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WOMEN                      EMPOWERMENT
Mrs. Sahbanthul Missiriya, M.A., M.Sc (N), M.A. Child care & Edu., Ph.D
Associate Professor,
Community Health Nursing Department,
Saveetha College of Nursing,
Saveetha University, Chennai -77
Jawaharlal   Nehru




“You can tell the
condition of  the
NATION by looking
at the status of
WOMEN.”
INTRODUCTION
A clear vision is needed to remove the obstacles to the
path of women's emancipation both from the
government and women themselves.

Inthe past, women were treated as mere house-
makers.


They   were expected to be bound to the house, while
men went out and worked. This is still in a few parts of
the country one of the major reason because of which
certain evils took birth in our society child marriage,
female infanticide, women trafficking.
DEFINITION
 Empowerment     is increasing the spiritual,
 political, social or economic strength of
 individuals and communities and often
 involves developing confidence in one’s
 own capacities.
 WOMEN EMPOWERMENT is the ability
 of women to exercise full control over
 one’s actions.
DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE


India's Population: 1.07 billion


 Sex Ratio of Population: 930 women per 1000
                                     men
 Literacy rate : Males   : 75.96 %
                Females : 54.28 %
   Often the lame excuse is women are the ‘weaker sex’!


    But biological evidence proves, due to the presence
    of two X hormones women are more resistant to
    diseases compared to men.


   Life expectancy is a proof of this. (In our country life
    expectancy of women is 65 whereas for men it’s only
    60 years).
OBSTACLES & STRATEGIES TO
         OVERCOME
 Built  a constant rapport sharing the
  notable developments at the organization
 Systematic         reinforcement         and
  perpetuation     of     traditional,   male-
  dominated
 Attitudes by most of the subsystems of
  society : education, law, judiciary, media
 Working at curative & preventive levels
  with varied target groups
LEVELS OF WOMEN
             EMPOWERMENT
 Welfare


 Access


 Conscientization


 Mobilization


 Control
WELFARE
 Welfare  means an improvement in socio-
 economic status, such as improved nutritional
 status, shelter or income.
 Here it is the zero level of empowerment,
 where women are the passive recipients of
 benefits that are 'given' from on high.
ACCESS
   Access to resources and services stands for
the first level of empowerment, since women
improve their own status, relative to men, by their
own work and organization arising from
increased access to resources and services.
CONSCIENTIZATION

 Conscientizationis defined as the process, by
 which women collectively urge to act to remove
 one or more of the discriminatory practices that
 impede their access to resources.

 Here,  women form groups to understand the
 underlying causes of their problems and to
 identify strategies for action for gender equity.
MOBILIZATION
 Mobilisation is the action level of empowerment
by forging links with the larger women's
movement, to learn from the successes of
women's similar strategic action elsewhere and to
connect      with      the      wider     struggle.
CONTROL

    Control is the level of empowerment when
    women have taken action so that there is
    gender equality in decisions making over
    access to resources, so that women achieve
    direct control over their access to resources.
STEPS TAKEN BY
          GOVERNMENT
 The government has passed many laws so as
 to empower the women. These rules have
 empowered them socially, economically, legally
 and politically.
 Not only the government but various non-
 governmental organizations have done a lot so
 as to improve the status of woman in our
 society.
EDUCATION

 Mahatma   Gandhi:- “If you educate a man you
  educate an individual, but if you educate a
  woman you educate an entire family.”
 Our predominant patriarchal system doesn’t
  provide enough chances for women to have
  higher education even if they wish.
 Girls should be motivated to take up higher
  education. Universal education for all below 14
  years should be strictly implemented.
EVIL PRACTICES
 Child marriages    have also been stopped.
 Dowry system still remains the major reason
  for all the discrimination and injustice shown to
  women. Dowry has always been an important
  part of Hindu marriages.
 Not only among Hindus, its evil tentacles are
  now spreading to other religions also.
 Although dowry was legally prohibited in
  1961(Dowry Prohibition Act), it continues to be
  highly institutionalized.
     The Jogini system in Andhra Pradesh is
    another social evil that requires to be
    eliminated.

 In  this system, women are forced to leave their
    houses and follow the temple concubine
    system.

 Then    there are also other problems like
    domestic violence to be eliminated. .
 “Bride   Burning”, the burning of women whose
  dowries were not considered sufficient by their
  husband or in-laws. 
 Most of these incidents are reported as
  accidental burns in the kitchen or are disguised
  as suicide.
 It is evident that there exist

  deep-rooted prejudices against
  women in India.
 It is to be eradicated completely.
OCCUPATION

   Women should be allowed to work and should be
    provided enough safety and support to work.
   Legislatures such as Equal Remuneration Act,
    Factories Act: Constitutional safeguards such as
    maternity relief, and other provisions should be strictly
    followed.
   Poverty eradication policies need to be implemented.
    Macro economic policies would help in this drive.
    Through       economic      empowerment        women’s
    emancipation could be realized.
 
POLITICAL SYSTEM
   Increased the participation of women in the political system

    In Panchayat Raj System where women have been given
    representation as a sign of political empowerment

    There are many elected women representatives at the village
    council level.

   However their power is restricted, as the men
    wield all authority. Their decisions are often
    over-ruled by the government machinery.
TAMIL NADU GOVERNMENT

Mahalir Thittam:
   Mahalir Thittam is a socio-economic empowerment
    programme for women implemented by Tamil Nadu
    Corporation for Development of Women Ltd.
   Mahalir Thittam is based on Self Help Group (SHG)
    approach and is implemented in partnership with Non
    Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Community
    based organizations.
   The SHG approach was started in a small way in
    Dharmapuri district in the year 1989.
FOCUS AREAS:
1. Social and Economic Development
2. Capacity Building
3. Income Generating Activities
4. Micro-Finance
5. Micro-Enterprises
6. Entrepreneur Development
7. Vocational Training Programme
8. Skill Development Programme
9. News Letter:–Mutram
10. E-Governance Activities
•Empowerment would become more relevant when
women are actually treated as equal to men.

• Men are the only one who can earn a living for the
family, has to be removed.

•Further, women should be better educated , better
informed – only then can take rational decisions.

• Meanwhile, a woman needs to be physically healthy in
order to work equally. This is sadly lacking in a majority
of women especially in the rural areas.

• They have unequal access to basic health resources and
lack adequate counseling.
 
•   There is no doubt that the status of women has
       improved a lot.

•Thus,a clear vision is needed to remove the obstacles
to the path of women's emancipation both from the
government and women themselves.

•Efforts
       should be directed towards all round development
of each and every section of Indian women by giving
them their due share.

•But despite all these measures there should be a strong
determination among every man that every woman in this country
should be honored.

•Only then empowerment in its true meaning will be realized.
CONCLUSION
 Allthis shows that the process of gender
  equality and women's empowerment still
  has a long way to go and may even have
  become more difficult in the recent years.
 Swami Vivekananda
    had said
 “That country and that
 nation which doesn’t
 respect    women      will
 never become great now
 and nor will ever in
 future” and in pursuit of
 making India a great
 nation, let us work
 towards giving women
 their much deserved
 status.

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Women empowerment

  • 1. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Mrs. Sahbanthul Missiriya, M.A., M.Sc (N), M.A. Child care & Edu., Ph.D Associate Professor, Community Health Nursing Department, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha University, Chennai -77
  • 2. Jawaharlal Nehru “You can tell the condition of the NATION by looking at the status of WOMEN.”
  • 3. INTRODUCTION A clear vision is needed to remove the obstacles to the path of women's emancipation both from the government and women themselves. Inthe past, women were treated as mere house- makers. They were expected to be bound to the house, while men went out and worked. This is still in a few parts of the country one of the major reason because of which certain evils took birth in our society child marriage, female infanticide, women trafficking.
  • 4. DEFINITION  Empowerment is increasing the spiritual, political, social or economic strength of individuals and communities and often involves developing confidence in one’s own capacities.  WOMEN EMPOWERMENT is the ability of women to exercise full control over one’s actions.
  • 5. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE India's Population: 1.07 billion  Sex Ratio of Population: 930 women per 1000 men  Literacy rate : Males : 75.96 % Females : 54.28 %
  • 6.
  • 7. Often the lame excuse is women are the ‘weaker sex’!  But biological evidence proves, due to the presence of two X hormones women are more resistant to diseases compared to men.  Life expectancy is a proof of this. (In our country life expectancy of women is 65 whereas for men it’s only 60 years).
  • 8. OBSTACLES & STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME  Built a constant rapport sharing the notable developments at the organization  Systematic reinforcement and perpetuation of traditional, male- dominated  Attitudes by most of the subsystems of society : education, law, judiciary, media  Working at curative & preventive levels with varied target groups
  • 9. LEVELS OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT  Welfare  Access  Conscientization  Mobilization  Control
  • 10. WELFARE  Welfare means an improvement in socio- economic status, such as improved nutritional status, shelter or income.  Here it is the zero level of empowerment, where women are the passive recipients of benefits that are 'given' from on high.
  • 11. ACCESS  Access to resources and services stands for the first level of empowerment, since women improve their own status, relative to men, by their own work and organization arising from increased access to resources and services.
  • 12. CONSCIENTIZATION  Conscientizationis defined as the process, by which women collectively urge to act to remove one or more of the discriminatory practices that impede their access to resources.  Here, women form groups to understand the underlying causes of their problems and to identify strategies for action for gender equity.
  • 13. MOBILIZATION  Mobilisation is the action level of empowerment by forging links with the larger women's movement, to learn from the successes of women's similar strategic action elsewhere and to connect with the wider struggle.
  • 14. CONTROL  Control is the level of empowerment when women have taken action so that there is gender equality in decisions making over access to resources, so that women achieve direct control over their access to resources.
  • 15. STEPS TAKEN BY GOVERNMENT  The government has passed many laws so as to empower the women. These rules have empowered them socially, economically, legally and politically.  Not only the government but various non- governmental organizations have done a lot so as to improve the status of woman in our society.
  • 16. EDUCATION  Mahatma Gandhi:- “If you educate a man you educate an individual, but if you educate a woman you educate an entire family.”  Our predominant patriarchal system doesn’t provide enough chances for women to have higher education even if they wish.  Girls should be motivated to take up higher education. Universal education for all below 14 years should be strictly implemented.
  • 17. EVIL PRACTICES  Child marriages have also been stopped.  Dowry system still remains the major reason for all the discrimination and injustice shown to women. Dowry has always been an important part of Hindu marriages.  Not only among Hindus, its evil tentacles are now spreading to other religions also.  Although dowry was legally prohibited in 1961(Dowry Prohibition Act), it continues to be highly institutionalized.
  • 18. The Jogini system in Andhra Pradesh is another social evil that requires to be eliminated.  In this system, women are forced to leave their houses and follow the temple concubine system.  Then there are also other problems like domestic violence to be eliminated. .
  • 19.  “Bride Burning”, the burning of women whose dowries were not considered sufficient by their husband or in-laws.   Most of these incidents are reported as accidental burns in the kitchen or are disguised as suicide.  It is evident that there exist deep-rooted prejudices against women in India.  It is to be eradicated completely.
  • 20. OCCUPATION  Women should be allowed to work and should be provided enough safety and support to work.  Legislatures such as Equal Remuneration Act, Factories Act: Constitutional safeguards such as maternity relief, and other provisions should be strictly followed.  Poverty eradication policies need to be implemented. Macro economic policies would help in this drive. Through economic empowerment women’s emancipation could be realized.  
  • 21. POLITICAL SYSTEM  Increased the participation of women in the political system  In Panchayat Raj System where women have been given representation as a sign of political empowerment  There are many elected women representatives at the village council level.  However their power is restricted, as the men wield all authority. Their decisions are often over-ruled by the government machinery.
  • 22. TAMIL NADU GOVERNMENT Mahalir Thittam:  Mahalir Thittam is a socio-economic empowerment programme for women implemented by Tamil Nadu Corporation for Development of Women Ltd.  Mahalir Thittam is based on Self Help Group (SHG) approach and is implemented in partnership with Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Community based organizations.  The SHG approach was started in a small way in Dharmapuri district in the year 1989.
  • 23. FOCUS AREAS: 1. Social and Economic Development 2. Capacity Building 3. Income Generating Activities 4. Micro-Finance 5. Micro-Enterprises 6. Entrepreneur Development 7. Vocational Training Programme 8. Skill Development Programme 9. News Letter:–Mutram 10. E-Governance Activities
  • 24. •Empowerment would become more relevant when women are actually treated as equal to men. • Men are the only one who can earn a living for the family, has to be removed. •Further, women should be better educated , better informed – only then can take rational decisions. • Meanwhile, a woman needs to be physically healthy in order to work equally. This is sadly lacking in a majority of women especially in the rural areas. • They have unequal access to basic health resources and lack adequate counseling.  
  • 25. There is no doubt that the status of women has improved a lot. •Thus,a clear vision is needed to remove the obstacles to the path of women's emancipation both from the government and women themselves. •Efforts should be directed towards all round development of each and every section of Indian women by giving them their due share. •But despite all these measures there should be a strong determination among every man that every woman in this country should be honored. •Only then empowerment in its true meaning will be realized.
  • 26. CONCLUSION  Allthis shows that the process of gender equality and women's empowerment still has a long way to go and may even have become more difficult in the recent years.
  • 27.  Swami Vivekananda had said “That country and that nation which doesn’t respect women will never become great now and nor will ever in future” and in pursuit of making India a great nation, let us work towards giving women their much deserved status.