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Hafsah Zafar
Lecturer, Department of English
Language and Literature
The University of Faisalabad

 Psychic remnants are named as ‘Archetypes’ in Carl
Gustav Jung’s “Theory of Collective Unconscious”.
 These are the original, inherited patterns and images
repeating again and again in literature.
 They can be termed as the givens in our
psychological makeup.
Introduction

Work of
Literature
•Archetypes
•Archetypal Images
Archetypes
•References of past ideas
•Inhabited thoughts
Archetypal
Images
•Inclusion of Present
•Individual Interpretation
Difference Between Archetype
and Archetypal Image
Both Major and Minor

 Animus (male qualities in females)
Mrs. Boyle
 Self (inner guiding factor, self-realization)
Mrs. Boyle
 Persona (veneer/mask)
Mr. Boyle, Johnny, Charlie Bentham, Joxer Daly
Major Character
Archetypes

 It has four stages as discussed by Franz
i. as a personification of ‘muscle man’
is obvious in the description of Mrs. Boyle’s character
with the “look of listless monotony and harassed
anxiety, blending with an expression of mechanical
resistance” as she belongs to a working class.
Animus

ii. “initiative and the capacity for planned action”
iii. At the third this archetype becomes the “word”
Both of these stages are shown to be completely
manifested in her character, as towards the end of the
play she has gained that much strength and courage to
make plans for future life not only of her own but even
of her daughter
Animus continued…

iii. And at the highest level it bestows upon women the
spiritual firmness.
 The ability to make bold decisions related not only to
one’s life but also effecting the lives of the closed
ones.
 Towards the end of the play she decides to leave her
house with her daughter Mary, when the latter was
asked to leave the house by Mr. Boyle on account of
her premarital pregnancy. On Mary’s lamentation
she remarks “It’ll have what’s far betther—it’ll have
two mothers”.
Animus continued…

 Central to Jungian Archetypes
 If ego is the center of consciousness, Self is the core
of personality.
 This archetype is manifested through ‘Self-
realization’ on the part of the character.
 In the play there are many incidents at which Mrs.
Boyle has realized her self-importance as clear from
her following dialogues:
Self

 “I don’t know what any o’ yous ud do without your
ma” (Act I)
 “Your poor wife slavin’ to keep the bit in your
mouth, an’ you gallivantin’ about all the day like a
paycock” (Act I)
 “Who has kep’ th’ home together for th’ past few
years ___only me”
Dialogues

 According to Jacobi, Persona for Jung “is a symbol of
the protective cover or mask that an individual
presents to the world”.
 Two functions
 To impress the world
 and to conceal one’s inner reality from others
Persona

 Many characters in the play are portraying this
archetypal image:
 Mr Boyle » ‘Captain’
It has been informed that he has navigated the ship for
the minimum possible track for one time only, therefore
he preferred to be called ‘Captain Boyle’.
 Johnny » courageous man
He was an ex-soldier and he had sacrificed his arm in the
battle field and he remarks that “I’d do it agen; for a
principle’s a principle”
Persona continued…

 Charlie Bentham » sophisticated
intellectual snob
As Mary says about him “Bentham [a person] believing
in everything and he says all is God an’ no man”. But he
left Mary at the time when she needed her the most
 Joxer Daly » friend of Mr. Boyle
But at the time of adversity he also deserts Boyle accusing
him of being an “infernal rogue an’ damned lair”.
Continued…

 Out of many Minor Character Archetypes, the one
which is the most prevelant in the selected text is
Betrayal/Self-Betrayal
Minor Character
Archetype

 These double personalities of the characters portraying
Persona give rise to a minor character archetype of
“Betrayal” or “Self-Betrayal”.
 Mr. Boyle
is betraying all by his persona as he does nothing at all to earn
for his family as Mrs. Boyle says “I killin’ meself workin’, an’ he
sthruttin’ about from mornin’ till night like a paycock” (Act I)
 Johnny
Behind the mask of bravery there is a very terrified and
repentant person who cant even stand the sound of the bullets.
Betrayal/Self-Betrayal

 Charlie Bentham is also betraying Mary as he left her
unattended when she was pregnant with his child.
 Joxer Daly, similarly is betraying Mr. Boyle for he is
not his true friend but he proved to be a friend of
good times.
Continued…

 Outcast
Mary and Johnny being unfit in society
 Earth Mother
Mrs. Boyle and Mrs. Tancred with all their love for their
children.
 The Innocent
The time and again mentioning by Boyle “Th’ whole worl’s
in terrible state o’ chassis!”
Other Archetypes

 Hallucination (archetypes are also shown in dreams/hallucinations)
“I seen him . . . I seen Robbie Tancred kneelin’ down before the
statue . . . an’ the red light shinin’ on him . . . an’ when I went in . . .
he turned an’ looked at me . . . an’ I seen the woun’s bleedin’ in his
breast . . .!”
 Colour Archetypes (Red)
Red is associated with blood, death and danger, and Johnny has
seen Robbie Tancred’s Soul in the red votive light.
 Mythological Archetypes
Comparison of Mrs. Boyle with Juno, the Greek goddess and of
Mr. Boyle with a Peacock. (Juno and her Peacock)
Continued…

 The whole discussion demonstrates how Juno and the
Paycock is the mixture of different archetypes.
 Archetypes (the inherited images) = expose the ancient
links of the mind
Whereas
 Archetypal Image (different interpretations and
applications of those archaic patterns) = connect the
authors with the present world and its cultural climate.
Conclusion
The Study of the Psychic Remnants in Juno and the Paycock

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The Study of the Psychic Remnants in Juno and the Paycock

  • 1. Hafsah Zafar Lecturer, Department of English Language and Literature The University of Faisalabad
  • 2.   Psychic remnants are named as ‘Archetypes’ in Carl Gustav Jung’s “Theory of Collective Unconscious”.  These are the original, inherited patterns and images repeating again and again in literature.  They can be termed as the givens in our psychological makeup. Introduction
  • 3.  Work of Literature •Archetypes •Archetypal Images Archetypes •References of past ideas •Inhabited thoughts Archetypal Images •Inclusion of Present •Individual Interpretation Difference Between Archetype and Archetypal Image
  • 5.   Animus (male qualities in females) Mrs. Boyle  Self (inner guiding factor, self-realization) Mrs. Boyle  Persona (veneer/mask) Mr. Boyle, Johnny, Charlie Bentham, Joxer Daly Major Character Archetypes
  • 6.   It has four stages as discussed by Franz i. as a personification of ‘muscle man’ is obvious in the description of Mrs. Boyle’s character with the “look of listless monotony and harassed anxiety, blending with an expression of mechanical resistance” as she belongs to a working class. Animus
  • 7.  ii. “initiative and the capacity for planned action” iii. At the third this archetype becomes the “word” Both of these stages are shown to be completely manifested in her character, as towards the end of the play she has gained that much strength and courage to make plans for future life not only of her own but even of her daughter Animus continued…
  • 8.  iii. And at the highest level it bestows upon women the spiritual firmness.  The ability to make bold decisions related not only to one’s life but also effecting the lives of the closed ones.  Towards the end of the play she decides to leave her house with her daughter Mary, when the latter was asked to leave the house by Mr. Boyle on account of her premarital pregnancy. On Mary’s lamentation she remarks “It’ll have what’s far betther—it’ll have two mothers”. Animus continued…
  • 9.   Central to Jungian Archetypes  If ego is the center of consciousness, Self is the core of personality.  This archetype is manifested through ‘Self- realization’ on the part of the character.  In the play there are many incidents at which Mrs. Boyle has realized her self-importance as clear from her following dialogues: Self
  • 10.   “I don’t know what any o’ yous ud do without your ma” (Act I)  “Your poor wife slavin’ to keep the bit in your mouth, an’ you gallivantin’ about all the day like a paycock” (Act I)  “Who has kep’ th’ home together for th’ past few years ___only me” Dialogues
  • 11.   According to Jacobi, Persona for Jung “is a symbol of the protective cover or mask that an individual presents to the world”.  Two functions  To impress the world  and to conceal one’s inner reality from others Persona
  • 12.   Many characters in the play are portraying this archetypal image:  Mr Boyle » ‘Captain’ It has been informed that he has navigated the ship for the minimum possible track for one time only, therefore he preferred to be called ‘Captain Boyle’.  Johnny » courageous man He was an ex-soldier and he had sacrificed his arm in the battle field and he remarks that “I’d do it agen; for a principle’s a principle” Persona continued…
  • 13.   Charlie Bentham » sophisticated intellectual snob As Mary says about him “Bentham [a person] believing in everything and he says all is God an’ no man”. But he left Mary at the time when she needed her the most  Joxer Daly » friend of Mr. Boyle But at the time of adversity he also deserts Boyle accusing him of being an “infernal rogue an’ damned lair”. Continued…
  • 14.   Out of many Minor Character Archetypes, the one which is the most prevelant in the selected text is Betrayal/Self-Betrayal Minor Character Archetype
  • 15.   These double personalities of the characters portraying Persona give rise to a minor character archetype of “Betrayal” or “Self-Betrayal”.  Mr. Boyle is betraying all by his persona as he does nothing at all to earn for his family as Mrs. Boyle says “I killin’ meself workin’, an’ he sthruttin’ about from mornin’ till night like a paycock” (Act I)  Johnny Behind the mask of bravery there is a very terrified and repentant person who cant even stand the sound of the bullets. Betrayal/Self-Betrayal
  • 16.   Charlie Bentham is also betraying Mary as he left her unattended when she was pregnant with his child.  Joxer Daly, similarly is betraying Mr. Boyle for he is not his true friend but he proved to be a friend of good times. Continued…
  • 17.   Outcast Mary and Johnny being unfit in society  Earth Mother Mrs. Boyle and Mrs. Tancred with all their love for their children.  The Innocent The time and again mentioning by Boyle “Th’ whole worl’s in terrible state o’ chassis!” Other Archetypes
  • 18.   Hallucination (archetypes are also shown in dreams/hallucinations) “I seen him . . . I seen Robbie Tancred kneelin’ down before the statue . . . an’ the red light shinin’ on him . . . an’ when I went in . . . he turned an’ looked at me . . . an’ I seen the woun’s bleedin’ in his breast . . .!”  Colour Archetypes (Red) Red is associated with blood, death and danger, and Johnny has seen Robbie Tancred’s Soul in the red votive light.  Mythological Archetypes Comparison of Mrs. Boyle with Juno, the Greek goddess and of Mr. Boyle with a Peacock. (Juno and her Peacock) Continued…
  • 19.   The whole discussion demonstrates how Juno and the Paycock is the mixture of different archetypes.  Archetypes (the inherited images) = expose the ancient links of the mind Whereas  Archetypal Image (different interpretations and applications of those archaic patterns) = connect the authors with the present world and its cultural climate. Conclusion