Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Demand-Side Flexibility for Reliable
Ancillary Services in a Smart Grid:
Eliminating Risk to Consumers and the Grid
ANALYT...
Eliminating Risk to Consumers and the Grid
Outline
1 Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
2 FERC Pilots the Grid
3 D...
Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06
GW
0
1
2
3
4
GW (t) = Wind generation in BPA, Jan 2015
Scary ramps
Challenges
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
Some of the Challenges
1 Large sunk cost (decreasing!)
1 / 25
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
Some of the Challenges
1 Large sunk cost (decreasing!)
2 Engineering uncertaint...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
Some of the Challenges
1 Large sunk cost (decreasing!)
2 Engineering uncertaint...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
Some of the Challenges
1 Large sunk cost (decreasing!)
2 Engineering uncertaint...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
Some of the Challenges
What’s so scary about volatility?
4 Volatility
Jan 01 Ja...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
Some of the Challenges
What’s so scary about volatility?
4 Volatility =⇒ greate...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
Some of the Challenges
What’s so scary about volatility?
4 Volatility =⇒ greate...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
Comparison: Flight control
How do we fly a plane through a storm?
Brains
Brawn
4...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
Comparison: Flight control
How do we fly a plane through a storm?
Brains
Brawn
W...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
Comparison: Flight control
How do we operate the grid in a storm?
Balancing Aut...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
How do we operate the grid in a storm?
Disturbance decomposition
Jan 01 Jan 02 ...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
How do we operate the grid in a storm?
Disturbance decomposition
Jan 01 Jan 02 ...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
How do we operate the grid in a storm?
Disturbance decomposition
Sca
Jan 01 Jan...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
How do we operate the grid in a storm?
Disturbance decomposition
Jan 01 Jan 02 ...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
How do we operate the grid in a storm?
Disturbance decomposition
Jan 01 Jan 02 ...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
How do we operate the grid in a storm?
Disturbance decomposition
Jan 01 Jan 02 ...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
How do we operate the grid in a storm?
Disturbance decomposition
Jan 01 Jan 02 ...
Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration
How do we operate the grid in a storm?
Disturbance decomposition
Jan 01 Jan 02 ...
Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06
GW
0
1
2
3
4
Gr(t)
G1
G2
G
Traditional generation
FERC Order 745
FERC Order 7553...
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC 745: Demand & Generation smooth the Grid
7 / 25
FERC Pilots the Grid
Origin of FERC 745 – Incentives for Demand Response
FERC 745 is Born!
134 FERC ¶61,187
UNITED STATES ...
FERC Pilots the Grid
Origin of FERC 745 – Incentives for Demand Response
FERC 745 is Born!
134 FERC ¶61,187
UNITED STATES ...
FERC Pilots the Grid
Origin of FERC 745 – Incentives for Demand Response
FERC 745 is Born!
134 FERC ¶61,187
UNITED STATES ...
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC 745 Is Dead!
9 / 25
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC 745 Is Dead!
Conjecture: It had to die.
9 / 25
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC 745 Is Dead!
Conjecture: It had to die.
FERC 745 Nirvana:
Peaks shaved!
9 / 25
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC 745 Is Dead!
Conjecture: It had to die.
FERC 745 Nirvana:
Peaks shaved!
Contingencies resolved i...
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC 745 Is Dead!
Conjecture: It had to die.
FERC 745 Nirvana:
Peaks shaved!
Contingencies resolved i...
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC 745 Is Dead!
Conjecture: It had to die.
FERC 745 Nirvana:
Peaks shaved!
Contingencies resolved i...
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC 745 Is Dead!
Conjecture: It had to die.
FERC 745 Nirvana:
Peaks shaved!
Contingencies resolved i...
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC Order 755
Pay-for-Performance
Time
Regulation Required @ MISO
0
200
400
600
-400
-200
10 / 25
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC Order 755
Pay-for-Performance
Time
Regulation Required @ MISO
0
200
400
600
-400
-200
Requires I...
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC Order 755
Pay-for-Performance
Time
Regulation Required @ MISO
0
200
400
600
-400
-200
Two part s...
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC Order 755
Pay-for-Performance
Time
Regulation Required @ MISO
0
200
400
600
-400
-200
Two part s...
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC Order 755
Pay-for-Performance
Time
Regulation Required @ MISO
0
200
400
600
-400
-200
Two part s...
FERC Pilots the Grid
FERC Order 755
Pay-for-Performance
Time
Regulation Required @ MISO
0
200
400
600
-400
-200
Two part s...
Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06
GW
0
1
2
3
4
Gr(t)
Gr = G1 + G2 + G3
G1
G2
G3 Where do we find
these ailerons?
D...
Demand Dispatch
We want: Responsive Regulation
Demand Dispatch the Answer?
A partial list of the needs of the grid operato...
Demand Dispatch
We want: Responsive Regulation
Demand Dispatch the Answer?
A partial list of the needs of the grid operato...
Demand Dispatch
We want: Responsive Regulation
Demand Dispatch the Answer?
A partial list of the needs of the grid operato...
Demand Dispatch
We want: Responsive Regulation
Demand Dispatch the Answer?
A partial list of the needs of the grid operato...
Demand Dispatch
We want: Responsive Regulation
Demand Dispatch the Answer?
A partial list of the needs of the grid operato...
Demand Dispatch
We want: Responsive Regulation
Demand Dispatch the Answer?
A partial list of the needs of the grid operato...
Demand Dispatch
We want: Responsive Regulation
Demand Dispatch the Answer?
A partial list of the needs of the grid operato...
Demand Dispatch
We want: Responsive Regulation
Demand Dispatch the Answer?
A partial list of the needs of the grid operato...
Demand Dispatch
Control Architecture
Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch
Power GridControl Flywheels
Batteries
Coa...
Demand Dispatch
Control Architecture
Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch
Power GridControl Flywheels
Batteries
Coa...
Demand Dispatch
Control Architecture
Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch
Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06...
Demand Dispatch
Control Architecture
Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch
Balancing Reserves from Bonneville Power ...
Demand Dispatch
Control Architecture
Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch
Balancing Reserves from Bonneville Power ...
Demand Dispatch
Control Architecture
Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch
Balancing Reserves from Bonneville Power ...
0
−800
−600
-1000
−400
−200
200
400
600
800
MW
=
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
HVAC flexibility to provide additional ancillary service
◦ Buildings consume ...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
HVAC flexibility to provide additional ancillary service
◦ Buildings consume ...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
HVAC flexibility to provide additional ancillary service
◦ Buildings consume ...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
HVAC flexibility to provide additional ancillary service
◦ Buildings consume ...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
Tracking RegD at Pugh Hall — ignore the measurement noise
In one sentence:
1...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
Tracking RegD at Pugh Hall — ignore the measurement noise
In one sentence: R...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
Tracking RegD at Pugh Hall — ignore the measurement noise
In one sentence: R...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
Tracking RegD at Pugh Hall — ignore the measurement noise
In one sentence: R...
Buildings as Batteries
Pugh Hall @ UF
How much?
−4
−2
0
2
4
−10
0
10
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
−0.2
0
0.2
Time (...
Buildings as Batteries
Pugh Hall @ UF
How much?
−4
−2
0
2
4
−10
0
10
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
−0.2
0
0.2
Time (...
Buildings as Batteries
Pugh Hall @ UF
How much?
−4
−2
0
2
4
−10
0
10
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
−0.2
0
0.2
Time (...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
What do you think?
Questions:
Capacity?
19 / 25
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
What do you think?
Questions:
Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial bu...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
What do you think?
Questions:
Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial bu...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
What do you think?
Questions:
Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial bu...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
What do you think?
Questions:
Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial bu...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
What do you think?
Questions:
Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial bu...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
What do you think?
Questions:
Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial bu...
Buildings as Batteries
Buildings as Batteries
What do you think?
Questions:
Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial bu...
−600
−400
−200
0
200
400
600
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7
MW
Intelligent Pools in Florida
−600
−400
−200
0
200
400
600
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7
MW
Intelligent Pools in Florida
Intelligent Pools in Florida
Example: One Million Pools in Florida
How Pools Can Help Regulate The Grid
1,5KW 400V
Needs o...
Intelligent Pools in Florida
Example: One Million Pools in Florida
How Pools Can Help Regulate The Grid
1,5KW 400V
Needs o...
Intelligent Pools in Florida
Example: One Million Pools in Florida
How Pools Can Help Regulate The Grid
1,5KW 400V
Needs o...
Intelligent Pools in Florida
Example: One Million Pools in Florida
How Pools Can Help Regulate The Grid
1,5KW 400V
Needs o...
Intelligent Pools in Florida
Pools in Florida Supply G2 – BPA regulation signal∗
Stochastic simulation using N = 105
pools...
Intelligent Pools in Florida
Pools in Florida Supply G2 – BPA regulation signal∗
Stochastic simulation using N = 105
pools...
Intelligent Pools in Florida
Pools in Florida Supply G2 – BPA regulation signal∗
Stochastic simulation using N = 105
pools...
Power GridControl WaterPump
Batteries
Coal
GasTurbine
BP
BP
BP C
BP
BP
Voltage
Frequency
Phase
HC
Σ
−
Actuator feedback lo...
Conclusions
Conclusions
Answers ... and Questions
1 Volatility
22 / 25
Conclusions
Conclusions
Answers ... and Questions
1 Volatility
This appears to be manageable! Demand Dispatch can be desig...
Conclusions
Conclusions
Answers ... and Questions
1 Volatility
This appears to be manageable! Demand Dispatch can be desig...
Conclusions
Conclusions
Answers ... and Questions
1 Volatility
This appears to be manageable! Demand Dispatch can be desig...
Conclusions
Conclusions
Answers ... and Questions
1 Volatility
This appears to be manageable! Demand Dispatch can be desig...
Conclusions
Conclusions
Answers ... and Questions
1 Volatility
This appears to be manageable! Demand Dispatch can be desig...
Conclusions
Conclusions
Thank You!
23 / 25
Conclusions
Control Techniques
FOR
Complex Networks
Sean Meyn
Pre-publication version for on-line viewing. Monograph avail...
Conclusions
Selected References
More at www.meyn.ece.ufl.edu
A. Brooks, E. Lu, D. Reicher, C. Spirakis, and B. Weihl. Deman...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Demand-Side Flexibility for Reliable Ancillary Services

2,217 views

Published on

https://vimeo.com/album/3275353
Lecture presented at ANALYTIC RESEARCH FOUNDATIONS FOR THE NEXT-GENERATION ELECTRIC GRID - A National Research Council Workshop. Irvine, California, Feb. 11--12, 2015.
http://sites.nationalacademies.org/DEPS/BMSA/DEPS_152682

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to like this

Demand-Side Flexibility for Reliable Ancillary Services

  1. 1. Demand-Side Flexibility for Reliable Ancillary Services in a Smart Grid: Eliminating Risk to Consumers and the Grid ANALYTIC RESEARCH FOUNDATIONS FOR THE NEXT-GENERATION ELECTRIC GRID Irvine, California, Feb. 11–12, 2015 Sean P. Meyn Florida Institute for Sustainable Energy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering — University of Florida Thanks to my colleagues, Prabir Barooah and Ana Buˇsi´c and to our sponsors NSF, AFOSR, DOE / TCIPG
  2. 2. Eliminating Risk to Consumers and the Grid Outline 1 Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration 2 FERC Pilots the Grid 3 Demand Dispatch 4 Buildings as Batteries 5 Intelligent Pools in Florida 6 Conclusions
  3. 3. Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 GW (t) = Wind generation in BPA, Jan 2015 Scary ramps Challenges
  4. 4. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration Some of the Challenges 1 Large sunk cost (decreasing!) 1 / 25
  5. 5. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration Some of the Challenges 1 Large sunk cost (decreasing!) 2 Engineering uncertainty 1 / 25
  6. 6. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration Some of the Challenges 1 Large sunk cost (decreasing!) 2 Engineering uncertainty 3 Policy uncertainty 1 / 25
  7. 7. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration Some of the Challenges 1 Large sunk cost (decreasing!) 2 Engineering uncertainty 3 Policy uncertainty 4 Volatility Start at the bottom... 1 / 25
  8. 8. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration Some of the Challenges What’s so scary about volatility? 4 Volatility Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 GW (t) = Wind generation in BPA, Jan 2015 Scary ramps 2 / 25
  9. 9. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration Some of the Challenges What’s so scary about volatility? 4 Volatility =⇒ greater regulation needs 0 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 0 October 20-25 October 27 - November 1 Hydro GenerationandLaodGW GW Thermal Wind Load Generation Disturbance from Nature 3 / 25
  10. 10. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration Some of the Challenges What’s so scary about volatility? 4 Volatility =⇒ greater regulation needs 0 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 0 0.8 -0.8 1 -1 0 0.8 -0.8 1 -1 0 Sun Mon Tue October 20-25 October 27 - November 1 Hydro Wed Thur FriSun Mon Tue Wed Thur Fri GenerationandLaodGW GWGW RegulationGW Thermal Wind Load Generation Regulation Error Signal in Feedback Loop 3 / 25
  11. 11. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration Comparison: Flight control How do we fly a plane through a storm? Brains Brawn 4 / 25
  12. 12. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration Comparison: Flight control How do we fly a plane through a storm? Brains Brawn What Good Are These? 4 / 25
  13. 13. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration Comparison: Flight control How do we operate the grid in a storm? Balancing Authority Ancillary Services Grid Measurements: Voltage Frequency Phase Σ − Brains Brawn What Good Are These? 5 / 25
  14. 14. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration How do we operate the grid in a storm? Disturbance decomposition Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 GW (t) = Wind generation in BPA, Jan 2015 Scary ramps 6 / 25
  15. 15. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration How do we operate the grid in a storm? Disturbance decomposition Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 G Goal: W (t) = Wind generation in BPA, Jan 2015 Scary ramps GW (t) + Gr(t) ≡ 4GW 6 / 25
  16. 16. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration How do we operate the grid in a storm? Disturbance decomposition Sca Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 G Goal: W (t) = Wind generation in BPA, Jan 2015 Scary Scary Scary Scary Scary GW (t) + Gr(t) ≡ 4GW 6 / 25
  17. 17. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration How do we operate the grid in a storm? Disturbance decomposition Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 Goal: GW (t) + Gr(t) ≡ 4GW obtained from generation? Gr(t) Gr(t) Scary 6 / 25
  18. 18. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration How do we operate the grid in a storm? Disturbance decomposition Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 Gr(t) Gr = G1 + G2 + G3 G1 6 / 25
  19. 19. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration How do we operate the grid in a storm? Disturbance decomposition Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 Gr(t) Gr = G1 + G2 + G3 G1 G2 6 / 25
  20. 20. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration How do we operate the grid in a storm? Disturbance decomposition Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 Gr(t) Gr = G1 + G2 + G3 G1 G2 G3 6 / 25
  21. 21. Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration How do we operate the grid in a storm? Disturbance decomposition Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 Gr(t) Gr = G1 + G2 + G3 G1 G2 G3 Where do we find these ailerons? 6 / 25
  22. 22. Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 Gr(t) G1 G2 G Traditional generation FERC Order 745 FERC Order 7553 Gr = G1 + G2 + G3 FERC Pilots the Grid
  23. 23. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC 745: Demand & Generation smooth the Grid 7 / 25
  24. 24. FERC Pilots the Grid Origin of FERC 745 – Incentives for Demand Response FERC 745 is Born! 134 FERC ¶61,187 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 [Docket No. RM10-17-000; Order No. 745] Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets (Issued March 15, 2011) 8 / 25
  25. 25. FERC Pilots the Grid Origin of FERC 745 – Incentives for Demand Response FERC 745 is Born! 134 FERC ¶61,187 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 [Docket No. RM10-17-000; Order No. 745] Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets (Issued March 15, 2011) The Commission concludes that paying LMP can address the identified barriers to potential demand response providers. 8 / 25
  26. 26. FERC Pilots the Grid Origin of FERC 745 – Incentives for Demand Response FERC 745 is Born! 134 FERC ¶61,187 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 [Docket No. RM10-17-000; Order No. 745] Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets (Issued March 15, 2011) The Commission concludes that paying LMP can address the identified barriers to potential demand response providers. The outcome? 8 / 25
  27. 27. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC 745 Is Dead! 9 / 25
  28. 28. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC 745 Is Dead! Conjecture: It had to die. 9 / 25
  29. 29. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC 745 Is Dead! Conjecture: It had to die. FERC 745 Nirvana: Peaks shaved! 9 / 25
  30. 30. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC 745 Is Dead! Conjecture: It had to die. FERC 745 Nirvana: Peaks shaved! Contingencies resolved in seconds!! Prices smoothed to Marginal Cost! 9 / 25
  31. 31. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC 745 Is Dead! Conjecture: It had to die. FERC 745 Nirvana: Peaks shaved! Contingencies resolved in seconds!! Prices smoothed to Marginal Cost! Contour Map: Real Time Market - Locational Marginal Pricing Help? $10/MWh Nirvana @ ERCOT 9 / 25
  32. 32. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC 745 Is Dead! Conjecture: It had to die. FERC 745 Nirvana: Peaks shaved! Contingencies resolved in seconds!! Prices smoothed to Marginal Cost! Contour Map: Real Time Market - Locational Marginal Pricing Help? $10/MWh Nirvana @ ERCOT The problem: In this market, there is no opportunity without crisis 9 / 25
  33. 33. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC 745 Is Dead! Conjecture: It had to die. FERC 745 Nirvana: Peaks shaved! Contingencies resolved in seconds!! Prices smoothed to Marginal Cost! Contour Map: Real Time Market - Locational Marginal Pricing Help? $10/MWh Nirvana @ ERCOT The problem: In this market, there is no opportunity without crisis The paradox: In this nirvana, there is no business case for demand response 9 / 25
  34. 34. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC Order 755 Pay-for-Performance Time Regulation Required @ MISO 0 200 400 600 -400 -200 10 / 25
  35. 35. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC Order 755 Pay-for-Performance Time Regulation Required @ MISO 0 200 400 600 -400 -200 Requires ISO/RTOs to pay regulation resources based on actual amount of regulation service provided (speed and accuracy). 10 / 25
  36. 36. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC Order 755 Pay-for-Performance Time Regulation Required @ MISO 0 200 400 600 -400 -200 Two part settlement: 1 Uniform price for frequency regulation capacity 2 Performance payment for the provision of frequency regulation service, reflecting a resource’s accuracy of performance 11 / 25
  37. 37. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC Order 755 Pay-for-Performance Time Regulation Required @ MISO 0 200 400 600 -400 -200 Two part settlement: 1 Uniform price for frequency regulation capacity 2 Performance payment for the provision of frequency regulation service, reflecting a resource’s accuracy of performance Performance? 11 / 25
  38. 38. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC Order 755 Pay-for-Performance Time Regulation Required @ MISO 0 200 400 600 -400 -200 Two part settlement: 1 Uniform price for frequency regulation capacity 2 Performance payment for the provision of frequency regulation service, reflecting a resource’s accuracy of performance Performance? Now interpreted as mileage: Payment ∝ T 0 d dt G(t)| dt (or discrete-time equivalent) 11 / 25
  39. 39. FERC Pilots the Grid FERC Order 755 Pay-for-Performance Time Regulation Required @ MISO 0 200 400 600 -400 -200 Two part settlement: 1 Uniform price for frequency regulation capacity 2 Performance payment for the provision of frequency regulation service, reflecting a resource’s accuracy of performance Performance? Now interpreted as mileage: Payment ∝ T 0 d dt G(t)| dt (or discrete-time equivalent) Not perfect, but it is creating incentives Question: What is the cost/value of regulation? 11 / 25
  40. 40. Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 Gr(t) Gr = G1 + G2 + G3 G1 G2 G3 Where do we find these ailerons? Demand Dispatch
  41. 41. Demand Dispatch We want: Responsive Regulation Demand Dispatch the Answer? A partial list of the needs of the grid operator, and the consumer: 12 / 25
  42. 42. Demand Dispatch We want: Responsive Regulation Demand Dispatch the Answer? A partial list of the needs of the grid operator, and the consumer: High quality AS? (Ancillary Service) Does the deviation in power consumption accurately track the desired deviation target? 12 / 25
  43. 43. Demand Dispatch We want: Responsive Regulation Demand Dispatch the Answer? A partial list of the needs of the grid operator, and the consumer: High quality AS? (Ancillary Service) -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 Regulation(MW) Gen 'A' Actual Regulation Gen 'A' Requested Regulation -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 : Regulation(MW) Gen 'B' Actual Regulation Gen 'B' Requested Regulation Fig. 10. Coal-fired generators do not follow regulation signals precisely.... Some do better than others Regulation service from generators is not perfect Frequency Regulation Basics and Trends — Brendan J. Kirby, December 2004 12 / 25
  44. 44. Demand Dispatch We want: Responsive Regulation Demand Dispatch the Answer? A partial list of the needs of the grid operator, and the consumer: High quality AS? Reliable? Will AS be available each day? It may vary with time, but capacity must be predictable. 12 / 25
  45. 45. Demand Dispatch We want: Responsive Regulation Demand Dispatch the Answer? A partial list of the needs of the grid operator, and the consumer: High quality AS? Reliable? Cost effective? This includes installation cost, communication cost, maintenance, and environmental. 12 / 25
  46. 46. Demand Dispatch We want: Responsive Regulation Demand Dispatch the Answer? A partial list of the needs of the grid operator, and the consumer: High quality AS? Reliable? Cost effective? Is the incentive to the consumer reliable? If a consumer receives a $50 payment for one month, and only $1 the next, will there be an explanation that is clear to the consumer? 12 / 25
  47. 47. Demand Dispatch We want: Responsive Regulation Demand Dispatch the Answer? A partial list of the needs of the grid operator, and the consumer: High quality AS? Reliable? Cost effective? Is the incentive to the consumer reliable? Customer QoS constraints satisfied? The pool must be clean, fresh fish stays cold, building climate is subject to strict bounds, farm irrigation is subject to strict constraints, data centers require sufficient power to perform their tasks. 12 / 25
  48. 48. Demand Dispatch We want: Responsive Regulation Demand Dispatch the Answer? A partial list of the needs of the grid operator, and the consumer: High quality AS? Reliable? Cost effective? Is the incentive to the consumer reliable? Customer QoS constraints satisfied? Perhaps demand dispatch can do all of this? 12 / 25
  49. 49. Demand Dispatch Control Architecture Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch Power GridControl Flywheels Batteries Coal GasTurbine BP BP BP C BP BP Voltage Frequency Phase HC Σ − Actuator feedback loop A LOAD Today: PJM decomposes regulation signal based on bandwidth, R = RegA + · · · + RegD 13 / 25
  50. 50. Demand Dispatch Control Architecture Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch Power GridControl Flywheels Batteries Coal GasTurbine BP BP BP C BP BP Voltage Frequency Phase HC Σ − Actuator feedback loop A LOAD Today: PJM decomposes regulation signal based on bandwidth, R = RegA + · · · + RegD Proposal: Each class of DR (and other) resources will have its own bandwidth of service, based on QoS constraints and costs. 13 / 25
  51. 51. Demand Dispatch Control Architecture Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch Jan 01 Jan 02 Jan 03 Jan 04 Jan 05 Jan 06 GW 0 1 2 3 4 Gr(t) G1 G2 G Traditional generation DD: Chillers & Pool Pumps DD: HVAC Fans3 Gr = G1 + G2 + G3 14 / 25
  52. 52. Demand Dispatch Control Architecture Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch Balancing Reserves from Bonneville Power Authority: −800 −600 -1000 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 800 BPA Reg signal (one week) MW 15 / 25
  53. 53. Demand Dispatch Control Architecture Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch Balancing Reserves from Bonneville Power Authority: −800 −600 -1000 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 800 BPA Reg signal (one week) MW 0 −800 −600 -1000 −400 −200 200 400 600 800 MW −800 −600 -1000 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 800 = + 15 / 25
  54. 54. Demand Dispatch Control Architecture Frequency Decomposition for Demand Dispatch Balancing Reserves from Bonneville Power Authority: −800 −600 -1000 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 800 BPA Reg signal (one week) MW 0 −800 −600 -1000 −400 −200 200 400 600 800 MW −800 −600 -1000 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 800 = + = HVAC + Pool Pumps 15 / 25
  55. 55. 0 −800 −600 -1000 −400 −200 200 400 600 800 MW = Buildings as Batteries
  56. 56. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries HVAC flexibility to provide additional ancillary service ◦ Buildings consume 70% of electricity in the US HVAC contributes to 40% of the consumption. 16 / 25
  57. 57. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries HVAC flexibility to provide additional ancillary service ◦ Buildings consume 70% of electricity in the US HVAC contributes to 40% of the consumption. ◦ Buildings have large thermal capacity 16 / 25
  58. 58. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries HVAC flexibility to provide additional ancillary service ◦ Buildings consume 70% of electricity in the US HVAC contributes to 40% of the consumption. ◦ Buildings have large thermal capacity ◦ Modern buildings have fast-responding equipment: VFDs (variable frequency drive) 16 / 25
  59. 59. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries HVAC flexibility to provide additional ancillary service ◦ Buildings consume 70% of electricity in the US HVAC contributes to 40% of the consumption. ◦ Buildings have large thermal capacity ◦ Modern buildings have fast-responding equipment: VFDs (variable frequency drive) 16 / 25
  60. 60. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries Tracking RegD at Pugh Hall — ignore the measurement noise In one sentence: 17 / 25
  61. 61. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries Tracking RegD at Pugh Hall — ignore the measurement noise In one sentence: Ramp up and down power consumption, just 10%, to track regulation signal. 17 / 25
  62. 62. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries Tracking RegD at Pugh Hall — ignore the measurement noise In one sentence: Ramp up and down power consumption, just 10%, to track regulation signal. Result: 17 / 25
  63. 63. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries Tracking RegD at Pugh Hall — ignore the measurement noise In one sentence: Ramp up and down power consumption, just 10%, to track regulation signal. Result: PJM RegD Measured Power (kW) 0 1 -1 0 10 20 30 40 Time (minute) 17 / 25
  64. 64. Buildings as Batteries Pugh Hall @ UF How much? −4 −2 0 2 4 −10 0 10 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 −0.2 0 0.2 Time (s) Fan Power Deviation (kW ) Regulation Signal (kW ) Input (%) Temperature Deviation (◦ C) One AHU fan with 25 kW motor: > 3 kW of regulation reserve Pugh Hall (40k sq ft, 3 AHUs): > 10 kW Indoor air quality is not affected 18 / 25
  65. 65. Buildings as Batteries Pugh Hall @ UF How much? −4 −2 0 2 4 −10 0 10 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 −0.2 0 0.2 Time (s) Fan Power Deviation (kW ) Regulation Signal (kW ) Input (%) Temperature Deviation (◦ C) One AHU fan with 25 kW motor: > 3 kW of regulation reserve Pugh Hall (40k sq ft, 3 AHUs): > 10 kW Indoor air quality is not affected 100 buildings: > 1 MW 18 / 25
  66. 66. Buildings as Batteries Pugh Hall @ UF How much? −4 −2 0 2 4 −10 0 10 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 −0.2 0 0.2 Time (s) Fan Power Deviation (kW ) Regulation Signal (kW ) Input (%) Temperature Deviation (◦ C) One AHU fan with 25 kW motor: > 3 kW of regulation reserve Pugh Hall (40k sq ft, 3 AHUs): > 10 kW Indoor air quality is not affected 100 buildings: > 1 MW That’s just using the fans! 18 / 25
  67. 67. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries What do you think? Questions: Capacity? 19 / 25
  68. 68. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries What do you think? Questions: Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial buildings in the US 19 / 25
  69. 69. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries What do you think? Questions: Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial buildings in the US Can we obtain a resource as effective as today’s spinning reserves? 19 / 25
  70. 70. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries What do you think? Questions: Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial buildings in the US Can we obtain a resource as effective as today’s spinning reserves? Yes!! Buildings are well-suited to balancing reserves, and other high-frequency regulation resources 19 / 25
  71. 71. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries What do you think? Questions: Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial buildings in the US Can we obtain a resource as effective as today’s spinning reserves? Yes!! Buildings are well-suited to balancing reserves, and other high-frequency regulation resources much better than any generator 19 / 25
  72. 72. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries What do you think? Questions: Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial buildings in the US Can we obtain a resource as effective as today’s spinning reserves? Yes!! Buildings are well-suited to balancing reserves, and other high-frequency regulation resources much better than any generator How to compute baselines? 19 / 25
  73. 73. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries What do you think? Questions: Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial buildings in the US Can we obtain a resource as effective as today’s spinning reserves? Yes!! Buildings are well-suited to balancing reserves, and other high-frequency regulation resources much better than any generator How to compute baselines? Who cares? The utility or aggregator is responsible for the equipment – the consumer cannot ‘play games’ in a real time market! 19 / 25
  74. 74. Buildings as Batteries Buildings as Batteries What do you think? Questions: Capacity? Tens of Gigawatts from commercial buildings in the US Can we obtain a resource as effective as today’s spinning reserves? Yes!! Buildings are well-suited to balancing reserves, and other high-frequency regulation resources much better than any generator How to compute baselines? Who cares? The utility or aggregator is responsible for the equipment – the consumer cannot ‘play games’ in a real time market! What open issues do you see? 19 / 25
  75. 75. −600 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 MW Intelligent Pools in Florida
  76. 76. −600 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 MW Intelligent Pools in Florida
  77. 77. Intelligent Pools in Florida Example: One Million Pools in Florida How Pools Can Help Regulate The Grid 1,5KW 400V Needs of a single pool Filtration system circulates and cleans: Average pool pump uses 1.3kW and runs 6-12 hours per day, 7 days per week 20 / 25
  78. 78. Intelligent Pools in Florida Example: One Million Pools in Florida How Pools Can Help Regulate The Grid 1,5KW 400V Needs of a single pool Filtration system circulates and cleans: Average pool pump uses 1.3kW and runs 6-12 hours per day, 7 days per week Pool owners are oblivious, until they see frogs and algae 20 / 25
  79. 79. Intelligent Pools in Florida Example: One Million Pools in Florida How Pools Can Help Regulate The Grid 1,5KW 400V Needs of a single pool Filtration system circulates and cleans: Average pool pump uses 1.3kW and runs 6-12 hours per day, 7 days per week Pool owners are oblivious, until they see frogs and algae Pool owners do not trust anyone: Privacy is a big concern 20 / 25
  80. 80. Intelligent Pools in Florida Example: One Million Pools in Florida How Pools Can Help Regulate The Grid 1,5KW 400V Needs of a single pool Filtration system circulates and cleans: Average pool pump uses 1.3kW and runs 6-12 hours per day, 7 days per week Pool owners are oblivious, until they see frogs and algae Pool owners do not trust anyone: Privacy is a big concern Randomized control strategy is needed. 20 / 25
  81. 81. Intelligent Pools in Florida Pools in Florida Supply G2 – BPA regulation signal∗ Stochastic simulation using N = 105 pools Reference Output deviation (MW) −300 −200 −100 0 100 200 300 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 t/hour 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 ∗transmission.bpa.gov/Business/Operations/Wind/reserves.aspx 21 / 25
  82. 82. Intelligent Pools in Florida Pools in Florida Supply G2 – BPA regulation signal∗ Stochastic simulation using N = 105 pools Reference Output deviation (MW) −300 −200 −100 0 100 200 300 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 t/hour 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Each pool pump turns on/off with probability depending on 1) its internal state, and 2) the BPA reg signal 21 / 25
  83. 83. Intelligent Pools in Florida Pools in Florida Supply G2 – BPA regulation signal∗ Stochastic simulation using N = 105 pools Reference Output deviation (MW) −300 −200 −100 0 100 200 300 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 t/hour 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Mean-field model: Input-output system stable? Passive? 21 / 25
  84. 84. Power GridControl WaterPump Batteries Coal GasTurbine BP BP BP C BP BP Voltage Frequency Phase HC Σ − Actuator feedback loop A LOAD Conclusions
  85. 85. Conclusions Conclusions Answers ... and Questions 1 Volatility 22 / 25
  86. 86. Conclusions Conclusions Answers ... and Questions 1 Volatility This appears to be manageable! Demand Dispatch can be designed to work cooperatively with generation and other resources. Open questions on many spatial and temporal scales. Most loads could provide synthetic inertia and governor response1. Is this wise? 1 Scweppe et. al. 1980 22 / 25
  87. 87. Conclusions Conclusions Answers ... and Questions 1 Volatility This appears to be manageable! Demand Dispatch can be designed to work cooperatively with generation and other resources. Open questions on many spatial and temporal scales. Most loads could provide synthetic inertia and governor response1. Is this wise? 2 Engineering uncertainty This is real We don’t know why the grid is so reliable today. 1 Scweppe et. al. 1980 22 / 25
  88. 88. Conclusions Conclusions Answers ... and Questions 1 Volatility This appears to be manageable! Demand Dispatch can be designed to work cooperatively with generation and other resources. Open questions on many spatial and temporal scales. Most loads could provide synthetic inertia and governor response1. Is this wise? 2 Engineering uncertainty This is real We don’t know why the grid is so reliable today. Need for better understanding of grid2/distribution/social dynamics. 1 Scweppe et. al. 1980 2 Thorpe et. al. 2004 22 / 25
  89. 89. Conclusions Conclusions Answers ... and Questions 1 Volatility This appears to be manageable! Demand Dispatch can be designed to work cooperatively with generation and other resources. Open questions on many spatial and temporal scales. Most loads could provide synthetic inertia and governor response1. Is this wise? 2 Engineering uncertainty This is real We don’t know why the grid is so reliable today. Need for better understanding of grid2/distribution/social dynamics. 3 Policy uncertainty Scary! 1 Scweppe et. al. 1980 2 Thorpe et. al. 2004 22 / 25
  90. 90. Conclusions Conclusions Answers ... and Questions 1 Volatility This appears to be manageable! Demand Dispatch can be designed to work cooperatively with generation and other resources. Open questions on many spatial and temporal scales. Most loads could provide synthetic inertia and governor response1. Is this wise? 2 Engineering uncertainty This is real We don’t know why the grid is so reliable today. Need for better understanding of grid2/distribution/social dynamics. 3 Policy uncertainty Scary! Need for Research in Engineering and Economics 1 Scweppe et. al. 1980 2 Thorpe et. al. 2004 22 / 25
  91. 91. Conclusions Conclusions Thank You! 23 / 25
  92. 92. Conclusions Control Techniques FOR Complex Networks Sean Meyn Pre-publication version for on-line viewing. Monograph available for purchase at your favorite retailer More information available at http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521884419 Markov Chains and Stochastic Stability S. P. Meyn and R. L. Tweedie August 2008 Pre-publication version for on-line viewing. Monograph to appear Februrary 2009 π(f)<∞ ∆V (x) ≤ −f(x) + bIC(x) Pn (x, · ) − π f → 0 sup C Ex[SτC(f)]<∞ References 24 / 25
  93. 93. Conclusions Selected References More at www.meyn.ece.ufl.edu A. Brooks, E. Lu, D. Reicher, C. Spirakis, and B. Weihl. Demand dispatch. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 8(3):20–29, May 2010. H. Hao, T. Middelkoop, P. Barooah, and S. Meyn. How demand response from commercial buildings will provide the regulation needs of the grid. In 50th Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, pages 1908–1913, 2012. H. Hao, Y. Lin, A. Kowli, P. Barooah, and S. Meyn. Ancillary service to the grid through control of fans in commercial building HVAC systems. IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, 5(4):2066–2074, July 2014. S. Meyn, P. Barooah, A. Buˇsi´c, Y. Chen, and J. Ehren. Ancillary service to the grid using intelligent deferrable loads. ArXiv e-prints: arXiv:1402.4600 and to appear, IEEE Trans. on Auto. Control, 2014. D. Callaway and I. Hiskens, Achieving controllability of electric loads. Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 184–199, 2011. M. Parashar, J. Thorp, and C. Seyler. Continuum modeling of electromechanical dynamics in large-scale power systems. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems I, 51(9):1848–1858, 2004. 25 / 25

×