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POETIC DEVICES
(FIGURES OF POETRY)
SIMILE
 Comparison between two things, which are
not similar, by using the words “Like” or “As”.
 For Example
He is as brave as a lion.
AND
He fought like a lion in the battlefield.
METAPHOR
 Comparison between two non-identical
things without using of such words. OR
 Direct comparison between two non-identical
things.
 For example
He was a lion in the battlefield.
AND
She is a flower.
PERSONIFICATION
 The poetic device in which human qualities
are attributed to animals, objects or ideas.
 For Example
Death lays his icy hands on kings.
AND
The sun smiled at us.
TRANSFERRED EPITHET
 The figure of poetry in which the quality of
one thing is transferred to the other thing.
 For Example
Scented Breeze
AND
Angry Sea
PATHETIC FALLACY
 The phrase pathetic fallacy is a literary term for
the attributing of human emotion and conduct to
things found in nature that are not human.
 It is a kind of personification that occurs in
poetic descriptions,
 For example
clouds seem sullen
leaves dance
rocks seem indifferent
APOSTROPHE
 A sort of personification in which there is an
address to an absent person, an abstract
idea, or a thing.
 For Example
Sweet Thames! Run swiftly till I end my song.
AND
Milton! Thou shouldst be living at this hour.
SYMBOL
 Something that means more than is
suggested from the outlook.
 The words which have one surface meaning
but in depth stand for something else.
 For example
Darkness − symbol of Death
Lion − symbol of Strength and Courage
Dove − symbol of Peace
Raised arms − symbol of Surrender
ALLEGORY
 A text which has two-layered meaning
o Surface Meaning Deep Meaning
o Superficial Meaning Underlying Meaning
 For Example
Edmund Spencer’s “Faerie Queene”
Jonathan Swift’s “Gulliver’s Travels”
George Orwell’s “Animal Farm”
 Literally the word means ‘hiding under a false
appearance’. As a term, it means saying that
opposite of what one means.
Irony
Verbal Situational
Dramatic
IRONY
IRONY (CONTINUES…)
 Verbal Irony:
It implies the opposite of what is said. In it the
discrepancy is in between what is said and what is meant.
Calling a fool wise is a verbal irony.
 Dramatic Irony:
In this irony, the discrepancy is between what
the character says and what the reader or listener
understands. (between appearance and reality)
 Situational Irony:
It occurs when a discrepancy exists between
what one anticipates and what actually comes to pass,
between expectation and fulfillment.

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Poetic devices

  • 2. SIMILE  Comparison between two things, which are not similar, by using the words “Like” or “As”.  For Example He is as brave as a lion. AND He fought like a lion in the battlefield.
  • 3. METAPHOR  Comparison between two non-identical things without using of such words. OR  Direct comparison between two non-identical things.  For example He was a lion in the battlefield. AND She is a flower.
  • 4. PERSONIFICATION  The poetic device in which human qualities are attributed to animals, objects or ideas.  For Example Death lays his icy hands on kings. AND The sun smiled at us.
  • 5. TRANSFERRED EPITHET  The figure of poetry in which the quality of one thing is transferred to the other thing.  For Example Scented Breeze AND Angry Sea
  • 6. PATHETIC FALLACY  The phrase pathetic fallacy is a literary term for the attributing of human emotion and conduct to things found in nature that are not human.  It is a kind of personification that occurs in poetic descriptions,  For example clouds seem sullen leaves dance rocks seem indifferent
  • 7. APOSTROPHE  A sort of personification in which there is an address to an absent person, an abstract idea, or a thing.  For Example Sweet Thames! Run swiftly till I end my song. AND Milton! Thou shouldst be living at this hour.
  • 8. SYMBOL  Something that means more than is suggested from the outlook.  The words which have one surface meaning but in depth stand for something else.  For example Darkness − symbol of Death Lion − symbol of Strength and Courage Dove − symbol of Peace Raised arms − symbol of Surrender
  • 9. ALLEGORY  A text which has two-layered meaning o Surface Meaning Deep Meaning o Superficial Meaning Underlying Meaning  For Example Edmund Spencer’s “Faerie Queene” Jonathan Swift’s “Gulliver’s Travels” George Orwell’s “Animal Farm”
  • 10.  Literally the word means ‘hiding under a false appearance’. As a term, it means saying that opposite of what one means. Irony Verbal Situational Dramatic IRONY
  • 11. IRONY (CONTINUES…)  Verbal Irony: It implies the opposite of what is said. In it the discrepancy is in between what is said and what is meant. Calling a fool wise is a verbal irony.  Dramatic Irony: In this irony, the discrepancy is between what the character says and what the reader or listener understands. (between appearance and reality)  Situational Irony: It occurs when a discrepancy exists between what one anticipates and what actually comes to pass, between expectation and fulfillment.