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Anatomy of the stomach
Dr. Mohammed Mahmoud Mosaed
Stomach
• The stomach is the dilated
portion of the alimentary canal
• It is situated in the upper part of
the abdomen, extending from
beneath the left costal margin
region into the epigastric and
umbilical regions.
• Much of the stomach lies under
cover of the lower ribs.
• The stomach relatively fixed at
both ends but is very mobile in
between.
Anatomical description of the stomach
• Shape: Roughly J-shaped
• The stomach has:
• two openings, the cardiac and
pyloric orifices;
• two curvatures, the greater and
lesser curvatures;
• two surfaces, anterior and
posterior surfaces.
• Also the stomach is divided into:
• Fundus
• Body
• Pyloric antrum
• Pylorus; pyloric sphincter and canal
Parts of the stomach
• The stomach is divided into the following parts:
1. Fundus: This is dome-shaped and projects upward
and to the left of the cardiac orifice. It is usually full of
gas.
2. Body: This extends from the level of the cardiac
orifice to the level of the incisura angularis, a constant
notch in the lower part of the lesser curvature.
3. Pyloric antrum: Extends from the incisura angularis
to the pylorus.
4. Pylorus: Most tubular part of the stomach. The thick
muscular wall is called the pyloric sphincter, and the
cavity of the pylorus is the pyloric canal.
Stomach.pdf
Curvatures of the stomach
• Lesser curvature: Forms the right border of the
stomach and extends from the cardiac orifice to the
pylorus.
• It is suspended from the liver by the lesser omentum.
• Greater curvature: Much longer than the lesser
curvature and extends from the left of the cardiac
orifice, over the dome of the fundus, and along the
left border of the stomach to the pylorus.
• The gastrosplenic omentum (ligament) extends from
the upper part of the greater curvature to the spleen,
• The greater omentum extends from the lower part of
the greater curvature to the transverse colon .
• Peritoneum completely surrounds the stomach

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Stomach.pdf

  • 1. Anatomy of the stomach Dr. Mohammed Mahmoud Mosaed
  • 2. Stomach • The stomach is the dilated portion of the alimentary canal • It is situated in the upper part of the abdomen, extending from beneath the left costal margin region into the epigastric and umbilical regions. • Much of the stomach lies under cover of the lower ribs. • The stomach relatively fixed at both ends but is very mobile in between.
  • 3. Anatomical description of the stomach • Shape: Roughly J-shaped • The stomach has: • two openings, the cardiac and pyloric orifices; • two curvatures, the greater and lesser curvatures; • two surfaces, anterior and posterior surfaces. • Also the stomach is divided into: • Fundus • Body • Pyloric antrum • Pylorus; pyloric sphincter and canal
  • 4. Parts of the stomach • The stomach is divided into the following parts: 1. Fundus: This is dome-shaped and projects upward and to the left of the cardiac orifice. It is usually full of gas. 2. Body: This extends from the level of the cardiac orifice to the level of the incisura angularis, a constant notch in the lower part of the lesser curvature. 3. Pyloric antrum: Extends from the incisura angularis to the pylorus. 4. Pylorus: Most tubular part of the stomach. The thick muscular wall is called the pyloric sphincter, and the cavity of the pylorus is the pyloric canal.
  • 6. Curvatures of the stomach • Lesser curvature: Forms the right border of the stomach and extends from the cardiac orifice to the pylorus. • It is suspended from the liver by the lesser omentum. • Greater curvature: Much longer than the lesser curvature and extends from the left of the cardiac orifice, over the dome of the fundus, and along the left border of the stomach to the pylorus. • The gastrosplenic omentum (ligament) extends from the upper part of the greater curvature to the spleen, • The greater omentum extends from the lower part of the greater curvature to the transverse colon . • Peritoneum completely surrounds the stomach
  • 9. Openings of the stomach • The cardiac orifice: Where the esophagus enters the stomach. • The pyloric orifice: Formed by the pyloric canal, which is about 1 in. (2.5 cm) long. The circular muscle coat of the stomach is much thicker here and forms the anatomic and physiologic pyloric sphincter.
  • 10. Wall of the stomach • Serosa: consisting of layers of connective tissue continuous with the peritoneum. • Muscular wall of the stomach contains longitudinal fibers, circular fibers, and oblique fibers. • Mucous membrane: Thrown into numerous folds, or rugae, that are mainly longitudinal in direction. The folds flatten out when the stomach is distended.
  • 11. Relations of the stomach • Anterior relations • Anterior abdominal wall • Left costal margin • Left pleura and lung • Diaphragm, and the • Left lobe of the liver. • Posterior relations • Lesser sac • Diaphragm • Spleen • Left suprarenal gland • Upper part of the left kidney • Splenic artery • Pancreas • Transverse colon • Transverse mesocolon
  • 14. BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE STOMACH • Arteries of the stomach: All are branches of the celiac artery • 1. Left gastric artery: arises from the celiac artery. It supplies the lower third of the esophagus and the upper right part of the stomach. • 2. Right gastric artery: arises from the hepatic artery at the upper border of the pylorus and supplies the lower right part of the stomach. • 3. Short gastric arteries: arise from the splenic artery and supply fundus of the stomach • 4. Left gastroepiploic artery: arises from splenic artery and supply the greater curvature. • 5. Right gastroepiploic artery: arises from the gastroduodenal branch of the hepatic artery, and supplies the stomach along the lower part of the greater curvature.
  • 17. Veins of the stomach • The veins drain into the portal circulation. • The left and right gastric veins drain directly into the portal vein. • The short gastric veins and the left gastroepiploic veins join the splenic vein. • The right gastroepiploic vein joins the superior mesenteric vein.
  • 18. Lymphatic drainage of the stomach • The lymph vessels follow the arteries into the left and right gastric nodes, the left and right gastroepiploic nodes, and the short gastric nodes. • All lymph from the stomach eventually passes to the celiac nodes located around the root of the celiac artery on the posterior abdominal wall.
  • 20. Nerve Supply of the stomach • The nerve supply includes sympathetic fibers derived from the celiac plexus and parasympathetic fibers from the right vagus (posterior vagal trunk) and left vagus ( anterior vagal trunk) nerves. • The sympathetic innervation of the stomach is inhibitory to the muscular wall of the stomach, and carries a proportion of pain-transmitting nerve fibers, whereas the parasympathetic vagal fibers are secretomotor to the gastric glands and motor to the muscular wall of the stomach. • The pyloric sphincter receives motor fibers from the sympathetic system and inhibitory fibers from the vagi.