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Media Characteristics


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Lecture 9A: Media Characteristics

Published in: Business, News & Politics
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Media Characteristics

  1. 1. Principles of Advertising & Marketing Communication Chapter 11: Media Characteristics
  2. 2. Media Classifications <ul><li>Media: an umbrella term for all types of print, broadcast, out-of-out, and interactive communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium: Each specific type of media (TV, Radio, Newspapers) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Media Vehicles: Manila Bulletin, MTV, 90.7 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Media Classifications… Cont’d <ul><li>Mass Media: communication channels through which messages may be sent to the “masses”-large, diverse audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Niche Media: communication channels through which messages are sent to audiences with a distinct commonality. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Media Classifications… Cont’d <ul><li>Addressable Media: media that carry messages to identifiable customers or prospects. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Media: two-way media allowing both companies and customers to send and receive messages. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Media Selection: Quicklist of Advantages Medium Newspapers Magazines TV Radio Direct Mail Outdoor Advantages Many ad sizes available, quick placement, and local targeting. High-quality graphics/reproduction, prestige factor, and color. Combines sight, sound, movement. A single message. Demonstration. Intimacy, loyal following, and ability to change message quickly. Measurable, graphics, color, 3-D, and highly personal. Local targeting, graphics, color, simple message, and larger than life.
  6. 6. Print Media <ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formats and Features: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadsheets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tabloids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content divided by topic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ad space is sold per column inch (a space that is one column wide and one inch tall) (Ex. If column is 4 columns wide and 10 inches tall-40 column inches). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage & audience measurement: circulation and readers per copy (RPC) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Print Media… Cont’d <ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified ads: small-space, words-only ads presented in a clearly labeled section with no surrounding editorial content. (Classified display ads: includes graphics and larger sizes of type) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display ads: ads that generally contain more graphics and white space that copy and appear next to editorial content. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplement inserts: inserts that are preprinted by an advertiser and enclosed with the newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-standing inserts: supplements that contain ads, most with coupons, for a variety of national brands. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Pros of Newspapers Advertising Mass medium Local medium Comprehension in scope Geographic selectivity Timeliness Credibility Selective attention Creative flexibility An active medium A permanent record Reasonable cost
  9. 9. What Works Best in Print Use simple layouts Always caption photos Long copy is okay Avoid negative headlines Seek story appeal Photos work better than illustrations Look at your ad in its editorial environment Develop a single ad format Before-and-after photos better than words Do not print copy in reverse type Make each ad a complete sale
  10. 10. Print Media… Cont’d <ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of distribution (weekly, monthly, quarterly) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of audience (consumer, business, trade and professional) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of distribution: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paid-circulation publications-magazines that sell subscriptions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled-circulation publications-trade, industrial, and organizational magazines that are distributed free to those working in a given subject area or affiliated with a given organization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher pass-along rate or RPC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Print Media… Cont’d <ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gatefolds: two or more oversize pages that fold-out from the magazine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tip-ins: Pre-printed ads that are bound or glued into the magazine but are printed on heavier paper than the rest of the magazine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Reply Cards (BRCs): postcard-sized ads that are (a) slipped between the pages (so they easily fall out when the magazine is read), (b) tipped into the binding so they are easily seen but held in place, or (c) stuck onto an ad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop-up ads: three-dimensional ads that stand up when the magazine is opened to the page on which they appear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scent strips: patches that readers can scratch or pull off to elicit a smell (used for perfumes, air fresheners, and foods). </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Print Media… Cont’d <ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad space sold in portions of a page-quarter-, half-, and full-age ads, as well as double-page spreads (which are ads printed across two facing pages). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleed ads: ads with graphics that go to the edge of the page. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Pros of Magazine Advertising Flexibility Color Authority and believability Permanence Prestige Audience selectivity Cost efficiency Selling power Reader loyalty Extension pass-along readership Merchandising assistance
  14. 14. Broadcast Media <ul><li>Audience measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating point: 1 percent of a communication vehicle’s coverage area that has been exposed to a broadcast program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience share: the percentage of persons using a radio or TV at a particular time who are tuned to a particular station. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales pricing (:30 and :60) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Broadcast Media… Cont’d <ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image transfer: a process by which members of a target audience exposed to the sights and sounds of a brand’s TV message when they are exposed to a similar soundtrack on radio. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daypart: block of time identified by a station for the purpose of setting ad rates (6-10AM, 10AM-3PM, 3-7PM, 7PM-Midnight, Midnight-6AM) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Broadcast Media… Cont’d <ul><li>TV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infomercials: 30-minute commercial “program” that demonstrates a product, presents testimonials from satisfued users, and offers viewers one or more ways to buy the product direct (toll-free number, website address, mailing address). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive TV: the convergence of computers, television, and the internet </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Pros and Cons of Broadcast TV Advertising Mass coverage Low cost Some selectivity Impact Creativity Prestige Social dominance High production costs High air-time costs Limited selectivity Brevity Clutter Zipping and Zapping Pros Cons
  18. 18. TV Network and Syndication Distribution Advertiser a. Network Commercials Network Producer Local station Advertiser b. Syndication Commercials Producer Local station Programming Programming Programming
  19. 19. Pros and Cons of Radio Advertising Reach and Frequency Selectivity Cost-efficiency Timelessness Immediacy Local relevance Creative flexibility Limitations of sound Segmented audiences Short-lived and half- heard commercials Clutter Pros Cons
  20. 20. Out-of-Home Media <ul><li>Out-of-home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Billboards or outdoor boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theater and video ads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product placement in movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic kiosks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ads in elevators or bathroom stalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banner displays on ATM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chalk and stencil sidewalk messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placards on shopping carts </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Out-of-Home Media… Cont’d <ul><li>Out-of-home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulletins: 14x48 ft; either painted or printed panels; usually create for a local marketer in the outdoor company’s shop and then assembled on the billboard structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30-sheet posters: 12x25 ft; printed on large sheets in multiple copies and then distributed to a local outdoor companies, which mount the sheets on the outdoor board. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8-shweet panels (also called junior panels): 5x11 ft; good with pedestrian traffic; often used by food-product manufacturers as a reminder near a grocery store. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectaculars: nonstandard; used in busy metro areas such as New York, Hong Kong, etc.; electronic signs with movement, color, and flashing lights designed to grab attention in high-traffic areas. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Out-of-Home Media… Cont’d <ul><li>Cinema and Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotional video networks: companies that use videos or satellite transmission to a distribute programs and commercial messages. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nontraditional Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guerilla marketing: a marketing approach that reaches people in unconventional ways-in the streets or in other unexpected places. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Out-of-Home Media… Cont’d <ul><li>Product Placement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid verbal or visual brand exposure in entertainment programming </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Pros and Cons of Outdoor Advertising Accessibility Reach Frequency Geographic flexibility Demographic flexibility Cost (lowest per exposure) Impact Creative flexibility Location Fleeting message Environmental influence Audience measurement Control (hard to inspect panels for quality, etc.) Planning and costs (long lead times, upfront costs) Availability of locations Visual pollution Pros Cons
  25. 25. Transit Advertising <ul><li>Truck Ads </li></ul><ul><li>Bus Wraps </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Pros and Cons of Transit Advertising Long exposure Repetitive value Eagerly read messages Low cost Creative flexibility (special constructions, etc.) Need satisfying (able to target it well) Environmentally sensitive (fits growth in public transit) Status (lack of) Crowded environment Selectivity Clutter Location Creative restrictions (copy limited, etc.) Pros Cons
  27. 27. Internet Advertising <ul><li>Banner Ads </li></ul><ul><li>Content Sponsorships </li></ul><ul><li>Email Ads </li></ul><ul><li>Websites </li></ul>
  28. 28. Pros and Cons of Internet Advertising Truly Interactive Enormous audience Immediate response Affluent market In-depth information Rapid-growth industry Business-to-business Advertorials Virtual storefront Untested medium Targeting costs Slow downloads Not yet mainstream Ad may be placed inappropriately Unproved security and privacy Global marketing limitations Pros Cons
  29. 29. Pros and Cons of Direct-Mail Advertising Selectivity Intensive coverage, extensive reach Flexibility Control Personal Impact Exclusivity Highest response Testability High per-exposure cost Delivery problems Lack of editorial content support Selectivity problems Negative attitudes Environmental concerns Pros Cons
  30. 30. Consumer Attitudes Toward Media (abbreviated) 57% 9% 20% 11% 3% Television Radio Newspapers Magazines Don’t know 81% 5% 9% 2% 3% Authoritative Influential
  31. 31. Consumers’ Expectations for Packaging <ul><li> Ease (to handle and store) </li></ul><ul><li> Convenience </li></ul><ul><li> List ingredients </li></ul><ul><li> Instructions </li></ul><ul><li> Life o f product </li></ul><ul><li> Disposal method </li></ul><ul><li> Toll-free phone number for emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Performance guarantees </li></ul><ul><li>Safety guarantees </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental safety (biodegradability) </li></ul><ul><li>Reusable </li></ul><ul><li>Recyclable </li></ul>
  32. 32. Consumer Advocacy Groups’ Expectations for Packaging <ul><li> Package safe to handle and use </li></ul><ul><li> Environmentally safe </li></ul><ul><li> Package free of health hazards </li></ul><ul><li> Self-informative – List of ingredients – Instructions – Disposable method – Toll-free phone number for emergencies – Warranties – Expiration dated </li></ul><ul><li> Recyclable </li></ul><ul><li>Adherence to federal and local regulators </li></ul>