper SCOPE MANAGEMENTScope management is significant for operational projectmanagement. Projects are anticipated to fulfilstringentgoalswith resource restraints, and an unvented and unapprovedchange in the scope can affect the success of the project.Scope sometimes causes cost overrun.A. Scope StatementScope statements may take many forms depending on thetype of project being implemented and the nature of theassociation. The scope statement specifics the projectdeliverables and designates the chiefintentions. The intentionsshould comprisequantifiable success standards for the project. Project Justification: An automated global positionalsystem: OTPS for mobile operator company helps siteengineer to manage the information about towers, sitesand users effectively. It facilitates the job of siteengineer by automatically placing towers graphically.OTPS manages the various types of networks like GSMand CDMA. It reduces the workload of site engineers,no need to maintain the data registers manually. Thedifferent mobile switching controls are allocating todifferent site engineers to maintain the whole database.It needs just one time efforts while developing thecomplete product, after that site engineer can maintainand perform number of functions on it. Product Characteristics and Requirements: It includesmain features of OTPS: Graphical user interface, Links,Security, Plot tower images, Signup, Search feature,Operations (view, update, delete and add new tower)Calculate distance, Uploading data input, Availability,Zooming. Detail of project deliverables: Project managementrelated deliverables: Project charter, scope statement,SRS, WBS, Cost baseline, final project report and anyother documents required to manage the project.B. Software Requirement Specification1) Introduction Purpose: This document is intended for customersfrom various Telecom Companies for which thissoftware product is being developed, Siteengineers of the company, developers, marketingmanagers, software testers, software architect.This document specifies various functional aswell as non-functional requirements in detail andit describe which functional/non-functionalrequirement are satisfied by which feature of thesoftware. Document Conventions: OTPS - Online TowerPlotting System etc. Intended Audience and Reading Suggestions OTPS Scope References2) Overall Description OTPS Perspective OTPS Features User Classes and Characteristics Operating Environment Design and Implementation Constraints User Documentation Assumptions and Dependencies3) System Features Search Tower Definition Distance Calculation File Upload4) External Interface Requirements User Interfaces Hardware Interfaces Software Interfaces Communications Interfaces5) Other Nonfunctional Requirements Performance Requirements Safety Requirements Security Requirements Software Quality Attributes6) Other RequirementsC. Data Flow DiagramA data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical demonstration ofthe "flow" of data through an information system, modellingits process features. Frequently they are a primary step used tocreate an outline of the OTPS which can later be expanded.The 0 level or context flow diagram of OTPS is shown inFigure 1. This context-level DFD is next "detonated", to yield
  5. 5. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.coma Level 1 DFD that shows some of the detail of the OTPSbeing modelled.Fig.10 Level or Context Level DFDThe Level 1 DFD shows how the Online OTPS isdistributed into sub-systems (processes), each of which dealswith one or more of the data flows to or from an externalagent, and which together offer all of the functionality of theOTPS as a whole. It also recognizes internal data stores thatmust be existent in order for the OTPS to ensure its work, anddisplays the flow of data among the many parts of theOTPS.The internal data stores in OTPS are user database andsite database. User database manage all the information ofexisting users while site database mange the tower and siteinformation. The 1 Level DFD is shown in Figure 2.Fig. 2 1stLevel DFDThe 2 Level DFD is shown in Figure 3. In this Figure userLogin, Signup, Logoff functions are explained and flow ofdata from one process is explained in 2 Level DFD.Fig. 3 2ndLevel DFDD. Data DictionaryA data dictionary, or metadata warehouse, is acompacteddepository of information about data such asdenotation, relationships to other data, origin, usage, andformat.The data dictionary (Databases) of OTPS is describedin Table II.TABLE IIDATA DICTIONARYData storenameDescription Inbounddata flowOutbound dataflowUserDatabaseAll the informationof site engineer arestored in the userdatabase, when thesite engineer loginthen in comparethe user detail withdata store in userdatabase.Login/SignupLogin/logout/signupSitedatabaseAll the informationof all the sites isstored in the sitedatabase in anappropriate form.Search,Alter/viewsite info,Uploadfile,Calc_distSearch,Alter/viewsite info,Calc_disE. UML DiagramsUML (Unified Modelling Language) is a graphicallanguage for envisaging, specifying, creating anddocumenting the artifacts of OTPS. The UML gives astandard way to write an OTPS’s blueprint, coveringconceptual things, such as business processes and OTPSfunctions as well as such as classes written in a particularProgramming Language, databases schema and reusablesoftware components. In the design of OTPS, we have
  6. 6. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.comdeveloped eight UML diagrams: Use case diagram, Classdiagram, Activity diagram, Sequence diagram, Collaborationdiagram, State chart diagram, Component diagram andDeployment diagram.1) Use Case Diagram: The use case diagram is essentialmodelling the behaviour of the OTPS, subsystem or classes.The interaction among use cases and actors is described in thisdiagram. The use case diagram of OTPS is shown in Figure 4.Fig. 4 Use Case Diagram of OTPS2) Class Diagram:A class diagram shows a collection ofclasses, interfaces,associations and their interactions. Theclass diagram of OTPS (Login) is shown in Figure 5.1 has 1….*1…*assigned by created by1Fig. 5 Class Diagram of OTPS3) Activity Diagram:Activity diagrams are graphicalrepresentations of workflows of stepwise activities and actionswith sustenance for selection, repetition and concurrency.Activity diagrams show the overall flow of control.Theactivity diagram of OTPS is shown in Figure 6.4) Sequence Diagram: A sequence diagram is a kind ofinteraction diagram that shows how processes operate withone another and in whateverdirection. A sequence diagramdisplaysitemcollaborationsorganized in time order. Itrepresents the objects and classes used in the scenario and thesequence of messages exchanged between the objects neededto carry out the functionality of the scenario. The sequencediagram of OTPS (Login) is shown in Figure 7.+ Site Engineerusername:String password:stringId:Integermsc:Integerlogin() cla_dis()search_site()upload_file()tower_updat() exit()+ Login Accountusername: stringpassword: string msc:string network: stringcompare_user_detail()retrieve_info()+ AreaMSC: Integer RcsNo.: Integer BSC:Integer Fac no.:IntegerDisplay()
  7. 7. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.comFig. 6 Activity Diagram of OTPSFig. 7 Sequence Diagram of OTPS5) Collaboration Diagram:Collaboration diagrams representa combination of information engaged from Class, Sequence,and Use Case Diagrams defining both the static structure anddynamic behaviour of anOTPS.The collaboration diagram ofOTPS (Login) is shown in Figure 8.Fig. 8 Collaboration Diagram of OTPS6) State Chart Diagram:State cart diagrams need that theOTPSdesignated is composed of a predictable number ofstates; occasionally, this is certainly the case, whereas at othertimes this is a realistic abstraction. The state chart diagram ofOTPS is shown in Figure 9. There are three things that arerequired by every state for its transition: 1) Function 2)Condition and 3) Action. States in state chart diagramsrepresent a set of those value groupings, in which an objectperforms the similar in comeback to actions. This diagram
  8. 8. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.commodels the dynamic flow of control from state to state withinan OTPS.Fig. 9 State Chart Diagram of OTPSThe detailed description of state ―Defining Tower‖ isdescribed in Figure 10 as a separate state.Fig. 10Defining Tower State7) Component Diagram:Component diagram depicts howcomponents are wired together to form larger components andor software systems.Components are held together by using anassembly connector to connect the required interface of onecomponent with the provided interface of anothercomponent.The component diagram of OTPS is shown inFigure 11.Fig. 11 Component Diagram of OTPSModelling Executable and Libraries associated with theabove Components are described in Figure 12.Fig. 12 Modelling of Executables and Libraries8) Deployment Diagram:Deployment diagram models thephysical deployment of artifacts on nodes.The componentdiagram of OTPS is shown in Figure 13.
  9. 9. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.comFig. 13 Deployment Diagram of OTPSA deployment diagram would demonstratewhateverhardware components (nodes) are, what software components(artifacts) run on each node (Web server, database server andweb browser), and how the different pieces are connected.F. Work Breakdown StructureA work breakdown structure (WBS), in projectmanagement and systems engineering, is a deliverablebasedbreakdown of a project into minor components. Itdescribes and clusters a projects isolated work elements in away that helps organize and define the total work scope of theproject. The phase based WBS is shown in Figure 14, itexplains all the phases of SDLC.Fig. 14 Phase Based WBSBased on the features delivered in the OTPS, the productbased WBS is shown in Figure 15.Fig. 15 Product Based WBSVI. TIME MANAGEMENT.The objective of time management is how to manage timeand why managing time is important. The time taken by everyactivity is measured by network diagram.A. Network DiagramNetwork diagram are the preferred technique for showingactivity sequencing. A network diagram is a semantic displayof logical relationships among sequencing of project activities.The network diagram of OTPS is shown in Figure 16.Fig. 16 Network Diagram of OTPSVII. COST MANAGEMENTA. Project Cost BaselineThe project cost baseline is the foundation for the earnedvalue recordingscheme. It is the financial plan for theprojectedbudget of the project spread over the time periods ofthe project.The project cost standard is the portion of theproject concerned with the quantity of money that the projectis forecast to charge and when that cash will be used. Thethree standards are thoroughlylinked, and variations to one ofthem will result in changes to the others. If a modification ismade in the project scope baseline, either by adding oreliminatingcertain of the effort that is mandatory, thetimetable baseline and the cost baseline will probably have tobe altered as well. The project cost baseline of OTPS is shownin Table III.TABLE IIIPROJECT COST BASELINETask ResourcesEffortEstimates(Days)Rate Total(Rs.)RequirementGathering 1300/-Travelling Transportation 2 200/
  10. 10. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) 300/-DataCollectionSupportingOrganization 1 100/-100/-Learning andTrainingProfessionalSECommunity10 25/- 250/-Documentation ComputerResources5 60/- 300/-Lab Work 1210/-Using Tools Software tools 10 45/-CodingProgrammingEnvironment 13 20/-Using SupportSoftware Internet 3 50/-Networking andcommunication Hardware 7 50/-Total 3160/-B. Resource Allocation MatrixThe resource allocation matrix structure has become theprimary organizational means for maintaining an efficientflow of resources in multi-project environments. The resourceallocation matrix used for OTPS is shown in Table IV.TABLE IVRESOURCE ALLOCATION MATRIXActivitiesResourcesC PP PD D T RInternet √ √Computer √ √ √ √Software √ √ √ √Hardware √ √ √ √Electricity √ √ √ √Transportation √ √Human √ √ √ √ √ √SupportingOrganization√ √Data Source √ √Financial √ √ √ √ √ √The abbreviations used in resource allocation matrix are C:Concept, PP: Project Pan, PD: Project Design, D:Development, T: Testing, R: Rollout. Vertical rows denoteresources and horizontal columns denote resources.VIII. QUALITY MANAGEMENTThe aim of Quality Management (QM) is to manage thequality of software and of its development process. A qualityproduct is one which meets its requirements and satisfies theuser. A quality culture is an organizational environment wherequality is viewed as everyone’s responsibility.A. Quality PolicyWe are committed to develop a high quality, technical andengineered software product, which is efficiently adoptable bydifferent multinational organizations whosoever, works in thetelecom operator domain. This software is used by the siteengineer of telecom operator organization and providestechnical support to the engineer and assists him/her infacilitating their work, which was quite tedious to be managedmanually. Thus it provide support to their job such that theycan efficiently, precisely and confidently configure andmanage their respective sites and have a confidence theiruseful and important information is secure and nobody asintruder can exploit and corrupt the confidential information.We have followed ISO-9126 standard practices for thedevelopment of this software system for quality aspect. Wefollow Rapid Application Development (RAD) softwareprocess model because of stringent time deadlines and wehave fixed the project scope early before the start of theproject.B. Quality Management PlanA Quality Management Plan documents how an associationwill design, implement, and evaluate the usefulness of itsquality assurance and quality control processes. Precisely, itpronounces how an organization constructions its qualitysystem, the quality policies and procedures, regions ofapplication, and characters, accountabilities, and specialists. Product Introduction: This OTPS will be design for theMobile Operator Company. It helps in automatic plottingof tower on Satellite Map. It holds the information aboutall the towers using in this company and getting towerinformation by clicking on the image. In this we cancreate, delete and update the tower information. Thisproject helps to calculate the distance between two towersetc. Product Plan: The OTPS is of GPS domain softwaresystem, it is helpful in replacing the system in which wecollecting the whole information regarding towers oftelecom company in a particular site location with a fully
  11. 11. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.comautomated system in which we can do all these activitieson online map, we convert manual tower searchingsystem in registers to a fully automated system. Thissoftware system is intended for different telecom ormobile operator companies. Process Descriptions: The software team selects a processfor the work to be performed. The project manager mustdecide which process model is most appropriate based onthe customers who have requested the product and thepeople who will organize the work, the features of theproduct itself, and the project situation in which thesoftware group works. Quality Goals: This system is adaptability any filecontaining information of site details can be inserted tothe database. It’s availability is high, it depends only onthe maximum number of internet users allowed, it’scorrectness is high, system provides the exactidentification of the found tower on the graphical map byshowing it in a particular colour and shape which is set byuser before doing a search. It also has some more qualityattributes like reliability, reusability, testability, flexibility,security and usability. Risks and Risk Management: It is necessary to anticipateand identify different risks that a project may besusceptible to, so contingency plans can be prepared tocontain the effects of each risk. Risk management aims atreducing the impact of all kinds of risks that might affecta project. It needs to anticipate the risks in the project asearly as possible so that the impact of risks can beminimized by making effective risk management plans.C. Quality ReviewA process or meeting during which a software product isexamined by project workforces, administrators, consumers,customers, user senates, or other interested parties forcomment or approval. Different type of quality reviews aredescribed in Table V.TABLE VQUALITY REVIEWName PurposeSRSReviewA review of the Software RequirementsSpecification of OTPS is conducted by both thesoftware developer and the Site engineer. Becausethe specification forms the foundation of theexpansion phase, great care should be taken indirecting the assessment.PeerReviewPeer review is performed for all the documents andcode of all the modules or functionalities of OTPSby the respective authors and developersrespectively during different software developmentactivities. It is done to provide a disciplinedengineering practice for detecting and correctingthe defects in software artifacts.FormalTechnicalFTR is a software quality assurance activityperformed by software engineers. The objectives ofthe formal technical review are to uncover faults infunction, logic, or execution for any demonstrationof the software, to authenticate that the softwareReview(FTR)under analysis meets its requirements, to ensurethat the OTPS has been represented according topredefined standards, to achieve OTPS that isdeveloped in aidenticalfashion, to make projectsmore controllable.GroupReviewThe SQA group appraisals the process explanationfor acquiescence with organizational strategy,internal software criterions,superficiallycompulsory standards (ISO-9001), andother parts of the software project plan. The SQAgroup reviews selected work products: recognizes,documents, and tracks nonconformities;authenticates that improvements have been made;and occasionally reports the results of its work tothe project manager.SoftwareReviewAnalyses software engineering events to verifyobedience with the well-defined software process.The SQA group recognizes, documents, and tracksabnormalities fromthe process and verifies thatcorrections have been made. OTPS reviews are a"filter" for the software engineering process. Thesereviewsare applied at various points duringsoftware development of OTPS and serve touncover errorsand defects that can then beremoved.D. Test PlanThe test plan for OTPS is described in Table VI. We havediscussed only two types of testing here.TABLE VITEST PLAN OF OTPS (LOGIN)Type Name Purpose PerformerUnitTestingIn order to test a singlemodule, we will providethe completeenvironment to test eachmodule independentlylike Login, Towerinformation, search,calculate distance andupload file.TestingTeamBlackBoxTestingThe test cases aredesigned from anexamination of theinput/output values onlywithout consideringcode.SiteEngineerEquivalence ClassPortioningWe perform testing of allthe components based onrespective classes ofinput.TestingTeamBoundaryValueAnalysisWe will perform theboundary value analysisof each input componentof OTPS for differentvalid set of classes ofinput.TestingTeamDesigning white box testcases require a thoroughknowledge of the internalstructure of our project.Tester
  12. 12. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.comWhiteBoxTestingStatementCoverageThis strategy aims todesign test cases so thatevery statement in acoding part is executed atleast once, to check theerror if exist.TestEngineerBranchCoverageThe test cases aredesigned to make eachbranch condition assumetrue and false in turn.TesterConditionCoverageTest cases are designedto make each componentof composite conditionalexpression assume bothtrue and false values.TestEngineerPathCoverageTo design test cases suchthat all linearlyindependent paths in theOTPS are executed atleast once.TesterCyclomaticComplexityMetricThis metric is used todefine an upper bound onthe number ofindependent paths in theOTPS.TesterData FlowBaseTestingThis method selects thepaths of the programaccording to thelocations of thedefinitions and uses ofdifferent values in OTPS.TesterThe different roles assigned to people under a particular teamfor testing are: Testing Team: The team organized by Airtel andVodafone Telecom Company. Test Engineer: Usability Engineer and Employee ofReliance Telecom Company. Site Engineer: Employee of Reliance TelecomCompany. Tester: Harinder Singh and Sukhpal SinghE. Test CaseA test case in software engineering is a set of conditions orvariables under which a tester will determine whether anourapplication or software system is functioningproperly. Themechanism for defining whether a software program orsystem has passed or failed such a test is known as a testoracle. The test cases designed for testing of Login module ofOTPS are described in Table VI.TABLE VITEST PLAN OF OTPS (LOGIN)Test Case: OTPS 1 Screen Name: LoginSr.No.Input ActualOutputExpectedoutputResult1. Keep usernameblankUsernamecan’t be blankInvalidusernamePass2. Keep passwordblankPasswordcan’t be blankInvalidpasswordPass3. Unselected MSB MSB can’t beunselectedUndefinedMSBPass4. Unselectednetwork typeNetwork can’tbe unselectedUndefinedNetworkPass5. If either usernameor password isincorrectUsername andpasswordcan’t bewrongInvalidusernameandpasswordPass6. If both usernameand password iscorrect &MSBand networkselected properlyIt passes toSatellite MapValidusernameandpasswordPassF. Test ResultThe tester also created the results of the test execution,which are referred to as the test log.Test cases are executed bythe tester and results of the tests are documented in the testlog.he Test Analyst role is responsible for identifying anddefining the mandatory tests, observingcomprehensive testingadvancement and results in each test cycle and evaluating theoverall quality experienced as a result of testing activities.Thetest cases designed for testing of Login module of OTPS aredescribed in Table VII.TABLE VIITEST RESULT OF OTPS (LOGIN)Input Output ConsequencesUsername: adminPassword: adminMsc: MSC 1CHANDIGARHNetwork: CDMAUsername, password,Msc, network art correctand it passes to satellitemapSatellite mapshownUsername: spmPassword: spm123Msc: MSC 5JALANDHARNetwork: GSMUsername, password,Msc, network art correctand it passes to satellitemapSatellite mapshownUsername: abcPassword: abc123Msc: MSC 1CHANDIGARHNetwork: GSMUsername, password,Msc, network areincorrect and it asks siteengineer to login againAgain loginscreendisplayedG. Control Flow GraphPath coverage based testing strategy requires us to designtest cases such that linearly independent paths in the eachmodule of OTPS are executed at least once. A linearlyindependent path can be well-defined in terms of CFG ofOTPS. CFG describes the sequence in which the differentinstructions of OTPS executed. In order to draw CFG ofOTPS, we need to first number all the statements of eachmodule of OTPS. The different numbered statements serve as
  13. 13. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.comthe nodes of CFG. An edge from one node to another nodeexists if the execution of statement representing the first nodecan result in the transfer of control to other node. The CFG forLogin module is shown in Figure 17.We have drawn the CFGof some main modules of OTPS like: Login, Search site Upload file Calculate distance Tower definitionLoginlogin_detail() {1. Enter user detail2. if (Enter_user_detail==db_user_detail) then3. Satellite map displayed4. else Enter user details again5. }The Cyclomatic complexity is calculates as given below:Cyclomatic Complexity :V(G)=E-N+2Edges (E) = 6Nodes (N) =5V (G) = 6-5+2= 3OrV (G) = Total number of bounded areas(regions) +1Regions = 2V (G) = 2+1=3Fig. 17 Control Flow Graph of LoginH. Linearly Independent PathA linearly independent path is a comprehensive path which,forgetting back tracking (such as loops), has a unique set ofdecisions in a program. It is any path through the program thatintroduces at least one new edge that is not included in anyother linearly independent paths. If a path has one fresh nodeequated to all other linearly independent paths, at that time thepath is also a linearly independent path. This is becausewhichever path having a new node spontaneouslyindicatesthat it has a new edge.The linear independent path of Loginmodule of OTPS is described in Table VIII.TABLE VIIILINEARLY INDEPENDENT PATHInput Path ResultEnter correct details:Username: adminPassword: adminMsc: MSC 1 CHANDIGARHNetwork: CDMAPath 1:1-2-3-5SatellitemapshownEnter incorrect login details:Username: abcPassword: abc123Msc: MSC 4 JALANDHARNetwork: GSMEnter again correct details:Username: adminPassword: adminMsc: MSC 1 CHANDIGARHNetwork: CDMAPath 2:1-2-4-5-1-2-3-5SatellitemapshownEnter incorrect login detailscontinuously:Username: abcPassword: abc123Msc: MSC 4 JALANDHARNetwork: GSM………….Path 3:1-2-4-5-1-2-4-5-1-2…….Unsuccessful loginI. Audit ReportThe audit report is anofficialoutlook, or repudiation thereof,allotted by either an internal auditor or an independentexternal auditor as a result of an internal or external audit orevaluation performed on a legal entity or subdivision thereof(called an auditee). The report is subsequently provided to a"user" (such as an individual, a set of people, a corporation, agovernment, or even the common public, between others) asan assurance facility in order for the user to make decisionsbased on the results of the audit. OTPS is audited by twomaster students working on some other project. Both theauditors were assigned by our project supervisor. The auditreport of OTPS is described in Table IX.TABLE IXAUDIT REPORT OF OTPS1. Title of Project: Online Tower Plotting System2. Project member:-Harinder Singh (Registration No.- 801131010)Sukhpal Singh (Registration No. - 801131024)3. Non-Conformance in software: - There is one small faultin calculating the distance between two towers and that iswhen we select the towers on map then tower imagesdisappears from map screen.4. Non-Conformance in work products:-i) Role name of different test engineers is not mentionedclearly.13 425
  14. 14. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.com5. Grade of project:- 4.9/5.06.Remarks:-i) The software system is in good working condition andsatisfies quality requirements which are implicit with thedomain of software.ii) This software is confined to a single user (site engineer),so when to maintain dB of whole country with differentstates and cities, this software should be extended.7. Auditors:-Name Registration No. SignatureVaibhavAggarwal 801131028Arvind Sharma 801131007IX.COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENTCommunications management is themethodicalarrangement, executing, observing, andreconsideration of all the networks of message within anorganization, and among organizations; it also contains theorganization and broadcasting of new communicationinstructionsassociated with an organization, network, orcommunications tools. Features of communicationsmanagement comprise developing commercialcommunication policies, designing internal and externalcommunications commands, and handling the movement ofinformation, comprising online communication. Newexpertise forces persistentimprovement on the slice ofcommunications administrators.A. Communication Management PlanThis is the manuscript that designates the communicationanticipations, requirements, and tactics for the project. Itstipulates what information will be transferred, when and howit will be conversed, and who will communicate it and towhom. It comprises: Communication desires of the projectshareholders, Information to be transferred: content, format,and level of detail, who will transfer the information, who willaccept it, and why, the person accountable for sanctioning therelease of trustworthy information, Approaches ofcommunication that will be used, such as e-mail,demonstrationand Communication restrictions. Thecommunication management plan is described in Table X.TABLE XCOMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT PLANName Position Internal/ExternalLevel ofInterestLevel ofInfluenceHarinderSinghDeveloper Internal High MediumSukhpalSinghDeveloper Internal High MediumSukhwinderSinghTelecomCompanyExternal Medium HighGurneetSinghSiteEngineerExternal Medium HighDr.InderveerProjectManagerInternal Medium HighChanaB. Stakeholder communication AnalysisStakeholder communications investigation is available thatmay support the project management team to develop activecommunications. The stakeholder communication analysis isdescribed in Table XI.TABLE XISTAKEHOLDER COMMUNICATION ANALYSISStakeholder DocumentNameDocumentFormatContactPersonCustomerManagementProjectCharterHardCopySukhwinderSinghCustomer Businessand Technical Staff(Site Engineer)SRS HardCopyGurneet SinghProject Manager(InternalManagement)WeeklyStatusReportHardCopyDr. InderveerChanaInternal Businessand technical staff(developer)WeeklyStatusReporte-mailHarinderSingh &Sukhpal SinghX. RISK MANAGEMENTRisk management is the identification, valuation, andranking of riskstrailed by synchronized and inexpensiveapplication of resources to reduce, observer, and control thelikelihood and influence of unsuccessfulactions or tomaximize the apprehension of occasions.A. Risk Management PlanRisk Management Plan is a manuscript that a projectmanager organizes to foreknow risks, guesstimateinfluences,and describecomebacks to problems. It also encompasses arisk assessment matrix. The risk management plan isdescribed in Table XII.TABLE XIIRISK MANAGEMENT PLANRisk_Id Risk Name Category Probability ImpactR-101RAD ProcessModelproceed inuncontrolledmannerProject 35% 1R-102ScheduleEstimate maylessProject 40% 2R-103 Cost Estimatemay be lowProject 40% 3R-104TeamMembers maylack in SkillsHumanResource 30% 2R-105 Lack inHardwareResource 45% 4
  15. 15. ISSN 2319 – 1953International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management StudiesIJSRCSAMSVolume 2, Issue 3 (May 2013) www.ijsrcsams.comR-106CustomerMay feeluncomfortablewithexcessiveinteractionProject 35% 2R-107InternetConnection Technical 50% 1XI.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKThe case teaching method has been used effectively inmany professions (law, medicine, and business) to teach abouthow to solve problems and make decisions, while dealing withgenuine circumstances, working with real-world restrictions,and engaging with both human and technical issues. Althoughthe use of the case module in teaching software engineeringhas been restricted, the discipline is key candidate for such aprocedure. The Case Study Project described in this paper hasthe objective of building a framework for using the casemodule for teaching software engineering. The goal of theOTPS software system is to provide a single comprehensiveand complete example of the engineering of a softwareproduct. In addition, the project provides case modules (minicase studies), which can be used to teach various softwareengineering topics.Future work will consist of testing of the current case studymaterials and ongoing development of the case study forsubsequent phases and distribute the complete project indifferent software engineers. It is envisioned that the projectwill take about three years to complete.ACKNOWLEDGMENTWe would like to thank Dr. Inderveer Chana andMs.Ashima Singh for helping and providing support inovercoming various technical obstacles in designing andimplementation.We are also thankful to Dr.Maninder Singh,Head, Computer Science and Engineering Department, ThaparUniversity, Patiala for his motivation, kind help andcooperation.REFERENCES[1] Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applicationsin Education. Revised and Expanded from" Case Study Research inEducation.".Jossey-Bass Publishers, 350 Sansome St, San Francisco,CA 94104, 1998.[2] Merriam, Sharan B. Case Study Research in Education. A QualitativeApproach. Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, PO Box 44305, San Francisco,CA 94144-4305, 1988.[3] Stake, Robert E. "The art of case study research." (1995).[4] Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. "Building theories from case study research."Academy of management review (1989): 532-550.[5] Gerring, John. Case study research: principles and practices.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.[6] Feagin, Joe R., Anthony M. Orum, and Gideon Sjoberg. Case for thecase study. UNC Press Books, 1991.[7] Boehm, Barry W. "Software engineering economics." SoftwareEngineering, IEEE Transactions on 1 (1984): 4-21.[8] Abran, Alain, J. Moore, P. Bourque, R. L. Dupuis, and L. Tripp. Guideto the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge–SWEBOK, trialversion. IEEE-Computer Society Press, 2001.[9] Pressman, Roger S., and Darrel Ince. Software engineering: apractitioners approach. Vol. 5. New York: McGraw-hill, 1992.[10] Davis, Alan M., Edward H. Bersoff, and Edward R. Comer. "Astrategy for comparing alternative software development life cyclemodels." Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on 14, no. 10(1988): 1453-1461.[11] Jacobson, Ivar, Grady Booch, and James Rumbaugh. "The UnifiedSoftware Development Process–The complete guide to the UnifiedProcess from the original designers." Rational Software Corporation,US (1999).[12] Nurmuliani, N., DidarZowghi, and S. Powell. "Analysis ofrequirements volatility during software development life cycle." InSoftware Engineering Conference, 2004. Proceedings. 2004 Australian,pp. 28-37. IEEE, 2004.[13] Karolak, Dale Walter. Global software development: managing virtualteams and environments. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1999.[14] Highsmith, Jim, and Alistair Cockburn. "Agile software development:The business of innovation." Computer 34, no. 9 (2001): 120-127.[15] Hughes, Bob, and Mike Cotterell. Software project management. TataMcGraw-Hill Education, 2002.[16] Henry, Joel. Software project management. Pearson, 2004.[17] Atlee, Joanne M., T. C. Lethbridge, A. Sobel, J. B. Thompson, and R. J.LeBlanc Jr. "Software engineering 2004: ACM/IEEE-CS guidelines forundergraduate programs in software engineering." In SoftwareEngineering, 2005. ICSE 2005. Proceedings. 27th InternationalConference on, pp. 623-624. IEEE, 2005.