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ROAD GEOMETRIC DESIGN MANUAL
DOCUMENT TR-514
SECOND EDITION
NOVEMBER - 2021
Page | i
Document No: TR-514
Second Edition
November - 2021
Department of Municipalities and Transport
PO Box 20
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
© Copyright 2021, by the Department of Municipalities and Transport. All Rights Reserved.
This manual, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without written permission
of the publisher.
Page | ii
DOCUMENT AMENDMENT PAGE (TR-514)
EDITION
NO.
REVISION
NO.
DATE CLAUSE /
SECTION (PAGE)
AMENDMENTS NOTES
01 00 DEC 2016
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
COVER Modified as below:
Document No: TR-514
Second Edition
November - 2021
Department of Municipalities and Transport
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
LIST OF FIGURES
(PAGE-22)
Added as follows:
“Note: Some of the figures are for illustrative
purposes. For detailed figures, dimensions and
configurations, refer to Abu Dhabi Standard Drawings
TR-541”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
GLOSSARY -
DEFINITIONS
(PAGE-46)
Modified as below:
“STEAM: Strategic Transportation Evaluation &
Assessment Model of DMT”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
ACRONYMS
(PAGE-52)
Modified as below:
DMT: Department of Municipalities and Transport
DRM: Dhafra Region Municipality
(Deleted DMAT, UPC and WRM)
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
ACRONYMS
(PAGE-52)
Added as follows:
RSA: Road Safety Audit
NMU: Non-Motorised Users
PTW: Powered two wheelers
VRS: Vehicle Restraint systems
ZOI: Zone of Intrusion
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
1.2 / PARAGRAPH
#2
(PAGE-53)
Modified as below:
Designers must ensure roadway designs meet
operational and Road Safety requirements
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 1.2
(PAGE-62)
Modified as below:
Revised “DMAT” as “DMT”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 1.2
(PAGE-62)
Added as follows:
“Road Safety Audit” by “ADM -Traffic Services
Section”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
1.4.2.15
(PAGE-68)
Modified as below:
“Standard parking bay (parallel): 2.7m (min. 2.5m) x
6.0m “
Also, “Note” deleted.
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 1.5
(PAGE-78)
Added as follows:
“Road Safety Audit”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
1.5.1
(PAGE-78)
Added as follows:
“Road Safety Audit
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
1.5.9
(PAGE-84)
Modified as below:
“Safety considerations, including Road Safety Audits
requirements.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
1.5.24
(PAGE-93)
Added as follows:
“Road Safety Audit Report”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 2.6 & 2.7
(PAGE-107 &
108)
Added as follows:
“Note: As per the Executive Council resolution
1075/ECAS dated 19-07-2017, speed margin between
the posted speed and the speed cameras on the main
Page | iii
EDITION
NO.
REVISION
NO.
DATE CLAUSE /
SECTION (PAGE)
AMENDMENTS NOTES
roads is removed; therefore posted speeds on the
main roads where speed cameras are installed shall be
equal to the design speed.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
2.6.1 /
PARAGRAPH #2
(PAGE-109)
Modified as below:
“City-Bus M is applicable for streets with designated
public bus routes and/or school bus routes at school
zones”
02 01 NOVEMBER
20 21
2.9 / LAST
PARAGRAPH
(PAGE-125)
Added as follows:
“Generally, embankment height between 1.5m-2.0m is
used and can be more than 3.0m at drainage facilities
and utility locations or Sabkha areas. Embankment
heights shall be studied and minimized as much as
possible unless any special cases such as Sabkha areas.
Utility providers’ requirements for existing/proposed
networks shall be optimized. Drainage facilities shall
be provided in natural stream/depressed areas in
order to minimize their negative impacts on the road
elevation, where applicable.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
2.12
(PAGE-127)
Modified as below:
Road Safety
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
2.12
PARAGRAPH #11
(PAGE-129)
Added as follows:
“The design team should assess their design against
TR-518, the Emirate of Abu Dhabi Roadside Design
Guide to ensure roadside safety is properly
considered.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
2.13
(PAGE-129)
Added as follows:
(new) Section 2.13 Road Safety Audit
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.3.1
LAST PARAGRAPH
(PAGE-136)
Modified as below:
“Shoulders shall not be applied on urban streets (other
than urban freeways and expressways)”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.3.4
BULLET #2 & 3
(PAGE-137)
Modified as below:
•For freeways and expressways, 1.2m inside shoulder
and 3.0m outside shoulder shall be applied.
•For divided rural collector roads, 1.2m inside and
outside shoulder shall be applied
•For undivided rural local roads, shoulder is not
applicable
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.4.4
(PAGE-141)
Added as follows:
“It should be noted that rumble strips have minimal
effect on speed reduction and are more of an alerting
feature than a speed reduction feature.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.6
(PAGE-141)
Added as follows:
“As highlighted in TR-518, kerbing has been shown to
be a major contributor to the vaulting and
destabilization of impacting errant vehicles,
particularly at high speeds and with higher kerbs.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.6.2
(PAGE-143)
Modified as below:
“Kerb Upstand; Height of the typical upstand kerb
(Type-B) to be 100 mm for boulevards, avenues,
streets, access lanes, frontage lanes and parking areas”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.6.2
(PAGE-143)
Modified as below:
“Kerb Type A – This 50mm upstand kerb was
commonly used on Abu Dhabi streets, access lanes and
Page | iv
EDITION
NO.
REVISION
NO.
DATE CLAUSE /
SECTION (PAGE)
AMENDMENTS NOTES
frontage lanes from 2016 till the directives issued in
2018. Details are retained for information in case of
maintenance works involving existing kerbs at this
height.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.6.2
(PAGE-144)
Modified as below:
“Kerb Type-B1 – This 150mm high upstand kerb…”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.6.2
(PAGE-144)
Modified as below:
“Kerb Type D - This flush kerb is used between the road
pavement and pedestrian ramps.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.6.2
(PAGE-144)
Modified as below:
“Kerb Type F - This flush kerb is used between asphalt
pavement and interlocking vehicular pavement”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.6.2
(PAGE-144)
Added as follows:
“Rolled Kerb – This 50mm high dropped roll kerb may
be used as an option for (1x1) streets in Residential
Context areas with low operating speeds less, low
traffic volumes, where a proper edge zone is included
to provide protective elements such as bollards,
planting, planters and other street furniture”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.2.6.4
(PAGE-144)
Modified as below:
“•On urban boulevards, and avenues, streets, access
lanes, frontage lanes and parking areas, 100 mm high
upstand curb is typically used”
Also 2nd
and 4th
bullets are deleted
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
FIGURE 3-9
(PAGE 147)
Added “Rolled Kerb” details
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.3.2
BULLET #10
(PAGE-149)
Added New Bullet as follows:
“10. Median width must take into account the ZoI of
the RRS/VRS to be used and ensure that the street
lighting and foundations are not within this ZoI and at
risk of being struck (also refer to TR-518).”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.3.3.2
BULLET #8
(PAGE-154)
Added New Bullet as follows:
“8. Landscaping. Where raised medians are landscaped
with vegetation, due consideration needs to be given
to how this will be maintained especially on 80kph
roads or higher.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.3.3.3
BULLET #4
(PAGE-154)
Added New Bullet as follows:
“4. Road Safety. The adverse road safety implications
should be analyzed considering risk of errant vehicle
losing control and overturning or hitting rigid objects
in the depressed median”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.5
PARAGRAPH #4
(PAGE-161)
Added as follows:
“All barrier types have a zone of intrusion (ZoI) which
ranges from around 0.5m for concrete barriers due to
high sided vehicles leaning over during an impact, to
around 1.6m for typical W-beam safety fence and over
2m for normal wire rope safety fence. Also refer TR-
518”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.5
PARAGRAPH #5
(PAGE-161&162)
Added as follows:
“Systems should ideally meet the requirements for
MASH (the minimum acceptable standard is NCHRP-
350) and it should be noted that systems worldwide
are generally not tested at 140kph or 160kph speeds
and therefore may not work as intended.”
Page | v
EDITION
NO.
REVISION
NO.
DATE CLAUSE /
SECTION (PAGE)
AMENDMENTS NOTES
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.7.4.1
LAST BULLET
(PAGE-168)
Added last bullet as follows:
“•Wire Rope Safety fence is the preferred RRS in areas
subject to blowing sand.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
FIGURE 3.24
(PAGE-180)
Modified vertical clearance as below:
“5.5 Min.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
3.12
(PAGE-181)
Added as follows:
1) Item No “3.12”
2) Add “Cul-De-Sacs and Turnarounds should be
designed in a way that discourages vehicles from
mounting the kerb and using the Non-Motorised
users (NMU) path to access nearby through roads”
at the end of the paragraph
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
6.2.3
(PAGE-264)
Modified as below:
“1. Uncurbed Roadways. It is acceptable to provide a
minimum longitudinal gradient of approximately 0.0%
without affecting the requirements in Clause 6.4.1.5,
but only if the roadway will not be curbed in the
future.…….”
“2. Curbed Streets: The median edge or centerline
profile on roadways and streets with curb and gutter
desirably should have a longitudinal gradient of at least
0.2% for curbed local roads and collectors, 0.3% for
curbed arterials, freeways and expressways.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 7-3
(PAGE-351)
Modified as below:
“Left shoulder width= 1.2m”
Also Note 1a and 1b deleted.
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 8-1
(PAGE-366)
Modified as below:
“Shoulder width= 1.2m”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 8-2
(PAGE-367)
Modified as below:
“Shoulder width= Not Applicable”
“Note-2: A 0.6m shy should desirably be inserted
when a barrier is present.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
8.2.3.1
PARAGRAPH #2
(PAGE-370)
Modified as below:
“Refer to Table 8-1 and 8-2 for shoulder widths”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
8.2.3.1
PARAGRAPH #2
(PAGE-370)
Modified as below:
“Where cyclists are to be accommodated on the
shoulder, the designer should provide a
minimum paved width of 1.5 m”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
8.2.4
PARAGRAPH #2
(PAGE-371)
Modified as below:
“Desirably, the full width of the roadway including
shoulders, footpath and cycle track on the approach
roadways shall continue on the bridges.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 8-9 & 8-10
(PAGE-378 &
379)
Modified as below:
“Left shoulder width= 1.2m”
Also Note 2b deleted.
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
8.3.2.2
(PAGE-382)
Modified as below:
“Where cyclists are to be accommodated on the
shoulder, the designer should provide a
minimum paved width of 1.5 m”
Added as follows:
“The cyclists are not allowed to use freeways,
expressways and highways”
Page | vi
EDITION
NO.
REVISION
NO.
DATE CLAUSE /
SECTION (PAGE)
AMENDMENTS NOTES
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
9.3.6.2
(PAGE-395)
Modified as below:
“On urban boulevards, avenues, streets, access lanes,
frontage lanes and parking areas, 100 mm high
upstand curb is typically used”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
9.3.6.3
BULLET #4
(PAGE-400)
Modified as below:
“4. Angled Parking: For 1-way local roads, access
roads and parking areas, diagonal or parallel parking
is preferred whereas perpendicular parking may also
be applied in special cases, such as traffic circulation
and parking demand; however, road safety issues
shall also be taken into consideration. For 2-way local
roads, access roads and parking areas perpendicular
and parallel parking shall be applied”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
9.3.6.3
BULLET #7
(PAGE-401)
Added as follows:
“Prohibit parking within 10.0 m of the beginning of the
curb radius on the leg to any intersection with a Yield
control, flashing beacon, stop sign.
In addition prohibit parking within the approach and
exit to a Traffic Signal due to visibility to Pedestrians
and Primary Signal Heads and maneuvering
difficulties”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
9.3.6.3
BULLET #7
(PAGE-402)
Added as follows (last bullet):
“Where Parking demand is high, parallel parking may
be allowed as long as it does not affect visibility on
both approach and exit”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
9.3.6.4
BULLET #3C
(PAGE-402)
Modified as below:
“Pedestrian & Cycle Refuge. A minimum width of 2.0
m is required for a pedestrian refuge.
Where there is heavy pedestrian activity or a cycle
route, provide a minimum median width of 3.0 m.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
9.3.6.7
(PAGE-404)
Added as follows:
“All Cycle Facilities designs or schemes must be
subject to Road Safety Audits Stage- 1 (at Preliminary
Design) and Stage-2 (at Detailed Design) followed by
Stage-3 (Pre-opening) in accordance with TR-540; the
focus should be on NMU connectivity to the facility,
positive protection/separation from roadway traffic
and speed calming features along the cycle route.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
9.3.6.9
BULLET #5
(PAGE-404)
Modified as below:
“5. Cyclists. Frontage lanes may include a shared lane
for cycles in the same direction of traffic. Additional
cycle track may be needed for the opposite direction
for cyclists. Cyclists should not be riding against
vehicular traffic on the frontage lanes”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
9.3.6.9
BULLET #10
(PAGE-405)
Added as follows:
“Side median should provide adequate buffer and
lateral clearance for street furniture on both sides of
the travelled lanes.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
9.3.8
(PAGE-406)
Added last paragraph as follows:
“Ensure all structural elements have adequate ZOI
(Zone of Intrusion) between them and any required
road restraint system; refer to TR-518.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 9-10 TO 9-
19
Modified as below:
“Parking Width: 2.7m”
Page | vii
EDITION
NO.
REVISION
NO.
DATE CLAUSE /
SECTION (PAGE)
AMENDMENTS NOTES
(PAGE-411 to
420 )
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
FIGURE 10-4
(PAGE-437)
Added as follows:
“Note: Provide physical separation between through
and left turning movements for Lead-Lag junctions.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
10.3.1.11
LAST
PARAGRAPH
(PAGE-466)
Added as follows:
“In all cases consideration must be given for visibility
to NMUs at the crossings at these junctions.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
FIGURE 10-26
(PAGE-475)
Modified as below:
Figure revised. DUPM Technical Circular No:
DUPM/USO/UPS/IP/OUT/2018/387 dated 25-
February-2018; i.e. width of slip ramp to be 4m+0.5m
(shy) and exit radius to be 10m
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
FIGURE 10-26
(PAGE-475)
Note added as follows:
“If considerable volume of traffic flow occurs by buses
and trucks resulting in large size vehicles being the
predominant design vehicles using the right turn slip
lane, the width and entry/exit radii of the slip lane
maybe increased as per the swept path analysis.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
10.4.3
PARAGRAPH #1
(PAGE-476)
Modified as below:
“For urban slip lanes, the curb-to-curb width will
typically be 4.5 m. Do not use widths greater than 4.5
m as they may encourage drivers to try to use the slip
lane as two lanes.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
10.4.7
BULLET #5
(PAGE-484)
Modified as below:
“Design acceleration lanes at intersections in the same
manner as for interchange ramps using the parallel
design. See Section 12.6.2. However, those distances
for interchanges may be excessive under restricted
urban conditions, where the length of acceleration
lanes for urban intersections may be suitably adjusted.
Taper lengths may vary from 30 m to 45 m instead of 90
m. The below values are recommended where
acceleration lanes are required at Signalized
Intersections and where right-in right-out (RIRO)
located on urban expressways and arterial roads. Traffic
studies and Road Safety audit shall be undertaken for
selecting the proper acceleration length as per the site
constraints.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
10.4.7
BULLET #5
(PAGE-484)
New Table Added as follows:
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
10.6.1
BULLET #3
(PAGE-490)
Added as follows:
“The refuge Island should be adequately sized for
pedestrian and cyclists storage.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
10.6.2.1
(PAGE-491)
Added last bullet as follows:
Page | viii
EDITION
NO.
REVISION
NO.
DATE CLAUSE /
SECTION (PAGE)
AMENDMENTS NOTES
“the use of flush islands for separation of opposing
traffic streams should be avoided”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
10.6.3.1
BULLET #4
(PAGE-492)
Modified as below:
“The minimum width for a flush-type island on new
construction is 3.0 m and for reconstruction projects
1.5 m”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
10.7.2.2
PARAGRAPH #1
(PAGE-504)
FIGURE 10-38
(PAGE-505)
Modified as below:
“………….. For urban areas, the functional length will
be the taper length plus the storage length or the
deceleration length plus the taper length, whichever
is larger. “
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
10.7.2.2
BULLET #2C
(PAGE-507)
Modified as below:
“Distances shown in Section 12.6.1 may be applied on
urban facilities; however, this is not always feasible
due to restricted urban conditions. Length of
deceleration lanes for urban intersections may be
suitably adjusted as per the design speed and/or
traffic studies justifying additional storage lane
requirement. Taper length to be 30 m instead of 75
m. The below values are recommended where
deceleration/storage lanes are required at Signalized
Intersections and where right-in right-out located on
urban expressways and arterial roads.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
10.7.2.2
BULLET #2C
(PAGE-507)
New Table Added as follows:
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 11-4
(PAGE-547)
Modified “Safety->Disadvantages-> Bullet #1”as
below:
“Increase in low-severity single-vehicle and fixed-
object crashes compared to other intersection
treatments.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 11-4
(PAGE-547)
Added Bullet #3 to “Safety->Advantages” as follows:
“•Lower rates of fatal and serious crashes”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
11.7.5
PARAGRAPH #3
(PAGE-559)
Added at the end of the paragraph as follows:
“The offside kerb line projection should guide drivers
around the central Island.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 11-7
(PAGE-561)
Added Note #3 under the table as follows:
“*** Multilane Roundabouts: From local experience
85m ICD appears to be one of the safest designs
when dealing with 3 lane roundabouts especially at
higher speeds.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
11.7.8.3
PARAGRAPH #3
(PAGE-567)
Modified as below:
“Multilane circulatory roadway lane widths typically
range from 4.0 m to 4.9 m. Use of these values results
in a total circulating width of 8.0 m to 9.8 m for a two-
lane circulatory roadway and 12.0 m to 14.6 m total
width for a three-lane circulatory roadway.”
Page | ix
EDITION
NO.
REVISION
NO.
DATE CLAUSE /
SECTION (PAGE)
AMENDMENTS NOTES
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
11.8.4
NEW CLAUSE
(PAGE-573)
New Clause Added as follows:
“Roundabout Visibility Checks”:
Checking visibility for drivers approaching, driving
through or exiting roundabouts is very important
safety aspect to be considered when designing
roundabouts. Engineers shall consider these checks to
ensure different visibility envelopes are clear from
any obstruction to line of sight. The following visibility
checks to be carried out by designers
• Forward Visibility on approach
• Forward visibility at entry
• Visibility to the left
• Circulatory Visibility
• Pedestrian crossing visibility
For further details, refer to British Standards for
Highways DMRB (Design Manual for Roads and
Bridges) - Geometric Design of Roundabouts
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
12.3.7
BULLET #1
(PAGE-584)
Modified as below:
“Figure 12-8”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
12.5.4
BULLET #1
(PAGE-646)
Modified as below:
•Where the truck ADT is greater than 15%, the design
speed for the initial curve after the exit curve shall be
determined to facilitate the safety movement of the
traffic.
•Use a design speed of 50 km/h (maximum) for
cloverleaf interchange loop ramps between freeways.
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
12.5.6
BULLET #1 &
TABLE 12-7
(PAGE-647 &
649)
Modified as below:
“For diagonal ramps and loop ramps, the ramp
travelled way width is 5.0 m with a 1.2 m wide left
shoulder, and a 3.0 m wide right shoulder with no
curb clearance on both sides.”
Also Figure 12-50 and Table 12-7 revised accordingly.
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
13.2.2.6
BULLET #5
(PAGE-686)
Bullet #5 deleted
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
13.2.2.6
BULLET #6
(PAGE-686)
Modified as below:
“Vertical separation of pedestrian paths from vehicle
travel ways should be maintained. Typical kerb height
for Boulevards, Avenues, Access Lanes and Frontage
Lanes to be 10cm.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 13-2
(PAGE-687)
Modified as below:
Max. width of cycle track is revised as 3.0m
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
TABLE 13-2
(PAGE-687)
Added a Note for “Cycle Track” as follows:
(2) Desirable width of 1-way cycle track is 1.5m and
the absolute minimum width of 1-way cycle track is
1.2m (for retrofitting projects only). desirable width
of 2-way cycle track is 3.0m and the absolute
minimum width of 2-way cycle track is 2m (for
retrofitting projects only)””
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
13.2.3.4
BULLET #6
(PAGE-690)
Modified as below:
“Place the vehicle stop bar 3m ahead of the crosswalk”
Page | x
EDITION
NO.
REVISION
NO.
DATE CLAUSE /
SECTION (PAGE)
AMENDMENTS NOTES
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
13.2.3.6
BULLET #12
(PAGE-697)
Modified as below:
“Shall provide a minimum of 4% (Refer to Table 16-1)
reserved parking facilities for disabled access with
minimum dimensions of (2.5+1.5) m x 5.5 m “
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
13.2.3.7
BULLET #1
(PAGE-697)
Modified as below:
“Typical preferred curb height is 100 mm for
Boulevards, Avenues, Access Lanes and Frontage
Lanes”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
13.3.4.2
LAST PARAGRAPH
(PAGE-706)
Modified as below:
“Where this is not possible and the distance between
the edge of the shoulder and the shared use path is
within clear zone , a suitable positive separation by
physical barrier or Vehicle Restraint systems (VRS)
should be provided.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
15.1
(PAGE-721)
Added last paragraph as follows:
“All ITS structure, systems and sub systems
infrastructure that are along the road side and within
clear zone need a suitable physical barrier or Vehicle
Restraint systems (VRS).”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
16.3.1.2
LAST BULLET
(PAGE-739)
Added last bullet as follows:
“Consideration must be given to how maintenance
workers and vehicles will access the landscaping and
where will vehicles stop to unload mowers or pick up
waste plant material like palm fronds etc.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
16.8
BULLET #1
(PAGE-760)
Modified as below:
“In rural areas, a truck lay-by should be provided
approximately every 25 km (maximum).”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
16.8
(PAGE-760)
Added Bullet #8 as follows:
“Lay-bys must be physically separated from Main line
traffic by a VRS/Guard Rail with proper end
termination.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
16.9.2.4
BULLET #2
(PAGE-766)
Modified as below:
“Parking lots adjacent to each other (served from
different aisles) should be separated by a raised
sidewalk at least 1.0m wide which shall be
unobstructed and clear from any signs or street
lighting poles.”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
16.9.2.5
BULLET #1
(PAGE-766)
Modified as below:
“Typical stall widths (measured perpendicular to the
parked vehicle) are 2.7 m”
02 01 NOVEMBER
2021
FIGURE 16-15
(PAGE-768)
Modified as below:
Width of parallel parking is revised as 2.7m
ROAD GEOMETRIC DESIGN MANUAL
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents.......................................................................................................................... 1
List of Figures............................................................................................................................. 16
List of Tables............................................................................................................................... 23
Definitions................................................................................................................................ 27
Geometric Qualifying Words .................................................................................................. 51
Acronyms................................................................................................................................. 52
1 INTRODUCTION TO ROAD DESIGN ................................................................................... 53
1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 53
1.2 Objectives ..................................................................................................................... 53
1.3 Application.................................................................................................................... 54
1.3.1 Departures from Standards...................................................................................... 54
1.3.2 Departure from Standards Request ......................................................................... 54
1.4 DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT............................................................................ 56
1.4.1 Transportation Planning........................................................................................... 56
1.4.2 Environmental Factors Influencing Design............................................................... 62
1.4.3 Technical Investigations........................................................................................... 72
1.4.4 Traffic Data Collection ............................................................................................. 73
1.4.5 Survey Control / Field Surveys................................................................................. 75
1.5 DESIGN CONCEPT REPORT........................................................................................ 77
1.5.1 Contents.................................................................................................................. 77
1.5.2 Executive Summary................................................................................................. 81
1.5.3 Introduction.............................................................................................................. 81
1.5.4 Traffic Analysis ........................................................................................................ 81
1.5.5 Description Of Alternatives ...................................................................................... 82
1.5.6 Design Data............................................................................................................. 83
1.5.7 Typical Sections ...................................................................................................... 83
1.5.8 Geometrics .............................................................................................................. 83
1.5.9 Interchange / Intersection Configuration .................................................................. 84
1.5.10 Parking Study .......................................................................................................... 84
1.5.11 Hydrology And Hydraulics........................................................................................ 85
1.5.12 Subsurface Investigations........................................................................................ 85
1.5.13 Bridge Type Selection.............................................................................................. 86
1.5.14 Tunnel Selection Criteria.......................................................................................... 89
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1.5.15 Utility Impact Analysis.............................................................................................. 90
1.5.16 Socio - Economic Analysis....................................................................................... 91
1.5.17 Agriculture Impact.................................................................................................... 91
1.5.18 Public Feedback ...................................................................................................... 91
1.5.19 Signing and Pavement Markings ............................................................................. 92
1.5.20 Lighting Concepts.................................................................................................... 92
1.5.21 Construction Staging ............................................................................................... 92
1.5.22 Cost Estimate .......................................................................................................... 92
1.5.23 Conclusions / Recommendations............................................................................. 93
1.5.24 Appendix ................................................................................................................. 93
1.5.25 Drawings ................................................................................................................. 94
2 GENERAL DESIGN CRITERIA AND CONTROLS ............................................................... 95
2.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 95
2.2 Context Sensitive Solutions......................................................................................... 95
2.2.1 Basic Principles ....................................................................................................... 95
2.2.2 Roadway Design ..................................................................................................... 96
2.2.3 Additional Resources............................................................................................... 97
2.3 Sustainability ................................................................................................................ 98
2.4 Functional Classification ............................................................................................. 99
2.4.1 Relationship to Roadway Design ............................................................................. 99
2.4.2 Function of Roadway System for Rural Areas........................................................ 102
2.4.3 Function of Roadway System for Urban Areas ...................................................... 103
2.4.4 Urban Streets ........................................................................................................ 105
2.5 Speed........................................................................................................................... 106
2.5.1 Design Speed........................................................................................................ 106
2.5.2 Average Running Speed........................................................................................ 107
2.5.3 Average Travel Speed........................................................................................... 107
2.5.4 Operating Speed ................................................................................................... 107
2.5.5 Posted Speed Limit................................................................................................ 108
2.5.6 Truck/Car Speed Relationship ............................................................................... 108
2.6 Design Vehicles .......................................................................................................... 109
2.6.1 Vehicle Dimensions ............................................................................................... 109
2.6.2 Turning Templates................................................................................................. 110
2.6.3 Acceleration and Deceleration Rates..................................................................... 115
2.7 Transportation Demand ............................................................................................. 115
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2.7.1 Traffic Volume Demand Parameters...................................................................... 115
2.7.2 Design Year Selection ........................................................................................... 115
2.7.3 User Characteristics .............................................................................................. 115
2.7.4 Capacity and Operational Analyses ....................................................................... 119
2.8 Environmental Considerations.................................................................................. 123
2.9 Right-of-Way Considerations..................................................................................... 124
2.10 Access Control and Access Management ................................................................ 125
2.11 Non-Road Design Controls ........................................................................................ 125
2.11.1 Drivers................................................................................................................... 126
2.11.2 Pedestrians and Cyclists........................................................................................ 127
2.12 Road Safety................................................................................................................. 127
2.13 Road Safety Audit....................................................................................................... 129
3 CROSS SECTION ELEMENTS........................................................................................... 130
3.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 130
3.2 Roadway Section........................................................................................................ 130
3.2.1 Carriageway .......................................................................................................... 130
3.2.2 Travelled Way........................................................................................................ 130
3.2.3 Shoulders .............................................................................................................. 136
3.2.4 Rumble Strips........................................................................................................ 137
3.2.5 Auxiliary Lanes ...................................................................................................... 141
3.2.6 Curbs (Kerbs) ........................................................................................................ 141
3.3 Medians....................................................................................................................... 148
3.3.1 Functions............................................................................................................... 148
3.3.2 Median Widths....................................................................................................... 148
3.3.3 Median Types........................................................................................................ 151
3.3.4 Median Selection ................................................................................................... 154
3.4 Roadside Elements..................................................................................................... 155
3.4.1 Verges................................................................................................................... 155
3.4.2 Side Slopes ........................................................................................................... 155
3.4.3 Sidewalks/Pathways.............................................................................................. 160
3.4.4 Cyclists.................................................................................................................. 161
3.4.5 Clear Zones/Clearances ........................................................................................ 161
3.5 Traffic Barriers............................................................................................................ 161
3.6 Noise Control.............................................................................................................. 164
3.6.1 General.................................................................................................................. 164
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3.6.2 Sound Barriers....................................................................................................... 164
3.7 Sand Control............................................................................................................... 166
3.7.1 General.................................................................................................................. 166
3.7.2 Sand Movement and Deposition............................................................................ 166
3.7.3 Location................................................................................................................. 167
3.7.4 Design Elements ................................................................................................... 168
3.7.5 Dune Stabilization.................................................................................................. 169
3.7.6 Dune Destruction................................................................................................... 172
3.8 Right-of-Way ............................................................................................................... 172
3.9 Utilities ........................................................................................................................ 173
3.9.1 Types..................................................................................................................... 173
3.9.2 Location................................................................................................................. 173
3.9.3 Design Considerations........................................................................................... 174
3.10 Tunnels........................................................................................................................ 174
3.10.1 Types of Tunnels ................................................................................................... 176
3.10.2 Design Considerations........................................................................................... 177
3.10.3 Tunnel Cross Sections........................................................................................... 178
3.11 Wildlife Crossings ...................................................................................................... 178
4 SIGHT DISTANCE .............................................................................................................. 184
4.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 184
4.2 Eye and Object Heights.............................................................................................. 184
4.3 Stopping Sight Distance ............................................................................................ 185
4.3.1 Passenger Cars (Level Grade) .............................................................................. 185
4.3.2 Grade-Adjusted SSD ............................................................................................. 185
4.3.3 Trucks.................................................................................................................... 187
4.3.4 SSD Application..................................................................................................... 189
4.4 Decision Sight Distance............................................................................................. 189
4.4.1 Theoretical Discussion........................................................................................... 189
4.4.2 Applications ........................................................................................................... 190
4.5 Passing Sight Distance .............................................................................................. 191
4.6 Intersection Sight Distance........................................................................................ 192
4.6.1 General.................................................................................................................. 192
4.6.2 Eye and Object Heights ......................................................................................... 193
4.6.3 Case A – Intersections with No Control.................................................................. 193
4.6.4 Case B – Intersections with Stop Control on the Minor Road................................. 193
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4.6.5 Case C – Intersections with Yield Control on the Minor Road................................ 197
4.6.6 Case D – Intersections with Traffic Signal Control ................................................. 201
4.6.7 Case E—Intersections with All-Way Stop Control .................................................. 201
4.6.8 Case F – Left Turns From the Major Road............................................................. 202
4.6.9 Examples of ISD Applications................................................................................ 204
4.6.10 Effect of Skew........................................................................................................ 209
4.7 Measuring Sight Distance .......................................................................................... 209
5 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT............................................................................................... 211
5.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 211
5.2 Horizontal Curves....................................................................................................... 211
5.2.1 Types of Horizontal Curves.................................................................................... 211
5.2.2 General Theory...................................................................................................... 214
5.2.3 Minimum Radii....................................................................................................... 216
5.2.4 Maximum Deflection without Curve........................................................................ 216
5.2.5 Minimum Length of Curve...................................................................................... 218
5.3 Superelevation Development..................................................................................... 218
5.3.1 Superelevation Rates ............................................................................................ 218
5.3.2 Transition Lengths ................................................................................................. 219
5.3.3 Application of Transition Length............................................................................. 227
5.3.4 Axis of Rotation ..................................................................................................... 228
5.3.5 Shoulder Superelevation........................................................................................ 229
5.3.6 Compound Curves................................................................................................. 230
5.3.7 Reverse Curves..................................................................................................... 231
5.3.8 Superelevation Development Figures .................................................................... 236
5.3.9 Examples............................................................................................................... 236
5.4 Spiral Curves .............................................................................................................. 246
5.4.1 Application............................................................................................................. 246
5.4.2 Length of Spiral ..................................................................................................... 249
5.4.3 Length of Superelevation Runoff............................................................................ 251
5.4.4 Limiting Superelevation Rates ............................................................................... 251
5.4.5 Length of Tangent Runout ..................................................................................... 251
5.5 Horizontal Sight Offset............................................................................................... 252
5.5.1 Overview ............................................................................................................... 252
5.5.2 Equations .............................................................................................................. 252
5.5.3 Eye and Object Heights ......................................................................................... 256
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5.6 Curve Widening .......................................................................................................... 256
5.6.1 General Theory...................................................................................................... 256
5.6.2 Design Values ....................................................................................................... 258
5.6.3 Application............................................................................................................. 259
5.7 General Controls for Horizontal Alignment .............................................................. 261
6 VERTICAL ALIGNMENT .................................................................................................... 263
6.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 263
6.1.1 Vertical Alignment Position with Respect to Cross Section .................................... 263
6.2 Grades and Terrain..................................................................................................... 263
6.2.1 Terrain/Topography ............................................................................................... 263
6.2.2 Maximum Grades .................................................................................................. 264
6.2.3 Minimum Grades ................................................................................................... 264
6.2.4 Trucks.................................................................................................................... 264
6.2.5 Critical Length of Grade......................................................................................... 265
6.3 Truck-Climbing Lanes ................................................................................................ 271
6.3.1 Location Guidelines ............................................................................................... 272
6.3.2 Capacity Analysis .................................................................................................. 272
6.3.3 Design Guidelines.................................................................................................. 273
6.3.4 Downgrades .......................................................................................................... 277
6.4 Vertical Curves ........................................................................................................... 277
6.4.1 Crest Vertical Curves............................................................................................. 278
6.4.2 Sag Vertical Curves............................................................................................... 283
6.4.3 Vertical Curve Computations ................................................................................. 290
6.5 Minimum Vertical Clearances .................................................................................... 290
6.6 Alignment and Profile Relationships......................................................................... 291
6.6.1 General Controls for Vertical Alignment................................................................. 297
6.6.2 Coordination of Horizontal and Vertical Alignment ................................................. 298
6.6.3 Alignment Coordination Figures............................................................................. 299
6.6.4 Profile Gradelines .................................................................................................. 307
6.7 Emergency Escape Ramps ........................................................................................ 308
6.7.1 Purpose and Need................................................................................................. 308
6.7.2 Containment Facilities ........................................................................................... 308
6.7.3 Warrant for Investigation........................................................................................ 308
6.7.4 Location and Spacing ............................................................................................ 309
6.7.5 Design Process ..................................................................................................... 310
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6.7.6 Brake Check Areas................................................................................................ 317
6.7.7 Maintenance.......................................................................................................... 317
7 RURAL AND URBAN FREEWAYS .................................................................................... 318
7.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 318
7.2 Freeway Systems........................................................................................................ 318
7.2.1 Basic Components................................................................................................. 318
7.2.2 Freeway Spacing................................................................................................... 319
7.2.3 Network Configurations ......................................................................................... 319
7.2.4 Linear Freeway Systems Configurations................................................................ 321
7.3 Freeway Types............................................................................................................ 323
7.3.1 Ground-Level Freeways......................................................................................... 323
7.3.2 Depressed Freeways............................................................................................. 323
7.3.3 Elevated Freeways ................................................................................................ 328
7.3.4 Combination-Type Freeways ................................................................................. 331
7.3.5 Special Freeway Designs ...................................................................................... 332
7.4 General Design Considerations................................................................................. 337
7.4.1 Design Speed........................................................................................................ 337
7.4.2 Design Traffic Volumes.......................................................................................... 337
7.4.3 Capacity Analysis .................................................................................................. 337
7.4.4 Travelled Way and Shoulders................................................................................ 339
7.4.5 Curbs..................................................................................................................... 340
7.4.6 Superelevation....................................................................................................... 340
7.4.7 Grades................................................................................................................... 340
7.4.8 Structures.............................................................................................................. 341
7.4.9 Vertical Clearance ................................................................................................. 341
7.4.10 Roadside Design ................................................................................................... 341
7.4.11 Ramps and Terminals............................................................................................ 341
7.4.12 Outer Separations and Borders ............................................................................. 341
7.4.13 Access Control ...................................................................................................... 342
7.5 Grade Separation Design ........................................................................................... 344
7.5.1 Justification............................................................................................................ 344
7.5.2 Design ................................................................................................................... 345
7.6 Rural Freeways ........................................................................................................... 350
7.6.1 Alignment and Profile............................................................................................. 352
7.6.2 Medians................................................................................................................. 352
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7.6.3 Side Slopes ........................................................................................................... 354
7.6.4 Service Roads ....................................................................................................... 354
7.7 Urban Freeways.......................................................................................................... 355
7.7.1 General Design Characteristics ............................................................................. 355
7.7.2 Medians................................................................................................................. 357
7.7.3 Service Roads ....................................................................................................... 357
7.7.4 Managed Lanes..................................................................................................... 359
8 RURAL ROADS.................................................................................................................. 364
8.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 364
8.2 Two-Lane Roads......................................................................................................... 364
8.2.1 General Characteristics ......................................................................................... 364
8.2.2 General Design Considerations ............................................................................. 365
8.2.3 Cross Section Elements......................................................................................... 370
8.2.4 Structures.............................................................................................................. 371
8.2.5 Provision for Passing............................................................................................. 372
8.2.6 Ultimate Development for a Dual Carriageway ...................................................... 374
8.2.7 Turnouts ................................................................................................................ 376
8.3 Rural Multilane Roads ................................................................................................ 377
8.3.1 General Design Considerations ............................................................................. 380
8.3.2 Cross Sectional Elements...................................................................................... 381
8.3.3 Structures.............................................................................................................. 383
8.3.4 Intersections .......................................................................................................... 383
8.3.5 Access Management ............................................................................................. 384
8.4 Trucks Routes............................................................................................................. 384
9 URBAN STREETS .............................................................................................................. 386
9.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 386
9.2 General........................................................................................................................ 386
9.2.1 Urban Design Challenges...................................................................................... 386
9.2.2 Urban Street Typology........................................................................................... 387
9.2.3 Access Management ............................................................................................. 388
9.2.4 Design Priorities .................................................................................................... 388
9.3 General Design Elements........................................................................................... 388
9.3.1 Design Speed........................................................................................................ 388
9.3.2 Capacity Analyses ................................................................................................. 388
9.3.3 Sight Distance ....................................................................................................... 394
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9.3.4 Alignment .............................................................................................................. 394
9.3.5 Grades................................................................................................................... 394
9.3.6 Cross Section Elements......................................................................................... 395
9.3.7 Traffic Control Devices .......................................................................................... 405
9.3.8 Structures.............................................................................................................. 406
9.3.9 Intersections .......................................................................................................... 406
9.3.10 Drainage................................................................................................................ 407
9.4 Horizontal Alignment.................................................................................................. 407
9.4.1 Superelevation Methodology ................................................................................. 407
9.4.2 General Superelevation Considerations................................................................. 407
9.4.3 Maximum Superelevation Rate.............................................................................. 408
9.4.4 Minimum Radii....................................................................................................... 408
9.4.5 Maximum Deflection without Curve........................................................................ 409
9.4.6 Transition Lengths ................................................................................................. 409
9.4.7 Axis of Rotation ..................................................................................................... 409
9.4.8 Typical Designs ..................................................................................................... 410
9.5 Tables of Design Criteria............................................................................................ 410
10 INTERSECTIONS ............................................................................................................... 431
10.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 431
10.2 General Design Controls............................................................................................ 434
10.2.1 General Design Considerations ............................................................................. 434
10.2.2 Intersection Components....................................................................................... 435
10.2.3 Intersection Capacity ............................................................................................. 438
10.2.4 Intersection Types ................................................................................................. 441
10.2.5 Intersection Spacing .............................................................................................. 444
10.2.6 Intersection Alignment ........................................................................................... 447
10.2.7 Profiles .................................................................................................................. 450
10.2.8 Design Vehicles..................................................................................................... 451
10.2.9 Pedestrians and Cyclists........................................................................................ 452
10.2.10 Signing and Pavement Markings ........................................................................... 452
10.2.11 Drainage................................................................................................................ 452
10.3 Corner Radii................................................................................................................ 454
10.3.1 Design for Right-Turning Vehicles ......................................................................... 454
10.3.2 Left-Turn Control Radii .......................................................................................... 468
10.4 Rural Turning Roadways/Urban Slip Lanes.............................................................. 470
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10.4.1 Guidelines ............................................................................................................. 470
10.4.2 Design ................................................................................................................... 471
10.4.3 Turning Roadway/Slip Lanes Widths ..................................................................... 476
10.4.4 Horizontal Alignment.............................................................................................. 478
10.4.5 Right-Angle Turns with Corner Islands................................................................... 482
10.4.6 Oblique-Angle Turns with Corner Islands............................................................... 482
10.4.7 Deceleration/Acceleration Lanes ........................................................................... 483
10.5 Channelization ............................................................................................................ 484
10.5.1 Guidance............................................................................................................... 485
10.5.2 Design Considerations........................................................................................... 486
10.6 Islands......................................................................................................................... 489
10.6.1 Island Types .......................................................................................................... 490
10.6.2 Selection of Island Type......................................................................................... 490
10.6.3 Design of Islands ................................................................................................... 492
10.6.4 Refuge Islands....................................................................................................... 495
10.6.5 Corner Islands ....................................................................................................... 496
10.6.6 Island Size and Designation .................................................................................. 498
10.7 Auxiliary Turn Lanes .................................................................................................. 499
10.7.1 Warrants................................................................................................................ 499
10.7.2 Design of Turn Lanes ............................................................................................ 503
10.7.3 Design of Left-Turn Lane ....................................................................................... 508
10.7.4 Design of Right-Turn Lane..................................................................................... 517
10.7.5 Multiple Turn Lanes ............................................................................................... 517
10.8 Median Openings........................................................................................................ 521
10.8.1 Location/Spacing ................................................................................................... 521
10.8.2 Design ................................................................................................................... 522
10.8.3 Minimum Design for U-Turns ................................................................................. 526
10.9 Placement of Bus Stops Near Intersections ............................................................. 532
10.10 Intersections with Service Roads.............................................................................. 534
11 ROUNDABOUTS ................................................................................................................ 537
11.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 537
11.2 Characteristics of a Roundabout............................................................................... 537
11.2.1 Design Features .................................................................................................... 537
11.2.2 Roundabouts Characteristics................................................................................. 538
11.3 Categories of Roundabouts....................................................................................... 539
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11.3.1 Mini-Roundabouts.................................................................................................. 542
11.3.2 Single-Lane Roundabouts ..................................................................................... 543
11.3.3 Multilane Roundabouts.......................................................................................... 543
11.4 Roundabout Considerations...................................................................................... 545
11.4.1 Planning ................................................................................................................ 545
11.4.2 General.................................................................................................................. 546
11.4.3 User Considerations .............................................................................................. 546
11.4.4 Access Management ............................................................................................. 548
11.5 Operational Analysis .................................................................................................. 548
11.5.1 Introduction............................................................................................................ 548
11.5.2 Principles............................................................................................................... 549
11.5.3 Data Collection ...................................................................................................... 550
11.5.4 Analysis Techniques.............................................................................................. 551
11.5.5 Highway Capacity Manual Method......................................................................... 551
11.6 Safety........................................................................................................................... 553
11.7 Geometric Design....................................................................................................... 554
11.7.1 Introduction............................................................................................................ 554
11.7.2 Principles and Objectives....................................................................................... 556
11.7.3 Speed Management .............................................................................................. 558
11.7.4 Lane Arrangements ............................................................................................... 558
11.7.5 Path Alignment ...................................................................................................... 559
11.7.6 Size, Position, and Alignment ................................................................................ 560
11.7.7 Single-Lane Roundabouts ..................................................................................... 562
11.7.8 Multilane Roundabouts.......................................................................................... 565
11.7.9 Mini-Roundabouts.................................................................................................. 567
11.7.10 Closely Spaced Roundabouts................................................................................ 569
11.8 Other Considerations ................................................................................................. 570
11.8.1 Traffic Control Devices .......................................................................................... 570
11.8.2 Landscaping .......................................................................................................... 570
11.8.3 Illumination ............................................................................................................ 572
11.8.4 Roundabout Visibility ............................................................................................. 573
12 INTERCHANGES................................................................................................................ 575
12.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 575
12.2 Warrants...................................................................................................................... 575
12.3 General Design Considerations................................................................................. 576
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12.3.1 System and Service Interchanges ......................................................................... 576
12.3.2 Interchange Spacing.............................................................................................. 580
12.3.3 Distance Between Successive Freeway/Ramp Junctions ...................................... 580
12.3.4 Basic Number of Lanes ......................................................................................... 580
12.3.5 Lane Balance......................................................................................................... 580
12.3.6 Capacity and Level of Service ............................................................................... 583
12.3.7 Auxiliary Lanes ...................................................................................................... 584
12.3.8 Freeway Lane Drops ............................................................................................. 584
12.3.9 Route Continuity.................................................................................................... 587
12.3.10 Uniformity .............................................................................................................. 589
12.3.11 Left-Hand Ramps................................................................................................... 589
12.3.12 Signing and Marking.............................................................................................. 589
12.3.13 Weaving Sections.................................................................................................. 589
12.3.14 Grading and Landscaping...................................................................................... 591
12.3.15 Review Design....................................................................................................... 591
12.3.16 Geometric Design Criteria...................................................................................... 591
12.3.17 Operational/Safety Considerations ........................................................................ 595
12.4 Interchange Types and Layouts ................................................................................ 597
12.4.1 General.................................................................................................................. 597
12.4.2 Diamond Interchange ............................................................................................ 597
12.4.3 Modified Diamond.................................................................................................. 603
12.4.4 Compressed Diamond........................................................................................... 604
12.4.5 Single-Point Diamond Interchange ........................................................................ 608
12.4.6 Full Cloverleaf........................................................................................................ 612
12.4.7 Partial Cloverleafs.................................................................................................. 617
12.4.8 Trumpet Interchange ............................................................................................. 625
12.4.9 Direct and Semi-Direct Interchanges ..................................................................... 629
12.4.10 Other Interchange Types ....................................................................................... 629
12.4.11 Selection................................................................................................................ 640
12.5 Ramp Design............................................................................................................... 641
12.5.1 Ramp Types .......................................................................................................... 641
12.5.2 Collector-Distributor Roadways.............................................................................. 643
12.5.3 High-Speed Direct/Semi-Direct Roadways ............................................................ 645
12.5.4 Design Speed........................................................................................................ 645
12.5.5 Sight Distance ....................................................................................................... 646
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12.5.6 Cross Section Elements......................................................................................... 647
12.5.7 Two-Lane Loop Ramps ......................................................................................... 650
12.5.8 Horizontal Alignment.............................................................................................. 651
12.5.9 Vertical Alignment.................................................................................................. 653
12.5.10 Roadside Safety .................................................................................................... 654
12.5.11 Ramp Capacity...................................................................................................... 654
12.5.12 Ramp Metering...................................................................................................... 654
12.6 Freeway Ramp Terminals........................................................................................... 655
12.6.1 Exit Ramp Terminals ............................................................................................. 655
12.6.2 Entrance Ramp Terminals ..................................................................................... 662
12.6.3 Capacity Analysis .................................................................................................. 667
12.6.4 Branch Connections .............................................................................................. 669
12.7 Ramp/Crossroad Intersections.................................................................................. 672
12.7.1 General Design Criteria ......................................................................................... 672
12.7.2 Slip Ramp Designs ................................................................................................ 673
12.7.3 Crossroad Access Control ..................................................................................... 673
12.8 Ramp/Freeway Divergence and Convergence.......................................................... 677
12.8.1 Divergences........................................................................................................... 677
12.8.2 Convergences ....................................................................................................... 677
12.8.3 Manoeuvre Areas .................................................................................................. 677
12.9 HOV and Public Transport ......................................................................................... 679
12.10 Toll Road Facilities..................................................................................................... 680
13 PEDESTRIAN AND CYCLIST FACILITIES ........................................................................ 681
13.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 681
13.2 Pedestrians ................................................................................................................. 681
13.2.1 Public Realm ......................................................................................................... 681
13.2.2 Pedestrian Realm Zones ....................................................................................... 681
13.2.3 Design Guidance ................................................................................................... 686
13.2.4 Traffic Calming ...................................................................................................... 702
13.3 Cyclists........................................................................................................................ 702
13.3.1 Definitions.............................................................................................................. 702
13.3.2 Cycle Facilities at Intersections.............................................................................. 704
13.3.3 Cycle Parking ........................................................................................................ 705
13.3.4 Separate Cycle Facilities ....................................................................................... 705
14 RAILWAY CROSSINGS ..................................................................................................... 711
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14.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 711
14.2 Geometric Design Elements ...................................................................................... 711
14.2.1 General Guidance.................................................................................................. 711
14.2.2 Sight Distance ....................................................................................................... 711
14.2.3 Horizontal Alignment.............................................................................................. 715
14.2.4 Vertical Alignment.................................................................................................. 716
14.2.5 Surface Design...................................................................................................... 716
14.2.6 Intersections Design Near Railroad Crossings....................................................... 716
14.3 Traffic Control Devices............................................................................................... 717
14.4 Light Rail Transit Track in Mixed Traffic ................................................................... 717
14.4.1 Introduction............................................................................................................ 717
14.4.2 Track Position Within Lanes .................................................................................. 719
15 INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ............................................................................ 721
15.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 721
15.2 ITS Design................................................................................................................... 721
15.3 Systems Engineering ................................................................................................. 721
15.4 Vehicle Detection Stations......................................................................................... 722
15.4.1 General.................................................................................................................. 722
15.4.2 Types of Detection................................................................................................. 722
15.5 Traffic Data Collection................................................................................................ 723
15.6 Closed Circuit Television Systems............................................................................ 723
15.7 Road Weather Monitoring Systems........................................................................... 724
15.8 Help Phone Systems .................................................................................................. 725
15.9 Variable Message Signs............................................................................................. 725
15.10 Ramp Metering Systems ............................................................................................ 726
15.11 Weigh-In-Motion Systems .......................................................................................... 726
15.12 Automatic Number Plate Recognition Systems ....................................................... 727
15.13 Tunnel Management Systems.................................................................................... 727
15.14 Over-Height Vehicle Detection System ..................................................................... 728
16 ROADSIDE AMENITY......................................................................................................... 729
16.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 729
16.2 Visual Amenity and Aesthetics.................................................................................. 729
16.2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................ 729
16.2.2 Importance ............................................................................................................ 729
16.2.3 Objectives.............................................................................................................. 730
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16.2.4 Aesthetics and Visual Impact Assessment............................................................. 730
16.2.5 Documenting and Reviewing Visual Impacts ......................................................... 732
16.3 Landscaping ............................................................................................................... 734
16.3.1 Landscape Design Principles................................................................................. 734
16.3.2 Overview of Landscape Design Process................................................................ 741
16.3.3 Responsibility for Preparation of Design ................................................................ 741
16.3.4 Design Factors ...................................................................................................... 742
16.4 Roadway Lighting....................................................................................................... 744
16.4.1 Utility Poles............................................................................................................ 744
16.4.2 Facilities ................................................................................................................ 744
16.5 Fencing........................................................................................................................ 745
16.5.1 General.................................................................................................................. 745
16.5.2 Freeways and Expressways .................................................................................. 746
16.5.3 Pedestrian Fencing................................................................................................ 747
16.5.4 Protective Fencing on Roadway Overpasses......................................................... 747
16.5.5 Fencing or Safety Devices on Top of Retaining Walls............................................ 748
16.6 Rest Areas................................................................................................................... 748
16.6.1 General.................................................................................................................. 748
16.6.2 Location of Rest Areas .......................................................................................... 748
16.6.3 Design of Rest Areas............................................................................................. 751
16.7 Oasis............................................................................................................................ 759
16.8 Truck Lay-By............................................................................................................... 760
16.9 Off-Street Parking....................................................................................................... 760
16.9.1 Park-and-Ride Lots................................................................................................ 762
16.9.2 Parking Design ...................................................................................................... 764
Cited References ...................................................................................................................... 771
Other References...................................................................................................................... 775
Index .......................................................................................................................................... 776
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1: Standard Mapping Symbols - Boundaries and Monuments ......................................................... 59
Figure 1-2: Standard Mapping Symbols - Natural Planimetric Features......................................................... 60
Figure 1-3: Standard Mapping Symbols - Manmade Planimetric Symbols..................................................... 61
Figure 1-4: Standard Design Concept Report Cover Sheet............................................................................ 80
Figure 1-5: Preliminary Road Tunnel Type Selection Process ....................................................................... 89
Figure 2-1: Relationship of Functionally Classified Systems in Serving Traffic Mobility and Land Access . 100
Figure 2-2: Basic Dimension of Tractor–Semitrailer Vehicle......................................................................... 112
Figure 2-3: Basic Dimension of Tractor–Semitrailer Vehicle/ Trailer Vehicle (Double Trailer) ..................... 113
Figure 2-4: Turning Characteristics of a Typical Semitrailer Design Vehicle ................................................ 114
Figure 3-1: Rural Dual Carriageway Nomenclature ...................................................................................... 131
Figure 3-2: Urban Dual Carriageway (Freeways) Nomenclature .................................................................. 132
Figure 3-3: Rural Single Carriageway Nomenclature.................................................................................... 133
Figure 3-4: City Boulevard Nomenclature ..................................................................................................... 134
Figure 3-5: City Avenue Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 135
Figure 3-6: Rumble Strip Types..................................................................................................................... 139
Figure 3-7: Shoulder Rumble Strip Locations ............................................................................................... 140
Figure 3-8: Vertical Curb Design ................................................................................................................... 143
Figure 3-9 (Urban): Typical Curb Types........................................................................................................ 146
Figure 3-10: Typical Median Types ............................................................................................................... 152
Figure 3-11: Typical Ditch Section................................................................................................................. 157
Figure 3-12: Roadway Ditch Section............................................................................................................. 157
Figure 3-13: Typical Cut Sections with Curbs ............................................................................................... 158
Figure 3-14: Typical Rock Cut Section.......................................................................................................... 159
Figure 3-15: Concrete Median Barrier Details............................................................................................... 162
Figure 3-16: Example Cast-in-Place Curb to Concrete Barrier Transition .................................................... 162
Figure 3-17: Sand Covered Roadways ......................................................................................................... 166
Figure 3-18: Sand Dunes .............................................................................................................................. 169
Figure 3-19: Stabilizing Dunes ...................................................................................................................... 171
Figure 3-20: Tunnels ..................................................................................................................................... 175
Figure 3-21: Cut and Cover Tunnels ............................................................................................................. 177
Figure 3-22: Tunnel Cross Section................................................................................................................ 179
Figure 3-23: Wildlife Underpass .................................................................................................................... 180
Figure 3-24: Camel Underpass ..................................................................................................................... 180
Figure 3-25: Cul-de-sacs ............................................................................................................................... 182
Figure 3-26: Turnarounds.............................................................................................................................. 183
Figure 4-1: Clear Sight Triangle for Viewing Traffic Approaching From Left................................................. 194
Figure 4-2: Clear Sight Triangle for Viewing Traffic Approaching From Right .............................................. 194
Figure 4-3: Approach Sight Triangles (Yield Control).................................................................................... 199
Figure 4-4: Intersection Sight Distance (Left Turns From the Major Road) .................................................. 203
Figure 4-5: Example 4.6 – 1 .......................................................................................................................... 205
Figure 4-6: Example 4.6 – 2 .......................................................................................................................... 207
Figure 4-7: Example 4.6 – 3 .......................................................................................................................... 208
Figure 4-8: Sight Distance at Skewed Intersections...................................................................................... 209
Figure 4-9: Measuring Sight Distances ......................................................................................................... 210
Figure 5-1: Simple Curve Nomenclature ....................................................................................................... 212
Figure 5-2: Three-Centred Compound Curve ............................................................................................... 213
Figure 5-3: Comparison of Side-Friction Factors .......................................................................................... 214
Figure 5-4: Method of Distributing Superelevation and Side Friction............................................................ 216
Figure 5-5: Superelevation Transition Length ............................................................................................... 223
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TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
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TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
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TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
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TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf
TR-514 (6) ABIDHUBA manualproyectovial Emirato Arabe.pdf

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