Chapter 10


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Chapter 10

  1. 1. Theories of Personality Chapter 10
  2. 2. Personality <ul><li>Consistent behavior patterns originating within the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Person versus the Situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is behavior shaped by the situation we are in? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or, by the type of person we are? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question is: “How does the situation influence our behavior?” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Psychoanalytic Approach <ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><li>How much are Freud’s thoughts & theories present in our language? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freudian slip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory of Personality: </li></ul><ul><li>(Topographic Model) </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains thoughts you are currently aware of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material changes constantly </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Freud’s Theory of Personality <ul><li>Preconscious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large body of retrievable info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., “What did you do on Saturday night?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unconscious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most impt in psycho-analytic viewpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material you have no immediate access to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be brought to conscious awareness except under extreme sit’s </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Freud’s Structural Model of Personality <ul><li>Id </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions based on pleasure principle – concerned with only immediate, personal satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Id impulses are always present & held in check by ego and superego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buried deep in unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulses center around sexuality & aggression </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Structural Model <ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions are based on reality principle – satisfy id and take into consideration the realities of the situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job is to keep id in “check” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Id impulses tend to be socially unacceptable, need to keep impulses in line with social norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego moves freely between conscious, preconscious & unconscious </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Structural Model <ul><li>Superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops @ 5 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents society, specifically parents, values & standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places more restrictions on what we can and cannot do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., see a $5 on a friend’s table—id wants to take the $5; ego attempts to figure out how to take the $5 without getting caught—superego will NOT allow the action because stealing is wrong! </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Anxiety & Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>When ego is unable to hold id impulses in “check,” we experience anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety = intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or worry </li></ul><ul><li>Defense Mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><li>Repression – active effort by ego to keep id impulses “out” of awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boy witnesses father physically assault mother—claims he never saw it </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Sublimation - channeling of threatening unconscious impulses into socially acceptable actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive sports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Denial - we refuse to accept certain facts (that do exist) </li></ul><ul><li>Projection - attributing our unconscious impulses to others </li></ul>
  10. 11. Psychosexual Stages of Development <ul><li>“ Stage” theory </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure is focused on different regions of the body </li></ul><ul><li>2 Concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Libido - life or sexual instinct </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation - at each stage, we all leave behind a small amount of libido; should have enough to get thru life—if not, get “stuck” or fixated. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Psychosexual Stages of Development <ul><li>1. Oral Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Birth – 1 ½ </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth, lips, tongue are erogenous zones </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic experiences (feeding problems) may result in fixation </li></ul><ul><li>“ oral personalities” – dependent on others as adults </li></ul><ul><li>Anal Stage </li></ul><ul><li>1 ½ - 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Anal region is the erogenous zone </li></ul><ul><li>During this stage most children are toilet trained </li></ul><ul><li>“ anal personalities” = orderly, stubborn OR generous </li></ul>
  12. 13. Psychosexual Stages of Development <ul><li>3. Phallic Stage </li></ul><ul><li>3 – 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Most impt stage </li></ul><ul><li>Genital region is erogenous zone </li></ul><ul><li>Oedipus Complex – named for Greek mythological character who unknowingly married his mother </li></ul><ul><li>Children develop sexual attraction for their opposite-sex parent </li></ul>
  13. 14. Oedipus Complex <ul><li>Boys develop castration anxiety - fear father will discover their thoughts & cut off their penis </li></ul><ul><li>Girls develop penis envy - upon seeing male genitalia; want a penis & feel inferior & jealous due to its absence </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution = children identify with same-sex parent </li></ul>
  14. 15. Psychosexual Stages of Development <ul><li>Latency Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Time before puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Boys & girls are uninterested in each other </li></ul><ul><li>follows resolution of Oedipal Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Genital Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Erogenous urges return & focused on adult genital regions </li></ul><ul><li>If libido intact = normal sexual functioning </li></ul><ul><li>If libido is not intact = various disorders persist </li></ul>
  15. 16. Evaluation of Freud’s Theory <ul><li>Not a scientific theory </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas such as “id” or “fixation” cannot be measured </li></ul><ul><li>Modern rx does not support </li></ul><ul><li>Relied on case studies </li></ul>
  16. 17. Other Psychoanalytic Views <ul><li>Neo-Freudians – theorists who accept portions of Freud’s theory, but reject or modify other portions </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Defected from “Freud’s camp” </li></ul><ul><li>Was heir to the movement prior to defecting </li></ul><ul><li>Established analytic psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed with Freud about unconscious </li></ul>
  17. 18. Analytic Psychology <ul><li>Collective Unconscious – consists of all material in the unconscious shared by all; INNATE </li></ul><ul><li>i.e., mother, father </li></ul><ul><li>Collective unconscious is expressed as archetypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images that shape our perceptions of the external world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., hero, God, death </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Analytic Psychology <ul><li>2 Types of Archetypes </li></ul><ul><li>Anima – feminine side of the male </li></ul><ul><li>Animus – masculine side of the female </li></ul><ul><li>Each of us holds onto an unconscious image of men or women we are looking for—the more someone “matches” our profile, the more we want them! </li></ul>
  19. 20. Jung’s Theory of Psychological Types <ul><li>2 Basic Attitudes: </li></ul><ul><li>Introversion – channel energy inward; introspective & socially withdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion – channel energy outward; outgoing; interested in people & external world. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Neo-Freudians <ul><li>Karen Horney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a student of Freud’s; studied indirectly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized role of cultural & social influences on personality dev’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feminine psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alfred Adler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st to break with Freud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called his approach individual psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striving for superiority – attempting to overcome feelings of inferiority </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Humanistic Theories <ul><li>Optimizing view of humans </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress the importance of personal growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The good life is a process not a state of being.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strive to experience life to its fullest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust their own feelings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-conformist </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Humanistic Theories <ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>If all people can be fully fx’ing, why so much unhappiness? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins when we experience anxiety & respond with psychological defenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces anxiety, but we lose touch with “who” we are </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anxiety occurs when concept of self doesn’t match who we are </li></ul><ul><li>Can “help” unhappy people with unconditional positive regard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will respect and honor the client regardless of what s/he says or does </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Humanistic Theories <ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>“ Freud supplied to us the sick half of psychology & we must now fill it with the healthy half.” </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on conscious aspects of personality </li></ul><ul><li>2 Basic Motives of Personality: </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency motive – results from a lack of something (hunger, thirst) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth motive – unselfish giving of love & dev’t of potential as a human being </li></ul>
  24. 25. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1 = physiological needs 2 = safety 3 = belongingness & love 4 = esteem 5 = self-actualization – maximum potential
  25. 26. Trait Theories <ul><li>Personality Traits – stable dimensions of personality along which people vary </li></ul><ul><li>2 Assumptions of Trait Theories: </li></ul><ul><li>Personality characteristics are stable over time </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics show stability across situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive people should be overtly aggressive in family arguments, as well as playing football </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trait rx’ers interested in how people score on certain segment of the trait continuum </li></ul>
  26. 27. Trait Theories <ul><li>Gordon Allport </li></ul><ul><li>Taught 1 st personality course in US </li></ul><ul><li>Grouped traits based on rx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central traits – traits that best describe an individual’s personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardinal traits – single trait that dominates a personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Autonomy – (Allport didn’t believe in looking too much into a person’s past in order to understand his present. )Your motives today are independent (autonomous) of their origins.  It doesn’t matter, for example, why you wanted to become a doctor, or why you developed a taste for olives, the fact is that this is the way you are now! </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Learning Approaches to Personality <ul><li>Social Cognitive Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Beh is influenced by cog factors, reinforcement & self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Observational learning </li></ul><ul><li>Distinction between learning & performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beh’s learned through observation need not be performed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clashes with behaviorists who maintain that we cannot learn until we have performed the behavior </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Learning Approach <ul><li>Why do we perform some behaviors & not others? </li></ul><ul><li>If we never perform a behavior how do we know about the consequences? </li></ul>
  29. 30. Measuring Personality <ul><li>Objective Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Questions or statements regarding personality </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ten clinical scales & several validity scales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, masculinity-femininity, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, mania, & social introversion </li></ul>
  30. 31. Measuring Personality <ul><li>Projective Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous stimuli that are interpreted by an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Rorschach test </li></ul><ul><li>Responses are scored in MANY different ways; subjective </li></ul>