Nutrition for healthy people


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  • This lecture will cover the basics of nutrition
  • Nutrition has a variety of effects
  • These are the 6 classes of nutrients. Each nutrient plays a different role and is required for life.
  • There are two different types of carbohydrates. Simple and complex carbohydrates are both composed of glucose or fructose molecules but they differ in how they are put together.
    Simple carbohydrates exist as independent glucose or fructose molecules whereas complex carbohydrates are connected in chains. Because of these differences simple and complex carbohydrates are processed very differently by the body (discuss insulin effect from simple carbos)
    With the exception of fruit simple carbohydrates are typically known as “empty calories” because they contain nothing but calories. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, contain a variety of vitamins, minerals and fiber.
  • This chart shows the trends in carbohydrate consumption over time.
    Note the progressive decline in the consumption of carbohydrates
  • There are two primary sources of protein.
    Animal protein is considered “complete” because it has all of the essential amino acids and other non-essential ones.
    Vegetable protein is considered an “incomplete” source because it doesn’t contain all of the essential amino acids. This is why vegetarians must consume a variety of foods to get the protein they need.
    This slide shows conceptually how amino acids are linked together to make proteins. By linking the amino acids in different orders the protein takes on different properties.
  • This slide shows the RDA averages for protein intake for average people and for athletes. Athletes need more protein but this can easily be obtained by eating more calories.
  • These are the major sources of fat in the body.
    The difference between saturated and unsaturated fats can be explained with the diagram. The diagram shows an unsaturated fat because the carbon chain can accept hydrogen bonds instead of the carbon-carbon double bond.
  • Follow these steps to reduce fat content in the diet.
  • Recommended levels
  • Vitamins
  • Discuss these important dietary guidelines for vitamins. While supplements contain a large amount of vitamins, they don’t contain the other substances found in fruits and vegetables that may be beneficial.
  • The current consensus is that a balanced nutritious diet can provide all of the vitamins that a person needs. If a person wanted to be sure their diet is adequate it is safe to take a multivitamin each day as long as the vitamin does not provide over 100% of the RDA values.
    Provide vitamin tips for cooking and food preparation:
    1. vitamins are found in the peel of most fruits and vegetables
    2. steam or microwave foods to retain vitamins
    3. keep foods frozen to retain vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Review the mineral guidelines. Some of the same guidelines hold for both vitamins and minerals.
  • Review the populations that may benefit from supplementation
  • Water is the most important nutrient in our diet. We would die much quicker without water than we would without food. Drink at least 8 glasses per day.
  • Follow these general guidelines for healthy eating.
  • This page provides active hyperlinks if the computer is connected to the Internet.
  • Supplemental graphics follow this slide.
  • Lab information
  • Lab information
  • Lab information
  • Fiber is not considered to be a nutrient but it is considered important for good health (2 types):
    Soluble (dissolves) - decreases levels of cholesterol. Mention sources of soluble fiber shown on the slide (fruits, vegetables and oat bran)
    Insoluble (doesn't dissolve) - decreases risk of colon cancer by decreasing transit time through intestine. Mention sources of insoluble fiber shown on the slide (wheat bran and grains).
  • Most American diets are deficient in fiber. The RDA for fiber is 25-40 grams per day. Most Americans probably get about 12-14 grams in their diet.
    Ways to get more fiber in the diet is to eat more fruits and vegetables and to eat more whole grain foods.
    (This slide provides a lead in for next slide)
  • This diagram shows a grain of wheat. Go over the parts in the following order
    Bran: outer layer with fiber, vitamins, and minerals
    Endosperm: inner starch layer with carbohydrates
    Germ: core with vitamins, minerals
    During processing the bran and germ are typically removed along with the important vitamins, minerals and fiber. By eating whole grain foods you get a more nutritionally dense food that is better for overall health.
  • This slide shows the composition of dietary oils. Good choices for the kitchen are olive oil and canola oil since they have the larger percentage of mono-unsaturated fats which have been shown to lower LDL cholesterol.
  • This slide demonstrates how oil is converted into margarine. Hydrogen molecules are bubbled into oil until the hydrogen binds with the molecule and creates a saturated fat. While margarine doesn’t contain cholesterol, the hydrogenation process creates a type of fatty acid (trans fatty acid) that has been found to be atherogenic (promoting atherosclerosis)
  • Fat soluble vitamins dissolve in the bodies fat tissues. Excess amounts of fat soluble vitamins can get stored up in the tissues and lead to toxic effects.
  • Water soluble vitamins get excreted on a daily basis so the body requires regular amounts of these vitamins.
  • This is a list of the water soluble vitamins
  • The following list is of the foods that have the most significant health benefits.
  • This is a list of the common minerals with established RDA guidelines
  • Calcium is important for preventing osteoporosis. The RDA is 1000 mg per day for adult women. If using a supplement, most dietitians recommend taking it in several doses since the body cannot absorb all of it at one time
    Calcium can be found in dairy products and green leafy vegetables. High levels of protein in the diet actually cause calcium to be lost from the bones which can predispose a person to osteoporosis.
  • Iron is a component of hemoglobin which helps carry oxygen throughout the body. Iron deficiency is known as anemia and is characterized by a shortness of breath and fatigue.
  • Water serves a variety of functions in the body
  • This slide shows the calorie content of different food stuffs
  • Review the calculation so that students understand how to calculate nutrient contents of foods
  • Calculate the fat content of baloney to demonstrate the high fat content
  • Demonstrate the fat content of sliced turkey to appreciate why it is a better choice for sandwiches
  • Review the fat substitutes and discuss the implications of these products in the diet.
  • This is an additional image of the food pyramid
  • Nutrition for healthy people

    1. 1. Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness and Wellness Nutrition
    2. 2. General Nutrition Concepts  Influences of Nutrition – – – –  Health Appearance Behavior Mood Role of Nutrients in Diet – Growth and development – Provide energy – Regulate metabolism 2 See “On the Web” 16-1 for info on general nutrition guidelines AND links to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    3. 3. Classes of Nutrients       3 Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Subsequent slides will provide basic information about each nutrient Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    4. 4. Types of Carbohydrates (2 types)  Simple – pop, candy, sweets, fruit – individual glucose or fructose molecules  Complex – pasta, rice, breads, potatoes – Chains of glucose molecules 4 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    5. 5. Trends in Carbohydrate Consumption P E R C E N T C A R B O H Y D R A T E S 100 35% 80 60 40 50% 55% SIMPLE 65% 50% 45% COMPLEX 20 0 1910 1950 1980 5 See “On the Web” 16-5 for distinctions between complex and simple Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    6. 6. Click icon for info on fiber   6 Low Carb Mania (What is the basis?) Proponents of low carb diets blame carbohydrates on the obesity epidemic but this is not well supported by research. The quality of carbohydrates is the real issue and it is still wise to consume quality whole grains with adequate fiber. Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    7. 7. Types of Protein  Sources of Protein – Animal (complete) » meats, dairy – Vegetable (incomplete) » beans, nuts, legumes, grains  Types of Amino Acids Amino acids linked together – Nonessential (14) – can be made by body – Essential (8) – must be made by body 7 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    8. 8. Protein Requirements   RDA average = .8 g/kg/day RDA athlete = 1.2-1.6 g/kg/day High levels of protein intake above 2 g/kg/day can be harmful to the body 8 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    9. 9. Click icon for info on hydrogenation process   Types of Fats Saturated – Animal sources – Solid at room temperature Unsaturated (poly- or mono-) – Vegetable sources – Liquid at room temperature HHHHH HHHH HHHHO HC-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-OH HHHHH HH HHH 9 Click icon for info on fat content of oils See “On the Web” 16-6,7 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    10. 10. Recommendations for Fat Consumption  Dietary Fat Recommendations – Less than 30% of calories in diet from fat – Less than 1/3 of dietary fat should be saturated  10 Ways to Decrease Intake of Fat – – – – – – – Minimize "fast" foods Minimize processed foods Use better cuts of meats Use low fat alternatives Decrease use of condiments Eat lower fat snacks Choose foods with “artificial fats” Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    11. 11. Lab 16a Dietary Recommendations (2 different sets) Questions: 1. Why do the guidelines differ? PRO CHO 2. What is a “healthy diet”? 3. How do you calculate these percentages? 11 calorie calculations FAT PRO (10-15%) FAT (30%) CHO (55-60%) U.S.D.A. PRO CHO FAT PRO (10-35%) FAT (20-35%) CHO (45-65%) Institute of Medicine Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    12. 12. Vitamins    Organic substances that regulate numerous and diverse physiological processes in the body Do not contain calories Two types – Fat soluble – Water soluble 12 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    13. 13. Click for info on “anti-oxidants” Vitamin Guidelines   Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables may be beneficial  13 A balanced diet containing recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the RDA standards Extra consumption of citrus and other fruits may be beneficial Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    14. 14. Vitamin Supplementation?     14 Not necessary if diet is healthy Multivitamins are safe (100% RDA) Not all vitamins are “pure” Can be toxic at high doses Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    15. 15. Minerals     15 Inorganic elements found in food that are essential to life processes About 25 are essential Classified as major or trace minerals RDA’s have only been determined for 7 minerals Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    16. 16. Click for more info on minerals     16 Mineral Guidelines A diet containing recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the RDA standards Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables may be beneficial Dietary supplementation of Calcium is beneficial for post-menopausal women Salt should be limited in the diet Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    17. 17. Populations Who May Benefit from Supplementation        17 Pregnant/lactating women Alcoholics Elderly Women with severe menstrual losses Individuals on VLCD’s Strict vegetarians Individuals taking medications or with diseases which inhibit nutrient absorption Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    18. 18. Click for more info on water   18 Water Vital to life Drink at least 8 glasses a day Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    19. 19. Click icon for info on Lab 16b Guidelines for Healthy Eating      Eat regular meals (including breakfast) Eat foods from all food groups and according to the food pyramid Limit processed foods Get adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals Drink plenty of water and limit alcohol and caffeine Follow principles in the Food Guide Pyramid 19 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    20. 20. Does the Healthy Eating Pyramid more effectively capture the elements of a healthy diet? See the Harvard Nutrition S website
    21. 21. Web Resources Online Learning Center “On the Web” pages for Concept 21 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    22. 22. Supplemental Graphics Lab Information Additional Details on Nutrition
    23. 23. Lab 16a Information Nutrition Analysis   23 Purpose: Compare quality of “favorite diet” with your ideal “healthy diet” Procedure: Select foods from food list (Appendix D or other diet tables) and calculate calories from carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    24. 24. Return to presentation Lab 16a Information Making calorie calculations    Protein Fat Carbohydrate Totals Nutrition Analysis - cont. Calories 350 800 1400 2550 % of Total Calories 13.7 31.4 54.9 100.0 Divide the calories by the total to get the percentage 24 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    25. 25. Return to presentation    25 Lab 16b Information Selecting Nutritious Foods Purpose: Evaluate the nutritional quality of your diet Procedure: Record foods consumed for two days on the Daily Diet Record. Calculate calorie intake from list in Appendix C Implications: Rate the quality Click icon to of the diet according to the see other food Rating Scale. tables Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    26. 26. Fiber  Soluble - decreases cholesterol levels – found in oat bran, fruits and veggies  Insoluble - reduces risk of colon cancer – found in wheat bran and grains Recommendation: 25-40g per day Are you getting enough? 26 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    27. 27. Ways to Get More Fiber   27 Eat more fruits and vegetables Eat whole grain foods Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    28. 28. Return to presentation A Grain of Wheat BRAN - B vitamins - minerals - dietary fiber GERM ENDOSPERM - starch - protein - some iron and B vitamins - essential fats - minerals - vitamins (B's , E and folacin) 28 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    29. 29. Return to presentation Type safflower sunflower corn soybean sesame peanut palm olive canola 29 Composition of Oils (%) Sat 9 10 13 14 14 17 49 14 7 Poly 75 66 59 58 42 32 9 8 35 Mono 16 24 28 28 44 51 42 78 58 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    30. 30. Return to presentation 30 Hydrogenation Process Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    31. 31. Fat Soluble Vitamins    31 Consist of Vitamins A, D, E, and K Absorbed at the small intestine in the presence of bile (a fatty substance) Overdoses can be toxic (A and D) Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    32. 32. Water Soluble Vitamins   32 Consist of B complex and vitamin C Excesses will be excreted in the urine, however, B-6 and Niacin can be toxic when ingested in unusually large amounts Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    33. 33. Return to presentation          33 Water Soluble Vitamins B-1 (thiamine) B-2 (riboflavin) B-6 (pyridoxine) B-12 (cobalamin) Niacin (nicotinic acid) Pantothenic Acid Folic Acid (folacin) Biotin C Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    34. 34. Antioxidant All-Stars           34 Broccoli Cantaloupe Carrot Kale Mango Pumpkin Red Pepper Spinach Strawberries Sweet potato Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    35. 35. Minerals with established Return to presentation RDA guidelines        35 Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Iron Magnesium Zinc Selenium Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    36. 36. Return to mineral guidelines    Calcium Important for preventing osteoporosis RDA = 800-1000 mg/day Found in dairy products and vegetables High protein diets leach calcium from bones and promote osteoporosis 36 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    37. 37. Return to mineral guidelines   Iron Important component of hemoglobin Iron deficiency is known as anemia (Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue) 37 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    38. 38. Return to presentation       38 Functions of Water Comprises about 60% of body weight Chief component of blood plasma Aids in temperature regulation Lubricates joints Shock absorber in eyes, spinal cord, and amniotic sac (during pregnancy) Active participant in many chemical reactions Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    39. 39. Caloric Content of Foods Carbohydrates Protein Fats Alcohol 39 4 cal/g 4 cal/g 9 cal/g 7 cal/g Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    40. 40. Calorie Calculation (Example)  Heather consumes 2000 calories per day and wishes to obtain 20% of her calories from fat: 2000 calories x 20% = 400 calories from fat per day 400 calories from fat = 44 grams of fat/day 40 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    41. 41. What is Baloney? 80% "fat free” 52 calories / slice 4 grams fat / slice Calories = 4 g/slice X 9 cal/g = 36 calories from fat Percent of calories = 36 cal / 52 cal total = from fat 41 69% Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    42. 42. Return to presentation What about Sliced Turkey? 98% "fat free” 30 calories / slice 1 gram fat / slice Calories = 1 g/slice X 9 cal/g = 9 calories from fat Percent of calories = 9 cal / 30 cal total = from fat 42 30% Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    43. 43. Return to presentation   Fat Substitutes Olestra Simplesse What are the dietary implications of these new food products? 43 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e
    44. 44. The Food Pyramid