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Using Memcache to improve PHP performance Sudar Muthu (@sudarmuthu) http://sudarmuthu.com Research Engineer Yahoo Research Bangalore PHP user group 29-May-2010
Agenda Overview Memcache Principles How Memcache works General Usage Memcache Limits Client Libraries Common Use cases Tips for optimization Using Memcache in WordPress
Overview A high-performance Distributed Memory Object Caching System Intended for speeding up dynamic web applications by alleviating database load. Open source & distributed under a “permissive  free software licence”. Uses RAM for storage  Acts as a dictionary of stored data with key /value pairs
Memcache Principles It is not a database It does not provide redundancy It doesn't handle failover It does not provide authentication It does not allow locks No direct dump or backup possible
How Memcache works Two stage hash, like a giant hash table looking  up key=value pairs Client hashes the key against a list of servers  When the server is identified, the client sends  its request  Server performs a hash key lookup for the  actual data
General Usage First look up in memcache before querying the database. If present, return it. Else query the database, store it in memcache and return it. If the data changes, delete it from cache.
Memcache Limits A single value cannot contain more than 1 MB of data. A single key cannot be more than 250 characters in length. Normally a single memcache instance cannot be more than 2 GB in size.
Client Libraries Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, C#, C PostgreSQL (access memcached from procs and triggers) MySQL (adds memcache_engine storage engine) PHP (pecl/memcache)
Client Libraries – PHP API Key Methods ,[object Object]
boolMemcache::set( string $key  , mixed $var  [, int $flag  [, int $expire  ]] )
string Memcache::get  ( string $key  [, int &$flags  ] )
boolMemcache::delete  ( string $key  [, int $timeout  ] )More: http://www.php.net/memcache
Common Use cases - 1 Simple query result caching $key = ”some:unique:key";   if ($memcache‐>get($key)) {     		return $memcache‐>get($key);   }  else {     		// Run the query get the result data		$result = $db‐>query(“query”);     	$memcache‐>set($key, $result, TRUE, 300);  		// Store the result of the query for 5 minutes     	return $result;   } 
Common Use cases - 2 Caching network/webservice calls $key = ”some:unique:key";  if ($memcache->get($key)) {    		return $memcache->get($key);  } else {    		// Download the page     		$url = ”Your webserviceurl"; 	       $result = fetch($url);     		$memcache->set($key, $result, false, 86400);  		// Store the result of the query for a day     		return $result;  }
Common Use cases - 3 Throttle user activity  $key = “some:unique:key”;  if ($memcache->get($key)) {    	//Deny access    		return false;  } else {     		$memcache->set($key, “1”, false, 60);     		//Allow access     		return true;  }

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Using memcache to improve php performance

  • 1. Using Memcache to improve PHP performance Sudar Muthu (@sudarmuthu) http://sudarmuthu.com Research Engineer Yahoo Research Bangalore PHP user group 29-May-2010
  • 2. Agenda Overview Memcache Principles How Memcache works General Usage Memcache Limits Client Libraries Common Use cases Tips for optimization Using Memcache in WordPress
  • 3. Overview A high-performance Distributed Memory Object Caching System Intended for speeding up dynamic web applications by alleviating database load. Open source & distributed under a “permissive free software licence”. Uses RAM for storage Acts as a dictionary of stored data with key /value pairs
  • 4. Memcache Principles It is not a database It does not provide redundancy It doesn't handle failover It does not provide authentication It does not allow locks No direct dump or backup possible
  • 5. How Memcache works Two stage hash, like a giant hash table looking up key=value pairs Client hashes the key against a list of servers When the server is identified, the client sends its request Server performs a hash key lookup for the actual data
  • 6. General Usage First look up in memcache before querying the database. If present, return it. Else query the database, store it in memcache and return it. If the data changes, delete it from cache.
  • 7. Memcache Limits A single value cannot contain more than 1 MB of data. A single key cannot be more than 250 characters in length. Normally a single memcache instance cannot be more than 2 GB in size.
  • 8. Client Libraries Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, C#, C PostgreSQL (access memcached from procs and triggers) MySQL (adds memcache_engine storage engine) PHP (pecl/memcache)
  • 9.
  • 10. boolMemcache::set( string $key , mixed $var [, int $flag [, int $expire ]] )
  • 11. string Memcache::get ( string $key [, int &$flags ] )
  • 12. boolMemcache::delete ( string $key [, int $timeout ] )More: http://www.php.net/memcache
  • 13. Common Use cases - 1 Simple query result caching $key = ”some:unique:key";  if ($memcache‐>get($key)) {     return $memcache‐>get($key);  }  else {     // Run the query get the result data $result = $db‐>query(“query”);      $memcache‐>set($key, $result, TRUE, 300);  // Store the result of the query for 5 minutes      return $result;  } 
  • 14. Common Use cases - 2 Caching network/webservice calls $key = ”some:unique:key"; if ($memcache->get($key)) { return $memcache->get($key); } else { // Download the page $url = ”Your webserviceurl"; $result = fetch($url); $memcache->set($key, $result, false, 86400); // Store the result of the query for a day return $result; }
  • 15. Common Use cases - 3 Throttle user activity $key = “some:unique:key”; if ($memcache->get($key)) { //Deny access return false; } else { $memcache->set($key, “1”, false, 60); //Allow access return true; }
  • 16. Tips for Optimization Pre warm your cache using scripts Batch your requests using multi-get values= get(Array(“Foo”,”Bar”,”Baz”)) Cache things other than SQL data! XML, HTML, Page fragments Replicate data across clusters Do set/delete in multiple clusters  Read from either cluster Run multiple instances on the same server If you know the data, implement a simple encoding scheme
  • 17. Using Memcache in WordPress Download Memcached Object Cache Plugin from http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/memcached/ Set up memcached servers Install peclmemcacheextention Copy object-cache.php to wp-content directory (not the Pluing’s directory) You are done 