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Chapter 1
Internet & Web Basics
Key Concepts
Copyright © 2013
Terry Ann Morris, Ed.D.
1
Learning Outcomes
 Describe the evolution of the Internet and the Web
 Explain the need for web standards
 Describe universal design
 Identify benefits of accessible web design
 Identify reliable resources of information on the Web
 Identify ethical use of the Web
 Describe the purpose of web browsers and web servers
 Identify Internet protocols
 Define URIs and domain names
 Describe XHTML and HTML
 Create your first web page
 Use the body, head, title and meta elements
 Name, save, and test a web page
2
The Evolution of the Internet
 Internet
 Interconnected network of computer networks
 ARPAnet
○ Advanced Research Project Agency
○ 1969 – four computers connected
 NSFnet
○ National Science Foundation
 Use of the Internet was originally limited to
government, research and academic use
 1991 Commercial ban lifted
3
Growth of the Internet
Figure 1.1 Growth of Internet Usage
Statistics from www.internetworldstats.com. Copyright © 2001 -
2012, Miniwatts Marketing Group. All rights reserved worldwide.
4
Reasons for
Internet Growth in the 1990s
 Removal of the ban on commercial activity
 Development of the World Wide Web by Tim Berners-
Lee at CERN
 Development of Mosaic, the first graphics-based web
browser at NCSA
 Convergence of technologies:
 Affordable personal computers with GUI Operating Systems
 Affordable Internet service providers
5
The World Wide Web
The graphical user interface to information
stored on some of the computers
connected to the Internet.
6
Web Standards
and the W3C Consortium
W3C – World Wide Web Consortium
 Develops recommendations and prototype
technologies related to the Web
 Produces specifications, called Recommendations,
in an effort to standardize web technologies
 WAI – Web Accessibility Initiative
7
Web Accessibility
“The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by
everyone regardless of disability is an essential
aspect.” – Tim Berners-Lee
 Accessible Websites
provide accommodations that help individuals
to individuals with visual, auditory, physical,
and neurological disabilities overcome barriers
 WAI – Web Accessibility Initiative
 Develops accessibility recommendations
 WCAG 2.0
 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref/
8
Web Accessibility
Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
Requires that government agencies must give
individuals with disabilities access to information
technology that is comparable to the access
available to others
9
Universal Design
“The design of products and
environments to be usable by all people,
to the greatest extent possible, without
the need for adaptation or specialized
design.”
– The Center for Universal Design
http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/about_ud/about_ud.htm
10
Information on the Web
 Reliability and information
 Evaluate the credibility of the site
 Ethical use of information
 Copyright and the Web
11
Network Overview
Network
two or more computers connected together for the
purpose of communicating and sharing resources
12
The Client/Server Model
 Client/Server can describe a relationship between
two computer programs – the "client" and the
"server".
 Client
 requests some type of service (such as a file or
database access) from the server.
 Server
 fulfills the request and transmits the results to the client
over a network
13
The Client/Server Model
 The Internet
Client/Server Model
 Client: Web Browser
 Server: Web Server
14
Internet Protocols
 Protocols
› Rules that describe the methods used for
clients and servers to communicate with
each other over a network.
 There is no single protocol that makes the
Internet and Web work.
 A number of protocols with specific
functions are needed.
15
Common Internet
Protocols
 Official Communication Protocol: TCP/IP
 Specialized Protocols:
 File Transfer: FTP
 E-mail: SMTP, POP3, IMAP
 Websites: HTTP
16
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
 A set of rules for exchanging files such as text,
graphic images, sound, video, and other
multimedia files on the Web.
 Web browsers send HTTP requests for web pages and
their associated files.
 Web servers send HTTP responses back to the web
browsers.
17
HTTP Request
HTTP Response
IP Address
 Each device connected to the Internet has a
unique numeric IP address.
 These addresses consist of a set of four groups
of numbers, called octets.
74.125.73.106 will get you Google!
 An IP address may correspond to a domain
name.
18
Domain Name
 Locates an organization or other entity on the
Internet
 Domain Name System
◦ Divides the Internet into logical groups and
understandable names
◦ Associates unique computer IP Addresses with the
text-based domain names you type into a web
browser
◦ Browser: http://google.com
◦ IP Address: 74.125.73.106
19
URI
Uniform Resource Indicator
URL
Uniform
Resource
Locator
Represents
the address
of a resource
on the Internet.
20
TLD
Top-Level Domain Name
 A top-level domain (TLD) identifies the right-
most part of the domain name.
 Some generic TLDs:
.com, .org, .net, .mil, .gov, .edu, .int, .aero,
.asia, .cat, .jobs, .name, .biz, .museum, .info,
.coop, .pro, .travel
21
County Code
TLDs
 Two character codes originally intended to indicate
the geographical location (country) of the web site.
 In practice, it is fairly easy to obtain a domain
name with a country code TLD that is not local to
the registrant.
 Examples:
 .tv, .ws, .au, .jp, .uk
 See http://www.iana.org/cctld/cctld-whois.htm
22
Domain Name System
 The Domain Name System (DNS) associates
Domain Names with IP addresses.
23
23
Domain Name
IP Address
Use TPC/IP
to send HTTP Request
Web
Server
Use TCP/IP
to send HTTP Responses
with web page files & images
Web Browser
requests web page
Web Browser
displays web page
DNS
Markup Languages
 SGML – Standard Generalized Markup
Language
› A standard for specifying a markup language or
tag set
 HTML – Hypertext Markup Language
› The set of markup symbols or codes placed in a
file intended for display on a web browser.
 Element or tag – individual markup code
 Attribute – modifies the purpose of a tag
24
Markup Languages (2)
 XML – eXtensible Markup Language
 A text-based language designed to describe, deliver,
and exchange structured information.
 It is not intended to replace HTML –
it is intended to extend the power of HTML by
separating data from presentation.
25
Markup Languages (3)
 XHTML – eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language
 Developed by the W3C as the reformulation of HTML 4.0
as an application of XML.
 It combines the formatting strengths of HTML 4.0 and the
data structure and extensibility strengths of XML.
26
Markup Languages (4)
 HTML 5
› The next version of HTML 4 and XHTML 1
 Currently in draft status
 Incorporates features of both HTML and XHTML
 Adds new elements
 Eliminates some elements
 Intended to be backward compatible
› http://www.w3.org/html/
27
Your First HTML5 Web Page:
index.html
<!DOCTYPE html">
<html lang="en">
<head>
<title>Page Title Goes Here</title>
<meta charset="utf-8">
</head>
<body>
... body text and more HTML tags go here ...
</body>
</html>
28
Under the Hood of
a Web Page
DTD – describes the markup language syntax
HTML element– contains the web page document
Head element – contains the head section
The head section contains information that describes the
web page document
Title element– Text displays in title bar of window
Meta element – describes the character encoding
Body element – contains the body section
The body section contains the text and elements that
display in the browser viewport.
29
Summary
This chapter provided a brief overview of
Internet, Web, and introductory networking
concepts along with your very first web
page.
30

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ch01-internet.ppt

  • 1. Chapter 1 Internet & Web Basics Key Concepts Copyright © 2013 Terry Ann Morris, Ed.D. 1
  • 2. Learning Outcomes  Describe the evolution of the Internet and the Web  Explain the need for web standards  Describe universal design  Identify benefits of accessible web design  Identify reliable resources of information on the Web  Identify ethical use of the Web  Describe the purpose of web browsers and web servers  Identify Internet protocols  Define URIs and domain names  Describe XHTML and HTML  Create your first web page  Use the body, head, title and meta elements  Name, save, and test a web page 2
  • 3. The Evolution of the Internet  Internet  Interconnected network of computer networks  ARPAnet ○ Advanced Research Project Agency ○ 1969 – four computers connected  NSFnet ○ National Science Foundation  Use of the Internet was originally limited to government, research and academic use  1991 Commercial ban lifted 3
  • 4. Growth of the Internet Figure 1.1 Growth of Internet Usage Statistics from www.internetworldstats.com. Copyright © 2001 - 2012, Miniwatts Marketing Group. All rights reserved worldwide. 4
  • 5. Reasons for Internet Growth in the 1990s  Removal of the ban on commercial activity  Development of the World Wide Web by Tim Berners- Lee at CERN  Development of Mosaic, the first graphics-based web browser at NCSA  Convergence of technologies:  Affordable personal computers with GUI Operating Systems  Affordable Internet service providers 5
  • 6. The World Wide Web The graphical user interface to information stored on some of the computers connected to the Internet. 6
  • 7. Web Standards and the W3C Consortium W3C – World Wide Web Consortium  Develops recommendations and prototype technologies related to the Web  Produces specifications, called Recommendations, in an effort to standardize web technologies  WAI – Web Accessibility Initiative 7
  • 8. Web Accessibility “The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.” – Tim Berners-Lee  Accessible Websites provide accommodations that help individuals to individuals with visual, auditory, physical, and neurological disabilities overcome barriers  WAI – Web Accessibility Initiative  Develops accessibility recommendations  WCAG 2.0  Web Content Accessibility Guidelines http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref/ 8
  • 9. Web Accessibility Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act Requires that government agencies must give individuals with disabilities access to information technology that is comparable to the access available to others 9
  • 10. Universal Design “The design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” – The Center for Universal Design http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/about_ud/about_ud.htm 10
  • 11. Information on the Web  Reliability and information  Evaluate the credibility of the site  Ethical use of information  Copyright and the Web 11
  • 12. Network Overview Network two or more computers connected together for the purpose of communicating and sharing resources 12
  • 13. The Client/Server Model  Client/Server can describe a relationship between two computer programs – the "client" and the "server".  Client  requests some type of service (such as a file or database access) from the server.  Server  fulfills the request and transmits the results to the client over a network 13
  • 14. The Client/Server Model  The Internet Client/Server Model  Client: Web Browser  Server: Web Server 14
  • 15. Internet Protocols  Protocols › Rules that describe the methods used for clients and servers to communicate with each other over a network.  There is no single protocol that makes the Internet and Web work.  A number of protocols with specific functions are needed. 15
  • 16. Common Internet Protocols  Official Communication Protocol: TCP/IP  Specialized Protocols:  File Transfer: FTP  E-mail: SMTP, POP3, IMAP  Websites: HTTP 16
  • 17. HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol  A set of rules for exchanging files such as text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files on the Web.  Web browsers send HTTP requests for web pages and their associated files.  Web servers send HTTP responses back to the web browsers. 17 HTTP Request HTTP Response
  • 18. IP Address  Each device connected to the Internet has a unique numeric IP address.  These addresses consist of a set of four groups of numbers, called octets. 74.125.73.106 will get you Google!  An IP address may correspond to a domain name. 18
  • 19. Domain Name  Locates an organization or other entity on the Internet  Domain Name System ◦ Divides the Internet into logical groups and understandable names ◦ Associates unique computer IP Addresses with the text-based domain names you type into a web browser ◦ Browser: http://google.com ◦ IP Address: 74.125.73.106 19
  • 21. TLD Top-Level Domain Name  A top-level domain (TLD) identifies the right- most part of the domain name.  Some generic TLDs: .com, .org, .net, .mil, .gov, .edu, .int, .aero, .asia, .cat, .jobs, .name, .biz, .museum, .info, .coop, .pro, .travel 21
  • 22. County Code TLDs  Two character codes originally intended to indicate the geographical location (country) of the web site.  In practice, it is fairly easy to obtain a domain name with a country code TLD that is not local to the registrant.  Examples:  .tv, .ws, .au, .jp, .uk  See http://www.iana.org/cctld/cctld-whois.htm 22
  • 23. Domain Name System  The Domain Name System (DNS) associates Domain Names with IP addresses. 23 23 Domain Name IP Address Use TPC/IP to send HTTP Request Web Server Use TCP/IP to send HTTP Responses with web page files & images Web Browser requests web page Web Browser displays web page DNS
  • 24. Markup Languages  SGML – Standard Generalized Markup Language › A standard for specifying a markup language or tag set  HTML – Hypertext Markup Language › The set of markup symbols or codes placed in a file intended for display on a web browser.  Element or tag – individual markup code  Attribute – modifies the purpose of a tag 24
  • 25. Markup Languages (2)  XML – eXtensible Markup Language  A text-based language designed to describe, deliver, and exchange structured information.  It is not intended to replace HTML – it is intended to extend the power of HTML by separating data from presentation. 25
  • 26. Markup Languages (3)  XHTML – eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language  Developed by the W3C as the reformulation of HTML 4.0 as an application of XML.  It combines the formatting strengths of HTML 4.0 and the data structure and extensibility strengths of XML. 26
  • 27. Markup Languages (4)  HTML 5 › The next version of HTML 4 and XHTML 1  Currently in draft status  Incorporates features of both HTML and XHTML  Adds new elements  Eliminates some elements  Intended to be backward compatible › http://www.w3.org/html/ 27
  • 28. Your First HTML5 Web Page: index.html <!DOCTYPE html"> <html lang="en"> <head> <title>Page Title Goes Here</title> <meta charset="utf-8"> </head> <body> ... body text and more HTML tags go here ... </body> </html> 28
  • 29. Under the Hood of a Web Page DTD – describes the markup language syntax HTML element– contains the web page document Head element – contains the head section The head section contains information that describes the web page document Title element– Text displays in title bar of window Meta element – describes the character encoding Body element – contains the body section The body section contains the text and elements that display in the browser viewport. 29
  • 30. Summary This chapter provided a brief overview of Internet, Web, and introductory networking concepts along with your very first web page. 30