Weight loss experts today describe today’s food environment as toxic for weight loss
Give common myths and the actual truth
Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com/phys_fit Concept 17 12 The primary factors associated with an increase in body fat with age is a progressive decrease in the metabolism. Basal metabolic rate is highly dependent on the amount of lean body mass an individual has. With age a person's LBM decreases and, therefore, so does the BMR. Exercise is one way of maintaining LBM and keeping BMR elevated. Physical Activity is also known to decrease with age. This decrease is another reason for creeping obesity. To maintain body weight it is necessary for people to either maintain a habit of regular exercise or to progressively decrease their caloric intake as they get older.
Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 3 Dieting is a national obsession in our country. It has been estimated that 40% of all men and 25% of all women in the U.S. are on a diet at any one time. Overall, the weight loss industry has been valued at over 33 billion dollars (1992 estimate). The dieting craze is largely caused by our societies preoccupation with appearance and in particular leanness. (Issues regarding body image can be discussed at this point if desired).
Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 4 Most "diets" are unsuccessful. It has been estimated that over 50% of people gain weight back within 2 years (reference) Only 5-10% manage to keep most of the weight off. (see Kramer et al.(1989) Int. J. Obesity 13:123-126 Wadden, J. et al. (1988) J. Consult. Clin. Psych. 56:925-928) Why do diets fail? - Short term (quick fix!) - Not a change in lifestyle
Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 5 This figure shows the typical cycle of dieting People begin a diet and have good initial motivation. They may see some initial positive results but eventually they will have trouble with compliance (party, eating out, stress). They may give up and blow diet and gain the weight back. Eventually, people regain inspiration and decide to try again. Because of the initial positive results, most people blame themselves and believe that dieting works. They keep trying new diets to try to find one that they can live with. Because most “diets” are inherently short term they will all fail when people come off of the diet. Only long term lifestyle changes will be effective in keeping the weight off.
Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 7 The concept of weight cycling or Yo-Yo dieting has recently received a lot of attention in the literature. Some evidence suggests that with repeated cycles of dieting there is increased resistance to weight loss and increased efficiency of weight gain (Essentially the body adapts to fewer calories and becomes more efficient). Some studies have suggested that repeated cycles of weight loss can increase a person's risk for CHD (usually attributed to tendency to store fat in the abdominal region. A recent review in JAMA (1994) suggests that this risk is unfounded and that individuals should persist in their efforts at weight loss. Essentially, they argued that the health risks of obesity far outweigh the potential health risks associated with weight cycling.
Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 10 The main problem with fad diets is that they are inherently temporary. If the change is not a part of a healthy lifestyle adherence will be poor. The weight loss that is seen is often water loss and is gained back very quickly The diet treatments (appetite suppressants) can often be addictive and or dangerous. Diet may lack essential vitamins and minerals and create health problems. Extreme caloric restriction may also cause the bodies metabolism to slow down and resist further weight loss.
Atkin’s, of course South Beach Diet The Zone Weight Watchers Slim Fast still hanging around
Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com/phys_fit Concept 17 Appetite suppresants containing ephedra are dangerous. Refer students to On the Web for more information.
Real = not water weight/retention of fluids An excess of 100 calories per day can cause a 10 pound weight gain in a year, and those extra calories can be burned by a 20 to 30 minute brisk walk daily.
Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 8 Weight Control is simply a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. If you take in more calories than you expend you will gain weight. If you take in less calories than you expend you will lose weight. To maintain weight intake must be balanced by expenditure.
Macronutrients provide energy (calories)
The word diet implies a beginning and an end
Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 11 A lifestyle approach may take longer than the fad diets claim but the weight loss will be real and it will be allow you to take in enough calories for good health. It will also be easier to live with than an extreme fad diet. Nutritious diet Regular Exercise
Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 The following guidelines are healthy dietary patterns.
Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 Continued
Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7e McGraw Hill - www.mhhe.com Concept 15 14 There are many benefits of exercise for weight loss 1. Burns calories 2. Maintains LBM which keeps the BMR higher 3. Increases the metabolic rate following exercise so you burn more calories even when resting 4. Exercise promotes greater fat loss. Fad diets, on the other hand, may cause a loss of LBM 5. Suppresses the appetite. Moderate levels of activity can decrease the appetite because the body is somewhat tricked into thinking it is full. Research shows that people who combine diet with exercise may not lose that many more calories but they will keep the weight off more easily.
Why Weight is Important to UsWhy Weight is Important to Us
Health and overall well-being
Competitive sports/ training
It is a constant tug-of-war between foods weIt is a constant tug-of-war between foods we
love to eat and the tight jeans we love tolove to eat and the tight jeans we love to
Everyone is looking for theEveryone is looking for the
If only it were this easyIf only it were this easy
Creeping ObesityCreeping Obesity
leads to a decrease
In metabolic rate.
drops more than
weight gain will
– Overweight is defined as 1-19% above one’sOverweight is defined as 1-19% above one’s
ideal weightideal weight
– Obese is defined as above 19% one’s idealObese is defined as above 19% one’s ideal
BMI - Optimum Cut-Offs Asian IndiansBMI - Optimum Cut-Offs Asian Indians
BMI : Index of the relationship between height andBMI : Index of the relationship between height and
weight (weight (kg/m2)kg/m2)
Normal BMI : 18.5-22.9Normal BMI : 18.5-22.9
Overweight : 23- 24.9Overweight : 23- 24.9
Obesity : >25Obesity : >25
Many Health Risks AssociatedMany Health Risks Associated
– Heart diseaseHeart disease
– Dyslipidemia (high blood cholesterol)Dyslipidemia (high blood cholesterol)
– Sleep apnea and breathing problemsSleep apnea and breathing problems
– Hypertension (high blood pressure)Hypertension (high blood pressure)
Risk Factors for ObesityRisk Factors for Obesity
• Increased energy intakeIncreased energy intake
• Decreased energy expenditureDecreased energy expenditure
Increased sedentary nature of many jobsIncreased sedentary nature of many jobs
TV and video games, automated equipmentTV and video games, automated equipment
• Psychosocial FactorsPsychosocial Factors
Eating as focal point of people’s livesEating as focal point of people’s lives
Metabolic ChangesMetabolic Changes
Basal Metabolic RateBasal Metabolic Rate
Gender and ObesityGender and Obesity
Women more vulnerable to weight gainWomen more vulnerable to weight gain
Other Risk Factors for ObesityOther Risk Factors for Obesity
Developmental FactorsDevelopmental Factors
»Excessive number of fatExcessive number of fat
»Increased size of cellsIncreased size of cells
Commonly UsedCommonly Used
By Obese PeopleBy Obese People
It is a HUGE business!It is a HUGE business!
Billions of dollars spent annually andBillions of dollars spent annually and
yet everyone is STILL FAT!yet everyone is STILL FAT!
Health product consumers areHealth product consumers are
desperate and uneducated!desperate and uneducated!
Prevalence of DietingPrevalence of Dieting
40% of all women40% of all women
25% of all men25% of all men
Diet products are a 33
Almost All Diets areAlmost All Diets are
50% regain all weight50% regain all weight
within 2 yearswithin 2 years
5-10% keep weight off5-10% keep weight off
Why do diets fail?
Cycle of DietingCycle of Dieting
START DIETSTART DIET
POSITIVE RESULTSPOSITIVE RESULTS
TROUBLE WITH COMPLIANCETROUBLE WITH COMPLIANCE
FAIL W / DIETFAIL W / DIET
BLAME SELFBLAME SELF
Trend of Fad?Trend of Fad?
Fad Diets are successful because in theFad Diets are successful because in the
end, you are eating fewer caloriesend, you are eating fewer calories
Does the eating plan make you happy orDoes the eating plan make you happy or
are you constantly obsessed with food?are you constantly obsessed with food?
The question is…Can you maintain this dietThe question is…Can you maintain this diet
for the rest of your life?for the rest of your life?
Yo-Yo DietingYo-Yo Dieting
Increased resistanceIncreased resistance
to weight lossto weight loss
Increased efficiencyIncreased efficiency
of weight gainof weight gain
Problems withProblems with
Fad DietsFad Diets
• Weight loss is often water lossWeight loss is often water loss
• Supplements may be dangerousSupplements may be dangerous
• Diet may lack essential nutrientsDiet may lack essential nutrients
• Metabolism may slow down if caloricMetabolism may slow down if caloric
intake is very low.intake is very low.
• Most (if not all) simply do not work forMost (if not all) simply do not work for
people long term!people long term!
• Fixed MenuFixed Menu
Low-carb MarketingLow-carb Marketing
Over 600 new low-carb products introduced thisOver 600 new low-carb products introduced this
Sales may exceed $15 billion this yearSales may exceed $15 billion this year
Low-carb products appeal to convenience eatersLow-carb products appeal to convenience eaters
Problem: A calorie is still a calorie. Many dietersProblem: A calorie is still a calorie. Many dieters
consuming these products are claiming to haveconsuming these products are claiming to have
stopped losing weight.stopped losing weight.
Fact: Low-carb foods are not necessarily lowFact: Low-carb foods are not necessarily low
calorie foods.calorie foods. It is overeating calories that makesIt is overeating calories that makes
us gain weight, not overeating carbohydrates.us gain weight, not overeating carbohydrates.
Weight Loss SupplementsWeight Loss Supplements
Weight Loss SupplementsWeight Loss Supplements
Not a safe alternativeNot a safe alternative
Not regulated by FDA!Not regulated by FDA!
Affects each person differentlyAffects each person differently
Non-ephedra products can be just as dangerousNon-ephedra products can be just as dangerous
Do you want to buy these for the rest of your life?Do you want to buy these for the rest of your life?
Problems with AppetiteProblems with Appetite
Many people use non prescriptionMany people use non prescription
appetite suppressants to controlappetite suppressants to control
Ephedrine related products haveEphedrine related products have
been found to be dangerous andbeen found to be dangerous and
have been banned by the FDAhave been banned by the FDA
IMPORTANT TOIMPORTANT TO
Why We Gain WeightWhy We Gain Weight
Real WEIGHT GAIN occursReal WEIGHT GAIN occurs when andwhen and
only whenonly when your CALORIES IN exceedyour CALORIES IN exceed
your CALORIES OUT for an extendedyour CALORIES OUT for an extended
period of timeperiod of time
500 calories/day x 7 = 3500 calories = 1500 calories/day x 7 = 3500 calories = 1
– Burn an additional 500 calories/day =Burn an additional 500 calories/day =
lose 1 kg/weeklose 1 kg/week
Principles of Weight ControlPrinciples of Weight Control
(A balance between intake and expenditure)(A balance between intake and expenditure)
IN > EX - Gain WeightGain Weight
IN = EX - Maintain WeightMaintain Weight
IN < EX - Lose Weight
The Bottom LineThe Bottom Line
For weight loss to occur, there mustFor weight loss to occur, there must
be a calorie deficit!be a calorie deficit!
Let’s start with the basics…Let’s start with the basics…
All are part of a healthy diet!
Calorie BreakdownCalorie Breakdown
Carbohydrates: 4 calories/gramCarbohydrates: 4 calories/gram
Protein: 4 calories/gramProtein: 4 calories/gram
Fat: 9 calories/gramFat: 9 calories/gram
Alcohol: 7 calories/gramAlcohol: 7 calories/gram
Carbohydrates and protein have the same caloriesCarbohydrates and protein have the same calories
How much?How much?
Total calories distribution in diet :Total calories distribution in diet :
55-60% calories from Carbohydrates55-60% calories from Carbohydrates
20-25% calories from protein20-25% calories from protein
15-20% calories from fat15-20% calories from fat
A Healthy EaterA Healthy Eater
……respects the difference between carbohydrate foods:respects the difference between carbohydrate foods:
nutrient-dense vs. nutrient-poor/calorie-dense carbsnutrient-dense vs. nutrient-poor/calorie-dense carbs
…… respects the difference between fats: saturated, trans-respects the difference between fats: saturated, trans-
fat, mono and poly unsaturated fatsfat, mono and poly unsaturated fats
……knows that in addition to choosing the right foodsknows that in addition to choosing the right foods
mostmost of the time, all foods can fitof the time, all foods can fit
Healthy or Hefty?Healthy or Hefty?
Store-bought smoothiesStore-bought smoothies
Lattes and coffee drinksLattes and coffee drinks
Energy barsEnergy bars
A Weight Loss PlanA Weight Loss Plan
Think in terms of a lifestyle change, notThink in terms of a lifestyle change, not
short-term “diet”short-term “diet”
Set realistic goalsSet realistic goals
Make gradual changesMake gradual changes
Each person is differentEach person is different
Experiment to find whatExperiment to find what
works for youworks for you
Expect to be successful!Expect to be successful!
Should consider:Should consider:
– Percentage of macronutrientsPercentage of macronutrients
– Kcal intakeKcal intake
– Vitamins & MineralsVitamins & Minerals
– Safety / efficacy of supplementsSafety / efficacy of supplements
– Is the diet sustainable?Is the diet sustainable?
Lifestyle Approach!Lifestyle Approach!
Healthy eating patternsHealthy eating patterns
Regular activity patternsRegular activity patterns
A simple AND effective
method for long-term
Healthy Eating PatternsHealthy Eating Patterns
Eating a variety of foodsEating a variety of foods
Eating smaller, more frequent mealsEating smaller, more frequent meals
Avoiding bingeingAvoiding bingeing
Reducing fat intakeReducing fat intake
– Fat is calorically dense (high in calories)Fat is calorically dense (high in calories)
– Fat is more easily stored thanFat is more easily stored than
carbohydrates or proteincarbohydrates or protein
Healthy Eating Patterns……….Healthy Eating Patterns……….
Low “glycemic load” diets may be a more sensibleLow “glycemic load” diets may be a more sensible
alternative to low-carbohydrate diets.alternative to low-carbohydrate diets.
Artificial sweeteners and fat substitutes may help butArtificial sweeteners and fat substitutes may help but
cannot be considered a “sure cure” for body fatcannot be considered a “sure cure” for body fat
Avoid anything with ephedra.Avoid anything with ephedra.
Restrict “empty” calories.Restrict “empty” calories.
Learn the difference between craving and hunger.Learn the difference between craving and hunger.
Regular Activity PatternsRegular Activity Patterns
Benefits of Exercise for Weight ControlBenefits of Exercise for Weight Control
– Burns caloriesBurns calories
– Maintains LBMMaintains LBM
– Increases metabolismIncreases metabolism
– Promotes greater fat lossPromotes greater fat loss
– Suppresses appetiteSuppresses appetite
What type of exercise is best?What type of exercise is best?
– Aerobic exerciseAerobic exercise
– Strength or muscle endurance exerciseStrength or muscle endurance exercise
Meals vs. GrazingMeals vs. Grazing
Should I eat:Should I eat:
3 regular meals3 regular meals
3 small meals with snacks3 small meals with snacks
6 small meals/ snacks6 small meals/ snacks
This is a personal preference and depends on yourThis is a personal preference and depends on your
schedule and what you consider a “meal” and aschedule and what you consider a “meal” and a
Keep calorie needs in mindKeep calorie needs in mind
Healthy SnacksHealthy Snacks
Air-popped or “light” popcornAir-popped or “light” popcorn
Raw veggies and low-fat dipRaw veggies and low-fat dip
Baby carrotsBaby carrots
PB & B sandwichPB & B sandwich
Sliced turkeySliced turkey
Dry cerealDry cereal
Homemade smoothieHomemade smoothie
Baked chips and salsaBaked chips and salsa
Latte with skim milkLatte with skim milk
Get a journal- record progress, set-backs,Get a journal- record progress, set-backs,
thoughts and feelingsthoughts and feelings
Try new recipesTry new recipes
Take healthy snacks with youTake healthy snacks with you
Try to eat at home more and eat out lessTry to eat at home more and eat out less
If you do eat away from home, makeIf you do eat away from home, make
healthy choices- Don’t be afraid tohealthy choices- Don’t be afraid to
ask for modificationsask for modifications
Eat slowly and savor mealtimeEat slowly and savor mealtime
Not sure if you are hungry?Not sure if you are hungry?
Take a walk firstTake a walk first
Drink plenty of waterDrink plenty of water
If you like soda- drink dietIf you like soda- drink diet
You’re never to old to pack your lunchYou’re never to old to pack your lunch
Don’t starve yourself…you’ll end up overeating laterDon’t starve yourself…you’ll end up overeating later
Let yourself indulge in your favorite foods…justLet yourself indulge in your favorite foods…just
watch portion sizeswatch portion sizes
Get an exercise buddyGet an exercise buddy
Do active things that you actually like!Do active things that you actually like!
Curb late night eatingCurb late night eating
Watch out for the Saturday night 6 packWatch out for the Saturday night 6 pack
Don’t be too hard on yourselfDon’t be too hard on yourself
Indulge…but in moderation!Indulge…but in moderation!
• Do it for you, not anyone elseDo it for you, not anyone else
• Focus on health benefits and the way you feel and youFocus on health benefits and the way you feel and you
• won’t be disappointedwon’t be disappointed
• Don’t get discouraged if you don’t see resultsDon’t get discouraged if you don’t see results
immediately- healthy weight loss takes timeimmediately- healthy weight loss takes time
• You may hit a plateau in your weight loss…this isYou may hit a plateau in your weight loss…this is
natural and you may have to reevaluate your plannatural and you may have to reevaluate your plan
• Reward yourself with things other than foodReward yourself with things other than food
Remember, eating is supposed to be FUN and there isRemember, eating is supposed to be FUN and there is
more to life than obsessing over food!more to life than obsessing over food!
You have to do what is right forYou have to do what is right for