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Media Ownership Revision

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Media Ownership Revision

  1. 1. REVISION OF MEDIA OWNERSHIP Lesson Objectives: To revise your understanding of media ownership, and be able to explain the implications for film institutions and audiences.
  2. 2. KEY WORDS – WHICH KEY OWNERSHIP TERMS ARE DEFINED BELOW? Two or more types of media coming together. Different elements of a company working together to promote related products. The process by which an increasingly smaller number of companies own most media outlets. A company which produces two or more types of media. A large parent company which owns a range of smaller companies. Smaller companies owned by a parent company. When the market is dominated by a small number of companies.
  3. 3. KEY WORDS – WHICH KEY OWNERSHIP TERMS ARE DEFINED BELOW? Convergence Two or more types of media coming together. Synergy Different elements of a company working together to promote related products. Concentration of media ownership The process by which an increasingly smaller number of companies own most media outlets. Cross-media ownership When a company which produces two or more types of media. Conglomerate A large parent company which owns a range of smaller companies. Subsidiary Smaller companies owned by a parent company. Oligopoly When the market is dominated by a small number of companies.
  4. 4. THE AMERICAN FILM INDUSTRY <ul><li>The American film industry is dominated by The Big Six film studios. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you name them? </li></ul><ul><li>Warner Brothers </li></ul><ul><li>Paramount </li></ul><ul><li>20 th Century Fox </li></ul><ul><li>Walt Disney Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Columbia Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Pictures </li></ul>What is the combined North American market share of the Big Six? 90%
  5. 5. WHO OWNS THE BIG SIX? <ul><li>Warner Bros. </li></ul><ul><li>Time Warner (world’s 2 nd largest media conglomerate) </li></ul><ul><li>Paramount </li></ul><ul><li>Viacom (4 th largest media conglomerate) </li></ul><ul><li>20 th Century Fox </li></ul><ul><li>News Corp (3 rd largest media conglomerate) </li></ul>
  6. 6. WHO OWNS THE BIG SIX? <ul><li>Walt Disney Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>The Walt Disney Company (world’s largest media conglomerate) </li></ul><ul><li>Columbia Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Sony Corporation (5 th largest media conglomerate) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>GE (2 nd largest company in the world) and Comcast (largest telecommunications company in the US) </li></ul>
  7. 7. OWNERSHIP AND THE AMERICAN FILM INDUSTRY <ul><li>The American film industry is dominated by 6 major studios, each of which are subsidiaries of major media conglomerates. </li></ul><ul><li>The American film industry makes more money from international revenue ($30 billion) than domestic revenue ($10 billion). </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of this ownership structure? </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of media ownership (bias, stealth marketing) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to take bigger risks – bigger budgets – spectacle </li></ul><ul><li>Synergy </li></ul>
  8. 8. FILM AND BRITAIN <ul><li>The film market in Britain is dominated by American products. </li></ul><ul><li>American produced films account for 75% of the total UK box office. </li></ul><ul><li>18 of the top 20 most successful films at the British box office were produced by the Big Six studios. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ukfilmcouncil.org.uk/media/pdf/1/6/The_UK_box_office_in_2010_final_version_20Jan11.pdf </li></ul>
  9. 9. OWNERSHIP AND GLOBALISATION <ul><li>One effect of the concentration of media ownership is that the global media market is increasingly dominated by a small number of Western (mostly American) conglomerates. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think this is a positive or a negative? </li></ul>
  10. 10. OWNERSHIP AND THE UK FILM INDUSTRY <ul><li>What are the different types of institutions in the British film industry? </li></ul><ul><li>Independent companies </li></ul><ul><li>Television Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Government bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Co-productions with Hollywood studios </li></ul>
  11. 11. FILM 4 <ul><li>What do you know about Film 4 in relation to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The structure of the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How it funds and produces films (e.g. Submarine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How synergy is used </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. ‘ THIS IS ENGLAND’ <ul><li>‘ This is England’ is a good example of an independent British production. </li></ul><ul><li>It was produced by 7 different companies including Film Four, the UK Film Council, Warp Films, and Screen Yorkshire. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I forgot when watching Shane Meadows’ moving evocation of skinhead youth This is England at the London Film Festival, how culturally specific its opening montage might seem…What will people outside of Northern Europe make of the regalia of 1980’s skinheads from the midlands? Hopefully they will be intrigued. This Is England made me realise, too, that some British films are at last doing exactly what Sight and Sound has campaigned for; reflecting aspects of British life gain and maybe suffering the consequences of being harder to sell abroad.” Nick James, editor of ‘Sight and Sound’ </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Discuss the issues raised by media ownership within a media area you have studied. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant to the question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate factual knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal experience </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. ESSAY STRUCTURE <ul><li>Introduction – state your focus, argument, and case studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Media Ownership – general overview of key issues relating to the film industry </li></ul><ul><li>American film industry – using Disney to support points you make explain implications of ownership on institutions and audiences </li></ul><ul><li>British film industry – contrast British film industry using examples from Film Four </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion – sum up your argument, relate to your own personal experience as a consumer </li></ul>

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