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brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Brian Hole, Founder and CEO
UCL Digital Humanities, October 19th 2015
The shift to open access publishing
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Overview
 About ubiquity press
 What is open access?
 History of OA
 The OA business model
 Current situation
 The future
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
About Ubiquity Press
 Spun out of UCL in 2012
 Researcher-led, 100% open access
 50+ years publishing experience
(BioMed Central, PLoS, Elsevier)
 Lean, cost-efficient publishing model
 Comprehensive approach: journals,
books, data, software, hardware, wetware…
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
What is Open Access?
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Most simply:
No barriers to access or reuse
Open Access
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Open Access
By “open access” to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public
internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or
link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to
software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or
technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet
itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for
copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of
their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.
Budapest Open Access Initiative
OA allows users to “copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and
to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible
purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship.”
Bethsida/Berlin statements
✔ ✗ ✗
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
The Social Contract
of Science
• Validation
• Dissemination
• Further development
Scientific Malpractice
• Data
• Results
• Software
• Hardware, wetware…
#@%$#@
% #@%$#
Source: http://www.smbc-comics.com/index.php?db=comics&id=2015
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Source: Washington Post, May 7 2013 / Imgur: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/05/07/map-more-
than-half-of-humanity-lives-within-this-circle/
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Source: Nature News, 20 April 2011, DOI: 10.1038/472276a
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Publishing (Gold open access)
• Publisher makes content freely available
• Content has been through peer review,
anti-plagiarism checks, etc.
• Publisher may require an article
processing charge (APC)
Two kinds of delivery
Archiving (Green open access)
• Institution makes a pre-publication
version of content freely available in
own repository, with no charge
• Content is released early and
immediately
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
A Very Short History of
Open Access Publishing
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• First online OA journals
published in 1990 with the
birth of the WWW
• Mainly humanities and
social sciences
• Individual efforts
1990
For more detail see Peter Suber’s timeline:
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/timeli
ne.htm
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• arXiv established in 1991
at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to
store physics preprints
• Moved to Cornell University in 1999
• Now also hosts astronomy, mathematics,
computer science, quantitative biology,
quantitative finance and statistics
preprints
1991
http://arxiv.org
• As of 20.10.13: 883,802 preprints
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• National Library of Medicine launches
PubMed Central in 2000
• Mandated deposit for NIH-funded
research since 2008
• Green OA archive of biomedical and life
sciences journal literature
2000
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov
• Allows embargoes
• 2011: ca. 2.5 million articles
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• BioMed Central launches OA platform
in 2000
• First to establish the model of Article
Processing Charges (APCs)
• London-based
2000
http://www.biomedcentral.com
• Currently runs ca. 70 journals in-house
• Bought by Springer in 2008
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• The Public Library of Science (PLoS)
begins OA publishing
• PLoS ONE is the world’s first
‘mega-journal’ and its largest
• Now the largest OA publisher, though
only 7 journals
2002
http://www.plos.org
• Policy is that “everything good enough
to publish, will be published”
• Publishes ca. 3,000 articles per month
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• Other major publishers begin launching
‘hybrid’ OA journals
• 2007: Hindawi converts to OA and
mass-launches journals
2007-2010
• PLoS One clones begin to appear (e.g.
SAGE Open and BMJ Open in 2010)
• Now the largest OA publisher by
titles, with over 300
http://www.hindawi.com
http://sgo.sagepub.com
http://bmjopen.bmj.com
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• eLIFE
• The Ubiquity Partner Network
2012
• PeerJ
• New OA models are emerging:
• Collaboratively run journal from
3 major funders: Howard Hughes
Medical Institute, the Max Planck
Society and the Wellcome Trust
• Experimenting with the idea of
lifetime memberships for authors
• Enabling sustainable OA publishing
by university presses
• Support for new business models
http://www.elifesciences.org https://peerj.com http://www.ubiquitypress.com
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
The Ubiquity Press
Open Access
Business Model
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Article Processing Charges (APCs)
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Academic publishing is going to change
The UK has mandated open access publishing for
all state funded research, EU and US to follow
Academic societies want open access, but
worry about losing subscription income
Legacy publishers are unwilling and unable to
lower fees, so still very expensive (average
charge £2000 per article published)
Opportunity
Challenge
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Lower cost enables experimentation with new models
Addressing the cost barrier
• Open Library of the Humanities – library funding model
• University of California Press – Library funding, peer
review payments
• INASP – developing world journals
• LingOA – disciplinary shift to OA
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
The Current Climate and
What this Means for OA
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• Governments fund
universities to do research.
Stats on UK research vs. library
spending?Research Bought, Then Paid For
By MICHAEL B. EISEN
January 10, 2012
“Congress should move to enshrine a simple
principle in United States law: if taxpayers paid for
it, they own it.”
• These research results
are only available to those
universities (not to the
public sector etc.)
• They then fund each
university library to buy
back the published results of
that work.
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
16 July 2012
The new policy, which will apply to all qualifying publications
being submitted for publication from 1 April 2013, states that
peer reviewed research papers which result from research that is
wholly or partially funded by the Research Councils:
RCUK announces new Open Access policy
• must be published in journals which are compliant with
Research Council policy on Open Access
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
The Wellcome Trust plans to withhold a portion of grant money from scientists who do not make
the results of their work freely available to the public... In addition, any research papers that are
not freely available will not be counted as part of a scientist's track record when Wellcome
assesses any future applications for research funding.
The trust is the second largest medical research charity in the world, spending more than £600m
on science every year. Its director, Sir Mark Walport, has said that publishing research papers
should be considered a cost of a research project in the same way as a piece of lab equipment.
Wellcome Trust will penalise
scientists who don't embrace open access
Wealthy medical charity says it will withhold researchers'
final grant payments if they fail to make their results open access
The Guardian, Thursday 28 June 2012
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• Coordinated moves
towards OA mandate
policies in EU
“[Open Access… ] is essential for
Europe's ability to enhance its
economic performance and improve
its capacity to compete through
knowledge. Open Access can also
boost the visibility of European
research, and in particular offer small
and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
access to the latest research for
exploitation.”
• Large publishers are very
international
and lobby actively
• Recent example of the
Research Works Act
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Research Works Act (H.R. 3699)
• Massive international outcry,
especially from researchers
• Contained provisions to prohibit
open-access mandates for
federally funded research
• Congress members who
introduced the act ‘motivated by
large donations by the academic
publisher X’
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Amid boycott, X backtracks on research bill
Journal publisher still opposes current U.S. rules mandating access to taxpayer-
funded research
CBC News
Posted: Feb 27, 2012
One of the largest academic publishers in the world withdrew its support Monday
from a controversial U.S. bill, the Research Works Act, that critics feel would restrict
public access to published, publicly-funded research.
The change of heart by Dutch publisher X follows a boycott of its journals and
publishing ventures by thousands of researchers around the world.
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• Released in August 2012
The Finch Report
• Very important for UK and sets
a precedent for other countries
• Gold Open Access will be
mandated for publicly-funded
research
• Universities will switch from ‘big
deals’ to paying from APC funds
• Research Councils will fund
universities for this
http://www.researchinfonet.org/wp-
content/uploads/2012/06/Finch-Group-report-executive-
summary-FINAL-VERSION.pdf
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• Main opposition to the Finch Report is
from Steven Harnad1
Debate
• Extremely vocal, one sided and pro-
green OA only
• Argues that Finch is wrong to mandate
gold OA instead of green
1. Steven Harnad: http://openaccess.eprints.org/index.php?/archives/951-Testing-
the-Finch-Hypothesis-on-Green-OA-Mandate-Ineffectiveness.html
2. Cameron Neylon: http://cameronneylon.net/blog/first-thoughts-on-the-finch-
report-good-steps-but-missed-opportunities
• More balanced criticism is that the
government should require
complimentary green OA as well, and
mandate the CC-By license2
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• Text and Data Mining (TDM)
New battlegrounds
1. Licences for Europe Structured stakeholder dialogue 2013: http://ec.europa.eu/licences-for-europe-
dialogue/en/content/about-site
2. Text and Data Mining: STM Statement & Sample Licence: http://www.stm-assoc.org/text-and-data-mining-stm-
statement-sample-licence/
3. Global Coalition response to STM: http://www.plos.org/global-coalition-of-access-to-research-science-and-
education-organizations-calls-on-stm-to-withdraw-new-model-licenses
4. Digital Opportunity: A review of Intellectual Property and Growth: An independent report by Ian Hargreaves:
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140603093549/http://www.ipo.gov.uk/ipreview.htm
• Protected in countries such as US, Japan through Fair Use
• EC working groups1 and STM
association2 sought licensing solution
• Strongly opposed by researchers,
libraries etc.,3 caused EC to back down
• What is really needed is full copyright reform,
similar to UK’s Hargreaves Review4
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
For more information:
Questions?
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com
@ubiquitypress
http://www.ubiquitypress.com
http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Frequently_Asked_Questions

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The Shift to Open Access Publishing

  • 1. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Brian Hole, Founder and CEO UCL Digital Humanities, October 19th 2015 The shift to open access publishing
  • 2. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Overview  About ubiquity press  What is open access?  History of OA  The OA business model  Current situation  The future
  • 3. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress About Ubiquity Press  Spun out of UCL in 2012  Researcher-led, 100% open access  50+ years publishing experience (BioMed Central, PLoS, Elsevier)  Lean, cost-efficient publishing model  Comprehensive approach: journals, books, data, software, hardware, wetware…
  • 5. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress What is Open Access?
  • 6. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Most simply: No barriers to access or reuse Open Access
  • 7. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Open Access By “open access” to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. Budapest Open Access Initiative OA allows users to “copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship.” Bethsida/Berlin statements ✔ ✗ ✗
  • 8. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress The Social Contract of Science • Validation • Dissemination • Further development Scientific Malpractice • Data • Results • Software • Hardware, wetware… #@%$#@ % #@%$# Source: http://www.smbc-comics.com/index.php?db=comics&id=2015
  • 9. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Source: Washington Post, May 7 2013 / Imgur: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/05/07/map-more- than-half-of-humanity-lives-within-this-circle/
  • 10. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Source: Nature News, 20 April 2011, DOI: 10.1038/472276a
  • 12. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Publishing (Gold open access) • Publisher makes content freely available • Content has been through peer review, anti-plagiarism checks, etc. • Publisher may require an article processing charge (APC) Two kinds of delivery Archiving (Green open access) • Institution makes a pre-publication version of content freely available in own repository, with no charge • Content is released early and immediately
  • 14. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress A Very Short History of Open Access Publishing
  • 15. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • First online OA journals published in 1990 with the birth of the WWW • Mainly humanities and social sciences • Individual efforts 1990 For more detail see Peter Suber’s timeline: http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/timeli ne.htm
  • 16. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • arXiv established in 1991 at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to store physics preprints • Moved to Cornell University in 1999 • Now also hosts astronomy, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance and statistics preprints 1991 http://arxiv.org • As of 20.10.13: 883,802 preprints
  • 17. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • National Library of Medicine launches PubMed Central in 2000 • Mandated deposit for NIH-funded research since 2008 • Green OA archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature 2000 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov • Allows embargoes • 2011: ca. 2.5 million articles
  • 18. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • BioMed Central launches OA platform in 2000 • First to establish the model of Article Processing Charges (APCs) • London-based 2000 http://www.biomedcentral.com • Currently runs ca. 70 journals in-house • Bought by Springer in 2008
  • 19. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • The Public Library of Science (PLoS) begins OA publishing • PLoS ONE is the world’s first ‘mega-journal’ and its largest • Now the largest OA publisher, though only 7 journals 2002 http://www.plos.org • Policy is that “everything good enough to publish, will be published” • Publishes ca. 3,000 articles per month
  • 20. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • Other major publishers begin launching ‘hybrid’ OA journals • 2007: Hindawi converts to OA and mass-launches journals 2007-2010 • PLoS One clones begin to appear (e.g. SAGE Open and BMJ Open in 2010) • Now the largest OA publisher by titles, with over 300 http://www.hindawi.com http://sgo.sagepub.com http://bmjopen.bmj.com
  • 21. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • eLIFE • The Ubiquity Partner Network 2012 • PeerJ • New OA models are emerging: • Collaboratively run journal from 3 major funders: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Max Planck Society and the Wellcome Trust • Experimenting with the idea of lifetime memberships for authors • Enabling sustainable OA publishing by university presses • Support for new business models http://www.elifesciences.org https://peerj.com http://www.ubiquitypress.com
  • 22. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress The Ubiquity Press Open Access Business Model
  • 24. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Article Processing Charges (APCs)
  • 25. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Academic publishing is going to change The UK has mandated open access publishing for all state funded research, EU and US to follow Academic societies want open access, but worry about losing subscription income Legacy publishers are unwilling and unable to lower fees, so still very expensive (average charge £2000 per article published) Opportunity Challenge
  • 26. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Lower cost enables experimentation with new models Addressing the cost barrier • Open Library of the Humanities – library funding model • University of California Press – Library funding, peer review payments • INASP – developing world journals • LingOA – disciplinary shift to OA
  • 32. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress The Current Climate and What this Means for OA
  • 33. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • Governments fund universities to do research. Stats on UK research vs. library spending?Research Bought, Then Paid For By MICHAEL B. EISEN January 10, 2012 “Congress should move to enshrine a simple principle in United States law: if taxpayers paid for it, they own it.” • These research results are only available to those universities (not to the public sector etc.) • They then fund each university library to buy back the published results of that work.
  • 34. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress 16 July 2012 The new policy, which will apply to all qualifying publications being submitted for publication from 1 April 2013, states that peer reviewed research papers which result from research that is wholly or partially funded by the Research Councils: RCUK announces new Open Access policy • must be published in journals which are compliant with Research Council policy on Open Access
  • 35. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress The Wellcome Trust plans to withhold a portion of grant money from scientists who do not make the results of their work freely available to the public... In addition, any research papers that are not freely available will not be counted as part of a scientist's track record when Wellcome assesses any future applications for research funding. The trust is the second largest medical research charity in the world, spending more than £600m on science every year. Its director, Sir Mark Walport, has said that publishing research papers should be considered a cost of a research project in the same way as a piece of lab equipment. Wellcome Trust will penalise scientists who don't embrace open access Wealthy medical charity says it will withhold researchers' final grant payments if they fail to make their results open access The Guardian, Thursday 28 June 2012
  • 36. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • Coordinated moves towards OA mandate policies in EU “[Open Access… ] is essential for Europe's ability to enhance its economic performance and improve its capacity to compete through knowledge. Open Access can also boost the visibility of European research, and in particular offer small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) access to the latest research for exploitation.” • Large publishers are very international and lobby actively • Recent example of the Research Works Act
  • 37. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Research Works Act (H.R. 3699) • Massive international outcry, especially from researchers • Contained provisions to prohibit open-access mandates for federally funded research • Congress members who introduced the act ‘motivated by large donations by the academic publisher X’
  • 39. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress Amid boycott, X backtracks on research bill Journal publisher still opposes current U.S. rules mandating access to taxpayer- funded research CBC News Posted: Feb 27, 2012 One of the largest academic publishers in the world withdrew its support Monday from a controversial U.S. bill, the Research Works Act, that critics feel would restrict public access to published, publicly-funded research. The change of heart by Dutch publisher X follows a boycott of its journals and publishing ventures by thousands of researchers around the world.
  • 40. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • Released in August 2012 The Finch Report • Very important for UK and sets a precedent for other countries • Gold Open Access will be mandated for publicly-funded research • Universities will switch from ‘big deals’ to paying from APC funds • Research Councils will fund universities for this http://www.researchinfonet.org/wp- content/uploads/2012/06/Finch-Group-report-executive- summary-FINAL-VERSION.pdf
  • 41. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • Main opposition to the Finch Report is from Steven Harnad1 Debate • Extremely vocal, one sided and pro- green OA only • Argues that Finch is wrong to mandate gold OA instead of green 1. Steven Harnad: http://openaccess.eprints.org/index.php?/archives/951-Testing- the-Finch-Hypothesis-on-Green-OA-Mandate-Ineffectiveness.html 2. Cameron Neylon: http://cameronneylon.net/blog/first-thoughts-on-the-finch- report-good-steps-but-missed-opportunities • More balanced criticism is that the government should require complimentary green OA as well, and mandate the CC-By license2
  • 42. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress • Text and Data Mining (TDM) New battlegrounds 1. Licences for Europe Structured stakeholder dialogue 2013: http://ec.europa.eu/licences-for-europe- dialogue/en/content/about-site 2. Text and Data Mining: STM Statement & Sample Licence: http://www.stm-assoc.org/text-and-data-mining-stm- statement-sample-licence/ 3. Global Coalition response to STM: http://www.plos.org/global-coalition-of-access-to-research-science-and- education-organizations-calls-on-stm-to-withdraw-new-model-licenses 4. Digital Opportunity: A review of Intellectual Property and Growth: An independent report by Ian Hargreaves: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140603093549/http://www.ipo.gov.uk/ipreview.htm • Protected in countries such as US, Japan through Fair Use • EC working groups1 and STM association2 sought licensing solution • Strongly opposed by researchers, libraries etc.,3 caused EC to back down • What is really needed is full copyright reform, similar to UK’s Hargreaves Review4
  • 43. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress For more information: Questions? brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com @ubiquitypress http://www.ubiquitypress.com http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Frequently_Asked_Questions

Editor's Notes

  1. This is for Stuart from the Royal Society