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AI at Hyperscale - How to go
Faster with a Smaller Footprint
Theresa Melvin
Chief Architect of AI-Driven Big Data Solutions
HPE
2 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
The need to go 60% faster in an 80% smaller footprint
Research,
Data Science,
ML Algorithms,
AI Model Dev,
& Deep Learning
Applications &
Frameworks
Infrastructure
Hadoop ISVs
3rd Party
Servers & Storage
Container &
Orchestration
Commercial
Products
ML
FlinkML
Fully Distributed Design
…Planning Matters
…Tools Matter
…Code Matters
…Skills Matter Most
3 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ No Data Strategy
▪ Tools being used cannot be applied to all
layers and dimensions of the data
▪ Tech-Silos are the Status Quo
▪ No symmetry between IoT (if it exists), HPC,
and Big Data resulting in an inability to
perform AI-Driven workloads
▪ Diminishing net return as more physical
resources are thrown at technology
problems
▪ Faults and Failures increase
▪ Complexity increases
▪ Visibility decreases
Welcome to the world of Big Data, where Big means Slow …
ResponseTime
Data Growth
Year 1
Year 2
Orders of
Magnitud
e
4 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ There is no beginning, and no end to this
“Solution-based” operational model
▪ Each ‘Use Case’ is purpose-built for maximum speed
and agility
▪ Designs are built from the ground-up for continuous
financial and technical improvement
▪ Designs are “end-to-end”, starting with Ingest
(IoT), moving to Research & Analytics (AI|HPC),
and finishing with Storage (Big Data)
▪ Modular infrastructures
▪ Portable code
▪ Instantly Adaptable
▪ Unified Management
▪ Global Footprint
▪ Aggressive Cost Controls
Hello, Hyperscale! You lean, mean, efficient Machine!
5 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
Extreme-Scale has become synonymous with Exascale
▪ Exascale can mean several different things
▪ Terabytes per second (TB/s) of sustained bandwidth
1 TB/s = 86.4 PB/day of raw ingest
▪ Exabytes of data processed (CPUs @horizontal scale)
Of the 2.6 Exabytes of raw data processed each month, only 30% or
~780 GB is “interesting” and needs to be stored
▪ Exabytes of stored data (Software-Defined Storage)
Everything has value, so all 2.6EB of monthly raw, plus another 500PB of
aggregates, all of which needs to be stored for 5 or 10 years, depending
on type
▪ ExaFLOP Processing (FPGA, ASIC, GPU, etc…)
These are currently non-existent HPC Systems capable of processing 1
quintillion (there are 18 zeros after that ‘1’ using short form, or 30 zeros
for long) calculations per second
But wait! There’s a new Extreme-Scale market emerging!
6 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ Cloud Companies and the US Government
▪ Have been running Exascale footprints for years now
▪ Academia manages Exabytes of data
▪ With no way to efficiently process it all
▪ Manufacturing, Insurance, Finance, Healthcare, Pharmaceuticals & Biosciences
▪ Are well on the way
▪ The transportation industry expects to have a serious Exascale problem
▪ In about 2-3 years
▪ …And Astronomy will overtake them all, by several orders of magnitude, in less
than a decade, if the smartest people in the world – from Government, Academia,
and Industry can figure out how to do it
Yeah, that’s really cool, but who is seriously attempting Exascale?
7 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ Use Case (Achievable ROI in 2 years)
▪ Clear business problem → Solvable goal with current tech & skills
▪ Layered Solution Design
▪ Capable of Phased Implementations
▪ Skillsets
▪ What can be done in-house, versus going external
▪ Software & Support
▪ Open Source and Community Supported Projects (In-House Support)
▪ Commercial Offerings (Enterprise Support)
▪ Hardware (+60% of the budget will go to hardware!)
▪ Minimum of 3 vendors to offset risk
▪ Decentralized
▪ Data is processed in-place and as close to the compute, as possible
▪ Infrastructure
▪ All Compute, Storage, and Networks operate in a mesh-grid design
How can this possibly be affordable?
8 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
Interesting, so what does a typical HPE Extreme-Scale design look like?
▪ Development
▪ Rapid development, from
anywhere in the world
▪ Device
▪ In-place data processing
▪ Edge
▪ Payload pre-processing
▪ Core
▪ HPC & Batch Ops, as well
as Bulk Storage
▪ Cloud
▪ Global Portals for user
access to distributed data
9 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
Collaboration between (1) HPE (2) the Customer & (3) Partners
▪ Business Stakeholders
▪ Management, Product Teams, Project Teams, Architects, Strategists, etc.
▪ Developers
▪ Web, Middle-ware, Big Data, Data Science, HPC
▪ Systems Teams
▪ Windows, UNIX, Linux, other?
▪ Data Engineers
▪ Hadoop, Streams, Mesos, Docker, K8s, etc.
▪ Domain-Specific Researchers
▪ Statisticians, Mathematicians, Data Scientists, etc.
▪ Analysts
▪ Business, Data, Market, etc.
Development Layer
10 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ In-place Processing
▪ Industry and Use Case
Specific
▪ Can look similar to Edge
or completely difference
Device Layers (De-centralized & Autonomous Use Cases)
HPE EL8000
HPE EL300
11 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
Edge Layer (Connected Use Cases)
C2 Server
Commands & Control
Sensor Data
MiNiFi Agent subscribes
to all MQTT Broker topics
(Pull Operation)
Publish records into
MQTT broker messages
(Push Operation)
MiNiFi Agent connects to MiNiFi C2
Server to retrieve latest configuration
(Pull Operation)
MiNiFi performs a
secure Server-to-Server
(S2S) transfer via HTTP
to send all Records to
the NiFi Cluster
(Push Operation)
Application
Integrations
CentralizedCoreorCloudDataCenters
HPE Edgeline Systems
12 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ Network
infrastructures
@scale need to be
▪ Able to dynamically
scale and evolve as
load and requirements
change
▪ Simple enough for
small teams to manage
them
▪ Cluster-network
implementations have
limitations
▪ Fabrics are
disaggregated with
balanced performance
Core and Cloud Network Fabric Layers
Images pulled from: https://h20195.www2.hpe.com/V2/getpdf.aspx/A00060583ENW.pdf?
13 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ Open Source Network Fabric –
Developed by Facebook
Network Fabric Options
Images pulled from: https://code.fb.com/production-engineering/introducing-data-center-fabric-the-next-generation-facebook-
data-center-network/
▪ HPE Composable Fabric –
Formerly Plexxi
Image pulled from: https://h20195.www2.hpe.com/V2/getpdf.aspx/A00060583ENW.pdf?
14 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ Real-Time Analysis
▪ Performed on live data
streams
▪ Model inference is also
performed at this layer
▪ Fast-persist is critical
▪ When using a single
“source of truth”
Core and Cloud Compute Fabric Layers
15 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
Core Data Centers
▪ Big Iron
▪ HPC Processing
▪ Deep Storage
Cloud Hosting
▪ Access Portals
▪ Transactional
▪ Bursting
Core and Cloud Storage Fabric Layers
16 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ ML is Use Case Specific
▪ Astrophysics, Automotive, Finance,
Trading, Healthcare, Aerospace, etc
▪ Industry Specific Dev & Tools
▪ AstroML, OpenCV, Zipline,
healthcareai-py, etc.
▪ Domain Expertise needed for
Fast ROI
▪ Astronomers, Physicists, Automotive
& Aerospace Engineers, Bankers,
Day-Traders, Doctors, Pilots, etc.
▪ Developers – these best ones have
worked in the field
Turning Data into an Intelligent Science
Image from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11214-018-0489-2
262 9 60 2 2 0 0 1 4 20
263 9 60 2 2 1 0 1 4 20
264 9 60 2 0 0 0 1 4 20
265 9 60 2 2 0 0 1 4 20
266 9 60 2 2 1 0 1 4 20
1
2
3
Astronomy Example:
Self-Organizing Map
(SOM) Neural Network
Model
Training, Testing, Validation
& Deployment
17 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
Requirements for Fronting Ingest Tier:
▪ THROUGHPUT:
▪ 1TB/sec
▪ Equals 1,000,000,000,000 bytes
▪ PAYLOAD:
▪ Message Size = 1,000 bytes
▪ LATENCY:
▪ Ack in 10ms
Now, let’s talk SLAs and Solutions for our Real-Time Predictions
Everything matters here … the
hardware, the software, the networking,
the code, and everything in-between
Storage Latency (ns)
HDD 10M
SSD (SAS) 100K
PCI NVMe 10K
PMEM 100 (+/-)
DRAM 10+
CPU Cache 0 (+/-)
18 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ Co-exists with conventional
DDR4 DRAM DIMMs
▪ DCPMM sits in Server DIMM Slots
▪ Data persists after power-cycle
▪ Store indexes in pmem, allows for a
warm database restart
▪ Software can be modified to take
advantage of this new tier in the
memory hierarchy
▪ PMEM-aware filesystem manages
access to persistent memory device
▪ No buffering in DRAM
▪ Kernel maps persistent memory to
application address space
▪ App now has direct access to
persistent memory, so it can load and
store data without the kernels
involvement
Intel Optane DC Persistent Memory
▪ Direct Access (DAX)
Implementations
▪ FSDAX (/mnt/mem0)
▪ DEVDAX (/dev/pmem0)
▪ App-Direct Implementations
▪ C
▪ C++
▪ Java
▪ Python
19 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ Network
▪ Adapter 1 / LOM
▪ HPE Eth 10/25Gb 2p
640FLR-SFP28
▪ Adapter 2 / 1GbE
▪ HPE Ethernet 1Gb 4-port
331i Adapter
▪ Adapter 3 / 100GbE
▪ HPE InfiniBand
EDR/Ethernet 100Gb 2-port
▪ Adapter 4 / 10GbE
▪ HPE Eth 10/25Gb 2p
621SFP28
The Tested HPE Prototype Server Hardware (x3)
▪ CPU
▪ 2 x 28-core Cascade
Lake Procs
▪ CPU 0000%@ (fam: 06,
model: 55, stepping: 05)
▪ CLX SP 28c 2.5GHz 205W
▪ L1 = 1792 KB, L2 = 28672
KB, L3 = 39424 KB
▪ Storage
▪ NVMe Controller
▪ 3 x 1600GB SSD
▪ HPE Smart Array P408i-a
SR Gen10
▪ 2 x 400 GB SSD
▪ 1 x 480 GB SSD
▪ Memory
▪ 2.6 GHz
▪ Total = 1.75 TB (2x12 Slots)
▪ RDIMM = 16.00 GB x 6
▪ 96 GB * 2 = 192 GB Total
▪ DCPMM = 126.38 GB x 6
▪ 758.16 * 2 = 1516.32 GB
HPE Persistent Memory for 2nd generation
Intel® Xeon® Scalable processors
HPE Proliant DL380 Gen10 Server
20 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ DEVDAX
▪ Cassandra (Java)
https://github.com/shyla226/cassandra/tree/13981_llpl_engine
▪ FSDAX
▪ Aerospike Enterprise Server (C)
Version 4.5.0.5-1
▪ RocksDB (C++)
https://github.com/pmem/rocksdb
▪ Redis (C)
https://github.com/pmem/pmem-redis
▪ Memcached (C)
https://github.com/lenovo/memcached-pmem
▪ MongoDB (C++)
https://github.com/pmem/pmse
The Tested “PMEM-aware” NoSQL Database Implementations
MongoDB is a document store and Memcached is
not used for persistence (in my work), so I excluded
these two from the K/V store comparison tests
21 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ Core Workload A:
▪ Update Heavy Workload
This workload has a mix of 50/50 reads and writes.
An application example is a session store recording recent actions.
▪ Load Command (100% Inserts)
./bin/ycsb load [database] -s -threads 112 -P workloads/workloada 
-p “[database].hosts=[ip_address]" -p recordcount=500000000 
> outputs/workloada_load_[database]_500m-112t.out 
2> outputs/workloada_load_[database]_500m-112t.err
▪ Run Command (50% Read / 50% Updates)
./bin/ycsb run [database] -s -threads 112 -P workloads/workloada-bench 
-p “[database].hosts=[ip_address]" -p target=[X] -p maxexecutiontime=14400 
> outputs/workloada_run_[database]_500m-112t.out 
2> outputs/workloada_run_[database]_500m-112t.err
▪ workloada-bench file
recordcount=500000000
operationcount=500000000
The Test Dataset was Yahoo! Cloud System Benchmark (YCSB)
22 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ Aerospike
./bin/ycsb run 
aerospike -s 
-threads 112 
-P workloads/workloada-bench 
-p as.host=10.20.100.65 
-p as.user=admin 
-p as.user=admin 
-p as.namespace=ycsb 
-p target=250000 
-p maxexecutiontime=14400 
> outputs/workloada-
bench_4hr-
run_aerospike_500_150.out 
2> outputs/workloada-
bench_4hr-
run_aerospike_500_150.err
Actual Workloads Had to Vary for each Database
▪ RocksDB
./bin/ycsb run 
rocksdb -s 
-threads 10 
-P workloads/workloada-bench 
-p target=80000 
-p maxexecutiontime=14400 
-p rocksdb.dir=/mnt/mem/ycsb-
rocksdb-data 
> outputs/workloada-bench_4hr-
run_rocksdb_500_10.out 
2> outputs/workloada-
bench_4hr-run_rocks_500_10.err
▪ Cassandra
./bin/ycsb run 
cassandra2-cql -s 
-threads 8 
-P workloads/workloada-bench 
-p target=92000 
-p hosts=10.20.100.66 
-p user=cassandra 
-p password=cassandra 
-p as.namespace=ycsb 
-p maxexecutiontime=14400 
>
outputs/workloada_run_cassandra
__4hr_500m-8t-15k.out 
2>
outputs/workloada_run_cassandra
_4hr_500m-8t-15k.err
▪ Redis
./bin/ycsb run 
redis -s 
-threads 10 
-P workloads/workloada-bench 
-p redis.host=10.20.100.67 
-p redis.port=6379 
-p target=10000 
-p maxexecutiontime=14400 
> outputs/workloada-bench_4hr-
run_redis_50_10.out 
2> outputs/workloada-bench_4hr-
run_redis_50_10.err
*4 Hour Mark Reached, job
automatically killed, only 251M of
500M Records Processed
*Would have taken >2.5 days to
load 500M records, reduced YCSB
benchmark test to 50M records for
Redis (only)
*Total threads could not exceed
~10, else ops/sec would
decrease considerably
*Reduced threads to 112 (1/cpu)
to decrease the excessive server
load 200 threads caused
23 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
Workload A – Overall Runtime Results
500 Million 1 Kilobyte Records Processed (50r|50w)
*Redis could not ‘load’ 500M records in the required timeframe so 50M records was used for its test
**Cassandra performance dropped ‘off a cliff’ on reads, writes could be sustained at >90K ops/sec
0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000
Overall Throughput(ops/sec)
YCSB Workload A - Ops/Sec
Cassanda
RocksDB
Redis
Aerospike
14,996.31**
79,948.03
249,979.88
9,999.89*
0
50
100
150
200
250
minutes
Overall Runtime - YCSB Workload A
Aerospike Redis RocksDB Cassanda
**4 hours - Job Killed
1 hour
44 min1 hour
23 min
33 min
*50M
24 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ 500M Records
▪ Threads were originally set to 200,
but none of the other DBs in the
Comparison Test could come close
to this number so thread count was
decreased to 112 for Aerospike, or
1 thread per CPU, server load was
still ‘off the charts’
▪ Ops/Sec target=250000
▪ 172GB RAM for Aerospike
▪ PMEM-devs used for Indexes Only
▪ 3 x NVMe SSD disks used for data
▪ 1B Records
▪ Same as above, just doubled the
load to try to make aerospike fail
▪ Ops/Sec target=282000
▪ Reduced thread count to 64 to
reduce server load
▪ 250M Records
▪ Wrote to a single PMEM-dev
(/mnt/mem0)
▪ No data in memory
▪ Ops/Sec target=286000
▪ OOM errors with any thread count
above 32
Aerospike PMEM-Aware Throughput Testing
220000 260000 300000
Overall
Throughput(ops/sec)
Aerospike FSDAX
Throughput
250M Files 500M Files 1B Files
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
OVERALLRUNTIME(MINS)
Aerospike FSDAX
Runtime
1B Files 500M Files 250M Files
PMEM Devices (indexes)
/dev/pmem0 /mnt/mem0
/dev/pmem1 /mnt/mem1
NVMe Devices (data):
/dev/nvme0n1
/dev/nvme1n1
/dev/nvme2n1
25 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
Aerospike PMEM-Aware Latency Testing
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
100000
Average Latency Min Latency Max Latency
Latency(microseconds)
Update
Latency
1B Files
500M Files
250M Files
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
Average Latency Min Latency Max Latency
Latency(microseconds)
Read Latency
1B Files
500M Files
250M Files
26 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc
▪ Aerospike’s pmem-aware performance for a single node
▪ 300% increase over RockDB
▪ Between 270% and 1667% over Cassandra’s
▪ 270% if Cassandra was able to sustain its 92K ops/sec
▪ 1667% per Cassandra’s current 15K sustained r/u performance
▪ Aerospike’s Cluster Footprint
▪ 2-nodes required for Strong Consistency
▪ 33% footprint reduction over nearly any other K/V store
▪ @250K msg/sec and with average latency @158µs it would
take ~4K Aerospike instances to meet the throughput
requirement of 1TB/s
▪ Excluding replication, compression and server load
Take Away
27 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc

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Theresa Melvin, HP Enterprise - IOT/AI/ML at Hyperscale - how to go faster with a smaller footprint

  • 1. AI at Hyperscale - How to go Faster with a Smaller Footprint Theresa Melvin Chief Architect of AI-Driven Big Data Solutions HPE
  • 2. 2 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc The need to go 60% faster in an 80% smaller footprint Research, Data Science, ML Algorithms, AI Model Dev, & Deep Learning Applications & Frameworks Infrastructure Hadoop ISVs 3rd Party Servers & Storage Container & Orchestration Commercial Products ML FlinkML Fully Distributed Design …Planning Matters …Tools Matter …Code Matters …Skills Matter Most
  • 3. 3 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ No Data Strategy ▪ Tools being used cannot be applied to all layers and dimensions of the data ▪ Tech-Silos are the Status Quo ▪ No symmetry between IoT (if it exists), HPC, and Big Data resulting in an inability to perform AI-Driven workloads ▪ Diminishing net return as more physical resources are thrown at technology problems ▪ Faults and Failures increase ▪ Complexity increases ▪ Visibility decreases Welcome to the world of Big Data, where Big means Slow … ResponseTime Data Growth Year 1 Year 2 Orders of Magnitud e
  • 4. 4 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ There is no beginning, and no end to this “Solution-based” operational model ▪ Each ‘Use Case’ is purpose-built for maximum speed and agility ▪ Designs are built from the ground-up for continuous financial and technical improvement ▪ Designs are “end-to-end”, starting with Ingest (IoT), moving to Research & Analytics (AI|HPC), and finishing with Storage (Big Data) ▪ Modular infrastructures ▪ Portable code ▪ Instantly Adaptable ▪ Unified Management ▪ Global Footprint ▪ Aggressive Cost Controls Hello, Hyperscale! You lean, mean, efficient Machine!
  • 5. 5 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc Extreme-Scale has become synonymous with Exascale ▪ Exascale can mean several different things ▪ Terabytes per second (TB/s) of sustained bandwidth 1 TB/s = 86.4 PB/day of raw ingest ▪ Exabytes of data processed (CPUs @horizontal scale) Of the 2.6 Exabytes of raw data processed each month, only 30% or ~780 GB is “interesting” and needs to be stored ▪ Exabytes of stored data (Software-Defined Storage) Everything has value, so all 2.6EB of monthly raw, plus another 500PB of aggregates, all of which needs to be stored for 5 or 10 years, depending on type ▪ ExaFLOP Processing (FPGA, ASIC, GPU, etc…) These are currently non-existent HPC Systems capable of processing 1 quintillion (there are 18 zeros after that ‘1’ using short form, or 30 zeros for long) calculations per second But wait! There’s a new Extreme-Scale market emerging!
  • 6. 6 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ Cloud Companies and the US Government ▪ Have been running Exascale footprints for years now ▪ Academia manages Exabytes of data ▪ With no way to efficiently process it all ▪ Manufacturing, Insurance, Finance, Healthcare, Pharmaceuticals & Biosciences ▪ Are well on the way ▪ The transportation industry expects to have a serious Exascale problem ▪ In about 2-3 years ▪ …And Astronomy will overtake them all, by several orders of magnitude, in less than a decade, if the smartest people in the world – from Government, Academia, and Industry can figure out how to do it Yeah, that’s really cool, but who is seriously attempting Exascale?
  • 7. 7 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ Use Case (Achievable ROI in 2 years) ▪ Clear business problem → Solvable goal with current tech & skills ▪ Layered Solution Design ▪ Capable of Phased Implementations ▪ Skillsets ▪ What can be done in-house, versus going external ▪ Software & Support ▪ Open Source and Community Supported Projects (In-House Support) ▪ Commercial Offerings (Enterprise Support) ▪ Hardware (+60% of the budget will go to hardware!) ▪ Minimum of 3 vendors to offset risk ▪ Decentralized ▪ Data is processed in-place and as close to the compute, as possible ▪ Infrastructure ▪ All Compute, Storage, and Networks operate in a mesh-grid design How can this possibly be affordable?
  • 8. 8 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc Interesting, so what does a typical HPE Extreme-Scale design look like? ▪ Development ▪ Rapid development, from anywhere in the world ▪ Device ▪ In-place data processing ▪ Edge ▪ Payload pre-processing ▪ Core ▪ HPC & Batch Ops, as well as Bulk Storage ▪ Cloud ▪ Global Portals for user access to distributed data
  • 9. 9 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc Collaboration between (1) HPE (2) the Customer & (3) Partners ▪ Business Stakeholders ▪ Management, Product Teams, Project Teams, Architects, Strategists, etc. ▪ Developers ▪ Web, Middle-ware, Big Data, Data Science, HPC ▪ Systems Teams ▪ Windows, UNIX, Linux, other? ▪ Data Engineers ▪ Hadoop, Streams, Mesos, Docker, K8s, etc. ▪ Domain-Specific Researchers ▪ Statisticians, Mathematicians, Data Scientists, etc. ▪ Analysts ▪ Business, Data, Market, etc. Development Layer
  • 10. 10 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ In-place Processing ▪ Industry and Use Case Specific ▪ Can look similar to Edge or completely difference Device Layers (De-centralized & Autonomous Use Cases) HPE EL8000 HPE EL300
  • 11. 11 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc Edge Layer (Connected Use Cases) C2 Server Commands & Control Sensor Data MiNiFi Agent subscribes to all MQTT Broker topics (Pull Operation) Publish records into MQTT broker messages (Push Operation) MiNiFi Agent connects to MiNiFi C2 Server to retrieve latest configuration (Pull Operation) MiNiFi performs a secure Server-to-Server (S2S) transfer via HTTP to send all Records to the NiFi Cluster (Push Operation) Application Integrations CentralizedCoreorCloudDataCenters HPE Edgeline Systems
  • 12. 12 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ Network infrastructures @scale need to be ▪ Able to dynamically scale and evolve as load and requirements change ▪ Simple enough for small teams to manage them ▪ Cluster-network implementations have limitations ▪ Fabrics are disaggregated with balanced performance Core and Cloud Network Fabric Layers Images pulled from: https://h20195.www2.hpe.com/V2/getpdf.aspx/A00060583ENW.pdf?
  • 13. 13 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ Open Source Network Fabric – Developed by Facebook Network Fabric Options Images pulled from: https://code.fb.com/production-engineering/introducing-data-center-fabric-the-next-generation-facebook- data-center-network/ ▪ HPE Composable Fabric – Formerly Plexxi Image pulled from: https://h20195.www2.hpe.com/V2/getpdf.aspx/A00060583ENW.pdf?
  • 14. 14 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ Real-Time Analysis ▪ Performed on live data streams ▪ Model inference is also performed at this layer ▪ Fast-persist is critical ▪ When using a single “source of truth” Core and Cloud Compute Fabric Layers
  • 15. 15 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc Core Data Centers ▪ Big Iron ▪ HPC Processing ▪ Deep Storage Cloud Hosting ▪ Access Portals ▪ Transactional ▪ Bursting Core and Cloud Storage Fabric Layers
  • 16. 16 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ ML is Use Case Specific ▪ Astrophysics, Automotive, Finance, Trading, Healthcare, Aerospace, etc ▪ Industry Specific Dev & Tools ▪ AstroML, OpenCV, Zipline, healthcareai-py, etc. ▪ Domain Expertise needed for Fast ROI ▪ Astronomers, Physicists, Automotive & Aerospace Engineers, Bankers, Day-Traders, Doctors, Pilots, etc. ▪ Developers – these best ones have worked in the field Turning Data into an Intelligent Science Image from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11214-018-0489-2 262 9 60 2 2 0 0 1 4 20 263 9 60 2 2 1 0 1 4 20 264 9 60 2 0 0 0 1 4 20 265 9 60 2 2 0 0 1 4 20 266 9 60 2 2 1 0 1 4 20 1 2 3 Astronomy Example: Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Neural Network Model Training, Testing, Validation & Deployment
  • 17. 17 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc Requirements for Fronting Ingest Tier: ▪ THROUGHPUT: ▪ 1TB/sec ▪ Equals 1,000,000,000,000 bytes ▪ PAYLOAD: ▪ Message Size = 1,000 bytes ▪ LATENCY: ▪ Ack in 10ms Now, let’s talk SLAs and Solutions for our Real-Time Predictions Everything matters here … the hardware, the software, the networking, the code, and everything in-between Storage Latency (ns) HDD 10M SSD (SAS) 100K PCI NVMe 10K PMEM 100 (+/-) DRAM 10+ CPU Cache 0 (+/-)
  • 18. 18 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ Co-exists with conventional DDR4 DRAM DIMMs ▪ DCPMM sits in Server DIMM Slots ▪ Data persists after power-cycle ▪ Store indexes in pmem, allows for a warm database restart ▪ Software can be modified to take advantage of this new tier in the memory hierarchy ▪ PMEM-aware filesystem manages access to persistent memory device ▪ No buffering in DRAM ▪ Kernel maps persistent memory to application address space ▪ App now has direct access to persistent memory, so it can load and store data without the kernels involvement Intel Optane DC Persistent Memory ▪ Direct Access (DAX) Implementations ▪ FSDAX (/mnt/mem0) ▪ DEVDAX (/dev/pmem0) ▪ App-Direct Implementations ▪ C ▪ C++ ▪ Java ▪ Python
  • 19. 19 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ Network ▪ Adapter 1 / LOM ▪ HPE Eth 10/25Gb 2p 640FLR-SFP28 ▪ Adapter 2 / 1GbE ▪ HPE Ethernet 1Gb 4-port 331i Adapter ▪ Adapter 3 / 100GbE ▪ HPE InfiniBand EDR/Ethernet 100Gb 2-port ▪ Adapter 4 / 10GbE ▪ HPE Eth 10/25Gb 2p 621SFP28 The Tested HPE Prototype Server Hardware (x3) ▪ CPU ▪ 2 x 28-core Cascade Lake Procs ▪ CPU 0000%@ (fam: 06, model: 55, stepping: 05) ▪ CLX SP 28c 2.5GHz 205W ▪ L1 = 1792 KB, L2 = 28672 KB, L3 = 39424 KB ▪ Storage ▪ NVMe Controller ▪ 3 x 1600GB SSD ▪ HPE Smart Array P408i-a SR Gen10 ▪ 2 x 400 GB SSD ▪ 1 x 480 GB SSD ▪ Memory ▪ 2.6 GHz ▪ Total = 1.75 TB (2x12 Slots) ▪ RDIMM = 16.00 GB x 6 ▪ 96 GB * 2 = 192 GB Total ▪ DCPMM = 126.38 GB x 6 ▪ 758.16 * 2 = 1516.32 GB HPE Persistent Memory for 2nd generation Intel® Xeon® Scalable processors HPE Proliant DL380 Gen10 Server
  • 20. 20 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ DEVDAX ▪ Cassandra (Java) https://github.com/shyla226/cassandra/tree/13981_llpl_engine ▪ FSDAX ▪ Aerospike Enterprise Server (C) Version 4.5.0.5-1 ▪ RocksDB (C++) https://github.com/pmem/rocksdb ▪ Redis (C) https://github.com/pmem/pmem-redis ▪ Memcached (C) https://github.com/lenovo/memcached-pmem ▪ MongoDB (C++) https://github.com/pmem/pmse The Tested “PMEM-aware” NoSQL Database Implementations MongoDB is a document store and Memcached is not used for persistence (in my work), so I excluded these two from the K/V store comparison tests
  • 21. 21 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ Core Workload A: ▪ Update Heavy Workload This workload has a mix of 50/50 reads and writes. An application example is a session store recording recent actions. ▪ Load Command (100% Inserts) ./bin/ycsb load [database] -s -threads 112 -P workloads/workloada -p “[database].hosts=[ip_address]" -p recordcount=500000000 > outputs/workloada_load_[database]_500m-112t.out 2> outputs/workloada_load_[database]_500m-112t.err ▪ Run Command (50% Read / 50% Updates) ./bin/ycsb run [database] -s -threads 112 -P workloads/workloada-bench -p “[database].hosts=[ip_address]" -p target=[X] -p maxexecutiontime=14400 > outputs/workloada_run_[database]_500m-112t.out 2> outputs/workloada_run_[database]_500m-112t.err ▪ workloada-bench file recordcount=500000000 operationcount=500000000 The Test Dataset was Yahoo! Cloud System Benchmark (YCSB)
  • 22. 22 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ Aerospike ./bin/ycsb run aerospike -s -threads 112 -P workloads/workloada-bench -p as.host=10.20.100.65 -p as.user=admin -p as.user=admin -p as.namespace=ycsb -p target=250000 -p maxexecutiontime=14400 > outputs/workloada- bench_4hr- run_aerospike_500_150.out 2> outputs/workloada- bench_4hr- run_aerospike_500_150.err Actual Workloads Had to Vary for each Database ▪ RocksDB ./bin/ycsb run rocksdb -s -threads 10 -P workloads/workloada-bench -p target=80000 -p maxexecutiontime=14400 -p rocksdb.dir=/mnt/mem/ycsb- rocksdb-data > outputs/workloada-bench_4hr- run_rocksdb_500_10.out 2> outputs/workloada- bench_4hr-run_rocks_500_10.err ▪ Cassandra ./bin/ycsb run cassandra2-cql -s -threads 8 -P workloads/workloada-bench -p target=92000 -p hosts=10.20.100.66 -p user=cassandra -p password=cassandra -p as.namespace=ycsb -p maxexecutiontime=14400 > outputs/workloada_run_cassandra __4hr_500m-8t-15k.out 2> outputs/workloada_run_cassandra _4hr_500m-8t-15k.err ▪ Redis ./bin/ycsb run redis -s -threads 10 -P workloads/workloada-bench -p redis.host=10.20.100.67 -p redis.port=6379 -p target=10000 -p maxexecutiontime=14400 > outputs/workloada-bench_4hr- run_redis_50_10.out 2> outputs/workloada-bench_4hr- run_redis_50_10.err *4 Hour Mark Reached, job automatically killed, only 251M of 500M Records Processed *Would have taken >2.5 days to load 500M records, reduced YCSB benchmark test to 50M records for Redis (only) *Total threads could not exceed ~10, else ops/sec would decrease considerably *Reduced threads to 112 (1/cpu) to decrease the excessive server load 200 threads caused
  • 23. 23 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc Workload A – Overall Runtime Results 500 Million 1 Kilobyte Records Processed (50r|50w) *Redis could not ‘load’ 500M records in the required timeframe so 50M records was used for its test **Cassandra performance dropped ‘off a cliff’ on reads, writes could be sustained at >90K ops/sec 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 Overall Throughput(ops/sec) YCSB Workload A - Ops/Sec Cassanda RocksDB Redis Aerospike 14,996.31** 79,948.03 249,979.88 9,999.89* 0 50 100 150 200 250 minutes Overall Runtime - YCSB Workload A Aerospike Redis RocksDB Cassanda **4 hours - Job Killed 1 hour 44 min1 hour 23 min 33 min *50M
  • 24. 24 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ 500M Records ▪ Threads were originally set to 200, but none of the other DBs in the Comparison Test could come close to this number so thread count was decreased to 112 for Aerospike, or 1 thread per CPU, server load was still ‘off the charts’ ▪ Ops/Sec target=250000 ▪ 172GB RAM for Aerospike ▪ PMEM-devs used for Indexes Only ▪ 3 x NVMe SSD disks used for data ▪ 1B Records ▪ Same as above, just doubled the load to try to make aerospike fail ▪ Ops/Sec target=282000 ▪ Reduced thread count to 64 to reduce server load ▪ 250M Records ▪ Wrote to a single PMEM-dev (/mnt/mem0) ▪ No data in memory ▪ Ops/Sec target=286000 ▪ OOM errors with any thread count above 32 Aerospike PMEM-Aware Throughput Testing 220000 260000 300000 Overall Throughput(ops/sec) Aerospike FSDAX Throughput 250M Files 500M Files 1B Files 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 OVERALLRUNTIME(MINS) Aerospike FSDAX Runtime 1B Files 500M Files 250M Files PMEM Devices (indexes) /dev/pmem0 /mnt/mem0 /dev/pmem1 /mnt/mem1 NVMe Devices (data): /dev/nvme0n1 /dev/nvme1n1 /dev/nvme2n1
  • 25. 25 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc Aerospike PMEM-Aware Latency Testing 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 Average Latency Min Latency Max Latency Latency(microseconds) Update Latency 1B Files 500M Files 250M Files 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 Average Latency Min Latency Max Latency Latency(microseconds) Read Latency 1B Files 500M Files 250M Files
  • 26. 26 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc ▪ Aerospike’s pmem-aware performance for a single node ▪ 300% increase over RockDB ▪ Between 270% and 1667% over Cassandra’s ▪ 270% if Cassandra was able to sustain its 92K ops/sec ▪ 1667% per Cassandra’s current 15K sustained r/u performance ▪ Aerospike’s Cluster Footprint ▪ 2-nodes required for Strong Consistency ▪ 33% footprint reduction over nearly any other K/V store ▪ @250K msg/sec and with average latency @158µs it would take ~4K Aerospike instances to meet the throughput requirement of 1TB/s ▪ Excluding replication, compression and server load Take Away
  • 27. 27 A E R O S P I K E S U M M I T ‘ 1 9 | Proprietary & Confidential | All rights reserved. © 2019 Aerospike Inc