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Media And Circuit Of Culture
Media and circuit of culture
• Culture can be understood in terms of
'shared meanings'.
(Hall 1997) In modern world, the media is the
biggest tool of circulation of these meanings.
• Stuart Hall presents them as being shared
through language in its operation as a
'representational (signifying) system‘ and he
presents the circut of cultural model as a way
of understanding this process.
The “Circuit of Culture”
The “Circuit of Culture”
5 interlinked “moments” at which
culture is meaningful:
… production
… consumption
… representation
… identity
… regulation
Representation
• Representation meaning from language, painting,
photography and other media, it uses “signs and
symbols to represent whatever exists in the world
in terms of a meaningful idea and concept,
image".
• Representation is the discursive process by which
cultural meaning is generated and given shape:
“we give things meaning by how we represent
them”.
• For Example: A Bird, A Cross, Traffic Lights.
Consumption
• When messages are
decoded by audiences.
• Consumers actively
create meanings by using
cultural products in their
everyday lives.
• A Bird in a Political
Conference Between Two
nations can be a
• Symbol Of ”Peace” While
the same bird in a
advertisement of beauty
soup is a symbol of
”beauty and softness”
• A Dog is a symbol of
Loyality in USA, While
abuse in India.
Production
• For Example the Use of
word ''HALAL” in islamic
countries
• On the product of snacks
”Lays” by its
manufacturing
• mulinational Company.
(construction) is the
process by which creators
of cultural products
imbue(arise) them with
meaning,
a process often called
encoding (Hall, 1993).
Producers encode
dominant meanings into
their cultural products.
Regulation
• Regulation are conditions What’s allowable or
expected in a culture often is deter mined.
• Identities are meanings that accrue to all social
networks, from nations to organizations to publics.
• Identities, then, are never fixed entities but are
multiple, culturally constructed meanings that evolve
and change.
• For example they deals with:
• To target the ideal young costumers: prizes had to be
low. Name must be cool. Addition of new demand
(e.g Diet coke)
Sender-Receiver Model
• In sender-receiver model Hall emphasied the importance of
specific cultural conditions at every stage of any
communication process. Creators of media texts produce
them in particular instituational context, drawing on shared
framework of knowledge etc.
• The same media text is engaged by audiences in different
context.
• Hall states that reality exists outside the language but
constantly mediated by and through language, what we can
know or say has to be produced in and through discourse.
• Discursive knowldge is not the representation of real
language but articulation of language used in real
condition/ situation.
Culture, representation, identity and
power
culture
representation identity
power
Indian and Pakistani advertisment
of Lays
Discourse
• Discourse analysis engages directly with Circut-of
culture- model, given its political aim of Putting the
forms of text, the process of production of text, the
process of readings, and the structure of power that
have given rise to them.
• In media the interpretation of texts is depends upon
viewers even viewers can produce their own text in
response to a particular visual/oral stimuli (Talk shows
in response to a Political event).
• Media message also perform ideational function of
language; function to perform communicate process,
or express our thoughts through language.
Encoding/ Decoding Model
Social Interaction
Question
• “Who are we without
society?”
Answer
• NOT MUCH>>>>>WITHOUT
SOCIETY, WE ARE SUBHUMAN
Nurture over nature
• FOR EXAMPLE: George Herbert
Mead’s work on the “Looking Glass
Self,” talks about how we become
who we believe others think we
are.
Four Principles
1. Pleasure
2. Rationality
3. Reciprocity
4. Personality
Pleasure
• Pleasure vs Pain-we seek out those who make
us feel good.
Rationality
• People change their behaviour based upon
reward. Will they be better off or worse off if I
enter in interaction
• Cost/Benefits, needs for satisfication
Reciprocity
• Reciprocity-the most familiar principle of
interaction, if every time I pay the bill, and you
don’t, the behaviour will be stopped.
• We have the principle of fairness, rules should
apply equally.
• Ie. Laws of supply and demand??
Personality
• We value civility, fairness
• Fairness-understanding…
Four principles of interaction
• Four principles of interaction are balanced
• They balance behaviour over time
• They are The Human Condition
• Collectively the four principles of interaction,
shape group structure.
Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Limited 30
Interaction as Symbolic
• Symbolic interactionists regard people as
active, creative, and self-reflective
To Mead, the Symbolic Interactionist…
• We define and build
ourselves through our
perceptions of others’
assessments of us, he says.
Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Limited 32
The Structure of Social Interaction
• Social interaction: Involves people
communicating face to face or via computer and
acting and reacting in relation to other people
Is structured around statuses, roles, and norms
Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Limited 33
The Structure of Social Interaction
• Status: Refers to a recognized social position an
individual can occupy (each person occupies
many statuses)
There are two types of status:
Achieved status: Is a voluntary status
Ascribed status: Is an involuntary status
The Structure of Social Interaction
• Status set: Entire ensemble of statuses
occupied by an individual
Master status: A person’s overriding
public identity, and the status that is most
influential in shaping that person’s life at a
given time
Development of the Social Self
• Society made up of selves who act and
interact.
• Self = subject + object (I + me)
For Social Interaction to occur:
Humans must be Socialized
• Socialization is a central process in
social life.
• Its importance has been noted by
sociologists for a long time, but their
image of it has shifted over the last
hundred years.
• In the early years of American
sociology, socialization was equated
with civilization.
• The issue was one of taming fierce
individualists so they would
willingly cooperate with others on
common endeavors.
• An unruly human nature was
assumed to exist prior to an
individual's encounter with society.
• This nature had to be shaped to
conform to socially acceptable ways
of behaving.
• Such people were said to be
"unsocialized"--they had not yet
learned what was expected of them.
• The trouble is, they might very well
know what was expected but simply
be rejecting
Importance of Symbolic Interactionism
• Adds micro-level perspective to mainstream
sociology
• Adds potential to bridge gap between macro
and micro-levels
• Advances our understanding of sociological
processes.

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Media And Circuit Of Culture .pptx

  • 1. Media And Circuit Of Culture
  • 2. Media and circuit of culture • Culture can be understood in terms of 'shared meanings'. (Hall 1997) In modern world, the media is the biggest tool of circulation of these meanings. • Stuart Hall presents them as being shared through language in its operation as a 'representational (signifying) system‘ and he presents the circut of cultural model as a way of understanding this process.
  • 3. The “Circuit of Culture”
  • 4. The “Circuit of Culture” 5 interlinked “moments” at which culture is meaningful: … production … consumption … representation … identity … regulation
  • 5. Representation • Representation meaning from language, painting, photography and other media, it uses “signs and symbols to represent whatever exists in the world in terms of a meaningful idea and concept, image". • Representation is the discursive process by which cultural meaning is generated and given shape: “we give things meaning by how we represent them”. • For Example: A Bird, A Cross, Traffic Lights.
  • 6. Consumption • When messages are decoded by audiences. • Consumers actively create meanings by using cultural products in their everyday lives. • A Bird in a Political Conference Between Two nations can be a • Symbol Of ”Peace” While the same bird in a advertisement of beauty soup is a symbol of ”beauty and softness” • A Dog is a symbol of Loyality in USA, While abuse in India.
  • 7. Production • For Example the Use of word ''HALAL” in islamic countries • On the product of snacks ”Lays” by its manufacturing • mulinational Company. (construction) is the process by which creators of cultural products imbue(arise) them with meaning, a process often called encoding (Hall, 1993). Producers encode dominant meanings into their cultural products.
  • 8. Regulation • Regulation are conditions What’s allowable or expected in a culture often is deter mined. • Identities are meanings that accrue to all social networks, from nations to organizations to publics. • Identities, then, are never fixed entities but are multiple, culturally constructed meanings that evolve and change. • For example they deals with: • To target the ideal young costumers: prizes had to be low. Name must be cool. Addition of new demand (e.g Diet coke)
  • 9. Sender-Receiver Model • In sender-receiver model Hall emphasied the importance of specific cultural conditions at every stage of any communication process. Creators of media texts produce them in particular instituational context, drawing on shared framework of knowledge etc. • The same media text is engaged by audiences in different context. • Hall states that reality exists outside the language but constantly mediated by and through language, what we can know or say has to be produced in and through discourse. • Discursive knowldge is not the representation of real language but articulation of language used in real condition/ situation.
  • 10. Culture, representation, identity and power culture representation identity power
  • 11. Indian and Pakistani advertisment of Lays
  • 12. Discourse • Discourse analysis engages directly with Circut-of culture- model, given its political aim of Putting the forms of text, the process of production of text, the process of readings, and the structure of power that have given rise to them. • In media the interpretation of texts is depends upon viewers even viewers can produce their own text in response to a particular visual/oral stimuli (Talk shows in response to a Political event). • Media message also perform ideational function of language; function to perform communicate process, or express our thoughts through language.
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  • 21. Question • “Who are we without society?”
  • 23. Nurture over nature • FOR EXAMPLE: George Herbert Mead’s work on the “Looking Glass Self,” talks about how we become who we believe others think we are.
  • 24. Four Principles 1. Pleasure 2. Rationality 3. Reciprocity 4. Personality
  • 25. Pleasure • Pleasure vs Pain-we seek out those who make us feel good.
  • 26. Rationality • People change their behaviour based upon reward. Will they be better off or worse off if I enter in interaction • Cost/Benefits, needs for satisfication
  • 27. Reciprocity • Reciprocity-the most familiar principle of interaction, if every time I pay the bill, and you don’t, the behaviour will be stopped. • We have the principle of fairness, rules should apply equally. • Ie. Laws of supply and demand??
  • 28. Personality • We value civility, fairness • Fairness-understanding…
  • 29. Four principles of interaction • Four principles of interaction are balanced • They balance behaviour over time • They are The Human Condition • Collectively the four principles of interaction, shape group structure.
  • 30. Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Limited 30 Interaction as Symbolic • Symbolic interactionists regard people as active, creative, and self-reflective
  • 31. To Mead, the Symbolic Interactionist… • We define and build ourselves through our perceptions of others’ assessments of us, he says.
  • 32. Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Limited 32 The Structure of Social Interaction • Social interaction: Involves people communicating face to face or via computer and acting and reacting in relation to other people Is structured around statuses, roles, and norms
  • 33. Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Limited 33 The Structure of Social Interaction • Status: Refers to a recognized social position an individual can occupy (each person occupies many statuses) There are two types of status: Achieved status: Is a voluntary status Ascribed status: Is an involuntary status
  • 34. The Structure of Social Interaction • Status set: Entire ensemble of statuses occupied by an individual Master status: A person’s overriding public identity, and the status that is most influential in shaping that person’s life at a given time
  • 35. Development of the Social Self • Society made up of selves who act and interact. • Self = subject + object (I + me)
  • 36. For Social Interaction to occur: Humans must be Socialized • Socialization is a central process in social life. • Its importance has been noted by sociologists for a long time, but their image of it has shifted over the last hundred years.
  • 37. • In the early years of American sociology, socialization was equated with civilization. • The issue was one of taming fierce individualists so they would willingly cooperate with others on common endeavors.
  • 38. • An unruly human nature was assumed to exist prior to an individual's encounter with society. • This nature had to be shaped to conform to socially acceptable ways of behaving.
  • 39. • Such people were said to be "unsocialized"--they had not yet learned what was expected of them. • The trouble is, they might very well know what was expected but simply be rejecting
  • 40. Importance of Symbolic Interactionism • Adds micro-level perspective to mainstream sociology • Adds potential to bridge gap between macro and micro-levels • Advances our understanding of sociological processes.