Urinary System by Hana Jakubickova


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This slide is about anatomy, physiology, and pathology of kidneys

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Urinary System by Hana Jakubickova

  1. 1. Urinary System KIDNEYS
  2. 2. The urinary system of the human body consists of: <ul><li>Two kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Two ureters </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul>
  3. 3. Kidneys - Introduction <ul><li>Are a pair of bean-shaped, red-brown organs </li></ul><ul><li>Each is about 4 inches (10 cm) long, </li></ul><ul><li>2 inches (5 cm) wide, </li></ul><ul><li>and 1 inch (2.5 cm) thick </li></ul><ul><li>Each weighs about </li></ul><ul><li>5 ounces (140 g) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Function of the Kidneys <ul><li>Main Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate the volume and concentration of fluids and minerals in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the waste matter produced by the normal functioning of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Produce urine </li></ul>
  5. 5. Other Functions of the Kidneys: <ul><li>Detoxify harmful substances (e.g. drugs, free radicals) </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete Renin (hormone that regulates blood pressure and electrolyte balance) </li></ul><ul><li>Produce Erythropoietin (hormone that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the absorption of Calcium by producing Calcitriol (form of vitamin D) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Location of the Kidneys <ul><li>On the posterior wall of the abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>One on each side of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>At the level of the lowest ribs </li></ul><ul><li>(the right kidney in most people is </li></ul><ul><li>located slightly lower than the left </li></ul><ul><li>one because of the position of the liver) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Anatomy of the Kidney <ul><li>Each kidney has: </li></ul><ul><li>An outer layer – the cortex </li></ul><ul><li>An inner layer – the medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Cuplike structures – the major and minor calyces </li></ul><ul><li>The renal pelvis </li></ul>
  8. 9. Anatomy of the Kidney (cont.) <ul><li>The renal hilus (the exit point for the ureter, the location where nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels enter and exit) </li></ul><ul><li>A renal artery and arterioles </li></ul><ul><li>A renal vein and capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>A protective membrane – the renal capsule (enclosing each kidney) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Anatomy of the Kidney (cont.) <ul><li>Surrounding each capsule is a cushion of fatty tissue and a layer of connective tissue which attaches the kidneys to the back of the abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>On top of each kidney is adrenal gland </li></ul>
  10. 11. Anatomy of the Kidney (cont.) <ul><li>The renal medulla contains 8-18 renal pyramids (their tips – renal papillae are facing towards the renal hilus, and their bases are aligned with the edge of the renal cortex) </li></ul><ul><li>Between each pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>are renal columns </li></ul>
  11. 12. Anatomy of the Kidney (cont.) <ul><li>The functional units of the kidneys are nephrons – about 1.2 million in each </li></ul><ul><li>kidney </li></ul><ul><li>– filter the blood </li></ul><ul><li>– produce a liquid (the filtrate) </li></ul><ul><li>containing minerals, wastes, </li></ul><ul><li>and water </li></ul>
  12. 13. Structure of the Nephron
  13. 14. Structure of the Nephron <ul><li>Glomerulus – extensive ball-shaped capillary network </li></ul><ul><li>The Bowman’s capsule – a double-walled cup of epithelial tissue surrounding the glomerulus </li></ul><ul><li>The Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus together form the renal corpuscle </li></ul>
  14. 15. Structure of the Nephron (cont.) <ul><li>Proximal convoluted tubule – coiled region of the tube </li></ul><ul><li>Loop of Henle </li></ul><ul><li>Distal convoluted tubule </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting duct </li></ul>
  15. 16. The Nephron at Work <ul><li>Blood enters the glomerulus via the afferent arteriole and exits through the efferent arteriole </li></ul><ul><li>Endothelial-capsular membrane of the renal corpuscle filters water and substances from the blood into the nephron </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Nephron at Work (cont.) <ul><li>The filtrate passes into the renal tubule </li></ul><ul><li>A network of the peritubular capillaries reabsorbs useful substances from the filtrate and secretes additional wastes into it </li></ul><ul><li>About 99 percent of the filtrate is reabsorbed and returned to the blood circulation. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Urine <ul><li>About 1 percent of the filtrate (1-11/2 liters a day) collects in the renal pelvis and forms urine </li></ul><ul><li>Urine exits the kidney via left and right ureters </li></ul><ul><li>Is transported to the bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves body through the urethra </li></ul>
  18. 19. Facts About Urine <ul><li>The volume of urine formed at night is about half that formed during the day </li></ul><ul><li>Normal urine is sterile </li></ul><ul><li>The tissue of the bladder wall is isolated from urine and toxic substances by a coating that discourages bacteria from growing there </li></ul>
  19. 20. Pathology of the Kidney <ul><li>Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) – damage to the renal tubules caused by toxins or ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetic nephropathy – damage to the glomerulus capillaries due to high blood sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Glomerulonephritis – inflammation of the glomerulus </li></ul>
  20. 21. Pathology of the Kidney (cont.) <ul><li>Hydronephrosis – distention of the renal pelvis due to urine collection caused by obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Nephrolithiasis – presence of calculi (stones) in the kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Nephrotic syndrome (NS) – damage to the glomerulus </li></ul>
  21. 22. Pathology of the Kidney (cont.) <ul><li>Nephroptosis – downward displacement of the kidney ( a floating kidney) </li></ul><ul><li>Polycystic kidneys – multiple cysts within the kidney tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Pyelonephritis – inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney </li></ul>
  22. 23. Pathology of the Kidney (cont.) <ul><li>Renal cell carcinoma – cancerous tumor of kidney tubule cells </li></ul><ul><li>Renal failure – inability of the kidneys to filter wastes from the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Wilm’s tumor – malignant kidney tumor (often in children) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Renal Replacement Therapies <ul><li>Hemodialysis – blood is allowed to flow, a few ounces at a time, through a special machine with a filter (dialysis machine) that removes harmful wastes, extra salt, and extra fluids. The clean blood is then returned to the body. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Hemodialysis
  25. 26. Hemodialysis Equipment
  26. 27. Renal Replacement Therapies (cont.) <ul><li>Peritoneal dialysis – a dialysis fluid is entered into the patient’s abdominal cavity, which is covered by a thin membrane (peritoneum), containing many small vessels. The peritoneum works as a dialysis filter, and the dialysis fluid makes water, salt, and the waste products move from the blood into the fluid. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Peritoneal Dialysis
  28. 29. Renal Replacement Therapies (cont.) <ul><li>Renal transplant – an operation that places a healthy kidney in the body. The transplanted kidney takes over the work of the two kidneys that failed. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Questions?
  30. 31. Sources <ul><li>MedicineNet.com. Hemodialysis (cont.) How Hemodialisis Works. Retrieved June11, 2009, from http://www.medicinenet.com/hemodialysis/page2.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Last modified: June 3, 2009). Peritoneal Dialysis . Retrieved June 11, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peritoneal_dialysis </li></ul><ul><li>Health & Wellness REMEDY Life. Renal system Anatomy . Retrieved June 15, 2009, from http://www.nephrologychannel.com/anatomy.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>Fremgen, Bonie F., Frucht, Suzanne S. Medical Terminology: a living language (4 th .ed.). Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul>