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THE RISE OF THE CONTAINER
The Dev/Ops technology that accelerates Ops/Dev
Robert Starmer: CTO for Kumulus Technologies
OpenStack operations contributor since 2012
Operating OpenStack at Scale
Supporting container migration for enterprise
Kumulus Technologies:
Systems Consultants supporting Cloud Migration
@rstarmer, @kumulustech, http://kumul.us
youtube.com/fiveminutesofcloud
WHO AM I?
THE WHAT, WHY, AND HOW OF
CONTAINERS
WHAT DO WE MEAN? A CONTAINER…
• Principally containers == Linux containers*
• Provides a segregation model at the process level rather than
emulating a complete computer
• Uses cgroups and namespaces to segregate processes
* yes, other container technologies exist
CONTAINERS, THE SHORT HISTORY
• One system multi-segregation goes back to time-share systems
of the 1960/70s
• In the mini-computer/Unix era, the kernel included process
management and some initial segregation (root vs. user access)
• Application of these models enabled containers
LINUX CONTAINERS
• ~2005 Google, along with Canonical, took an interest in the early
Linux container model, supporting efforts around LXC
• Other than Google and bleeding edge developers, containers
didn’t get much attention - were seen as difficult to use
• Docker changed this principally through the image format model
WHY NOT JUST STICK WITH VMS?
• Speed: sub-second vs. multi-second startup
• Simplification: One light image from laptop to production
• Layers: Docker image format simplifies base images
• Embedded Ops: Operational value built in (load balancing)
AGILE DEVELOPMENT AND CONTAINERS
• The real driver behind containers: Dev/Ops
• Agile development implies always working always tested code
• If I can build my app and have tests running in a second, I’m
more likely to test…
• …and I don’t have to worry about the underlying OS
DEVELOPERS 💔 OPERATIONS
• Dev/Ops is a stepping stone for many developers
• Enabled application development models that were not
previously possible
• Ops is something to limit and reduce
• There is a growing #serverless community - focusing on just the
application again
DEVELOPERS ❤️ CONTAINERS
• Docker image format makes it easy to build “app” environment
• Use for Unit test (on developer machine)
• Use same image for QA/system tests
• Use same image in staging/final test
• Use same image in production
STILL NEED TO “OPERATE” CONTAINERS
• Can’t avoid some operations
• Manage application failures gracefully
• Provide some scale services (e.g. Load balancing)
• Managing interactions and security between multi-container
services and solutions
IT IS NOT JUST A CONTAINER
THOUGH…
THE FIELD OF CONTAINER MANAGEMENT
• LXC and LXC or libvirt-lxc
• Docker and Docker (and Docker Swarm)
• Docker, LXC and Kubernetes
• Docker, LXC, etc. and Mesos/DCOS
• Docker Cloud, Rancher, DCOS, CoreOS Fleet….
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS
• Lifecycle Management
• Rolling Upgrades
• Scheduling
• Network Service
• Storage Mapping
• Remind you of something?
OPENSTACK AND MANAGING
CONTAINERS
MANAGING CONTAINERS
Two ways to think about containers and OpenStack:
• OpenStack running VMs (or Ironic) running Containers
• OpenStack running VMs (or Ironic) running per tenant
Container management
• OpenStack being run on Containers either on an
OpenStack undercloud, or on bare metal/container
management
RUNNING CONTAINERS ON OPENSTACK
Where are you going to run your containers:
• VM (eg. Nova to Linux OS or “Container OS”)
• Bare Metal (eg. Ironic to Linux OS or “Container OS”)
• Container “Directly” (e.g. Higgins) <newest addition
How do you launch Containers?
• LXC/LXD libvirt commands?
• Docker commands?
• Kubernetes/Mesos-Marathon/etc.
ADD MANAGEMENT… AND?
Tenant/Project based, or global OpenStack deployment
Network interaction model
• tunneling (is your base OS already tunneling?)
• NAT And SLB services?
Storage
• shared backend, or brokered backend (e.g. exposed by
Openstack)
SCHEDULING
• Container management services still need better scheduling
• No integration between underlying scheduler (Nova) and overlay
scheduling (e.g. Kubernetes)
SINGLE MANAGEMENT FOR ALL
• Deploy a Docker-swarm or Kubernetes or… for the entire
OpenStack service
• Consistency
• Single model/centralized control
• Removes any Ops burden from developers
PER TENANT MANAGEMENT
• OS team enables deployment of an environment (e.g Docker,
Kubernetes, etc.) to as a set of VMs for an individual
Project/Tenant.
• Now project owners are Ops managers again for their container
management
• Leverage one to deploy: Magnum, Monasca, HEAT
MAGNUM / MURANO / HEAT
• Magnum- individual “PODs” on a per project/tenant basis
• Can have multiple PODs in one tenant domain
• PODs can support different management services (Kubernetes,
Docker Swarm, etc.)
• Murano- PODs as catalog items
• HEAT- automates Murano catalog
• Kuryr - Integrate Neutron networks with Container managers
• Higgins - Basic container management (equivalent to Nova
functions)
NEW PROJECTS
MANAGING OPENSTACK AS
CONTAINERS
• Load balanced front end services and even some
portion of the back-end can be run as containers
• Storage elements (e.g. database) and middleware (e.g.
RabbitMQ) may be better suited to VMs and or Ironic
• Chicken vs. egg issue
OPENSTACK AS A DISTRIBUTED APPLICATION
• To use OpenStack, hardware is needed
• To use Kubernetes, hardware is needed
• Which is first ? (i.e. OpenStack standalone with Ironic or
Kubernetes/Docker/etc. or through some other mechanism)
WHAT COMES FIRST: OPENSTACK OR
?KUBERNETES?
KOLLA PROJECT
• Containerize OpenStack
• Simplifies the creation of individual containers for each individual
service element (neutron-api vs neutron-scheduler)
• Can be used to support rolling upgrades (and even downgrades)
REVIEW
CONTAINERS WITH OPENSTACK
• Containers == segregated processes (VM-lite)
• Containers need/leverage management for scale,
scheduling, and resiliency
• Containers can run on OpenStack (via Nova/Ironic)
• Containers can be used to run OpenStack
OPENSTACK CONTAINER PROJECTS
• Magnum: Manage container managers per tenant
• Murano: Let end user request a container or container manager via
catalog.
• HEAT: Deliver a container or container manager from a template
• Higgins: Deploy Containers as you would VMs (Nova for Containers)
• Kuryr: Manage networks like you do with Neutron (extension to
Neutron)
• Kolla: Deploying OpenStack services in individual containers, supports
upgrade/downgrade

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The Rise and Management of Containers with OpenStack

  • 1. THE RISE OF THE CONTAINER The Dev/Ops technology that accelerates Ops/Dev
  • 2. Robert Starmer: CTO for Kumulus Technologies OpenStack operations contributor since 2012 Operating OpenStack at Scale Supporting container migration for enterprise Kumulus Technologies: Systems Consultants supporting Cloud Migration @rstarmer, @kumulustech, http://kumul.us youtube.com/fiveminutesofcloud WHO AM I?
  • 3. THE WHAT, WHY, AND HOW OF CONTAINERS
  • 4. WHAT DO WE MEAN? A CONTAINER… • Principally containers == Linux containers* • Provides a segregation model at the process level rather than emulating a complete computer • Uses cgroups and namespaces to segregate processes * yes, other container technologies exist
  • 5. CONTAINERS, THE SHORT HISTORY • One system multi-segregation goes back to time-share systems of the 1960/70s • In the mini-computer/Unix era, the kernel included process management and some initial segregation (root vs. user access) • Application of these models enabled containers
  • 6. LINUX CONTAINERS • ~2005 Google, along with Canonical, took an interest in the early Linux container model, supporting efforts around LXC • Other than Google and bleeding edge developers, containers didn’t get much attention - were seen as difficult to use • Docker changed this principally through the image format model
  • 7. WHY NOT JUST STICK WITH VMS? • Speed: sub-second vs. multi-second startup • Simplification: One light image from laptop to production • Layers: Docker image format simplifies base images • Embedded Ops: Operational value built in (load balancing)
  • 8. AGILE DEVELOPMENT AND CONTAINERS • The real driver behind containers: Dev/Ops • Agile development implies always working always tested code • If I can build my app and have tests running in a second, I’m more likely to test… • …and I don’t have to worry about the underlying OS
  • 9. DEVELOPERS 💔 OPERATIONS • Dev/Ops is a stepping stone for many developers • Enabled application development models that were not previously possible • Ops is something to limit and reduce • There is a growing #serverless community - focusing on just the application again
  • 10. DEVELOPERS ❤️ CONTAINERS • Docker image format makes it easy to build “app” environment • Use for Unit test (on developer machine) • Use same image for QA/system tests • Use same image in staging/final test • Use same image in production
  • 11. STILL NEED TO “OPERATE” CONTAINERS • Can’t avoid some operations • Manage application failures gracefully • Provide some scale services (e.g. Load balancing) • Managing interactions and security between multi-container services and solutions
  • 12. IT IS NOT JUST A CONTAINER THOUGH…
  • 13. THE FIELD OF CONTAINER MANAGEMENT • LXC and LXC or libvirt-lxc • Docker and Docker (and Docker Swarm) • Docker, LXC and Kubernetes • Docker, LXC, etc. and Mesos/DCOS • Docker Cloud, Rancher, DCOS, CoreOS Fleet….
  • 14. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS • Lifecycle Management • Rolling Upgrades • Scheduling • Network Service • Storage Mapping • Remind you of something?
  • 16. MANAGING CONTAINERS Two ways to think about containers and OpenStack: • OpenStack running VMs (or Ironic) running Containers • OpenStack running VMs (or Ironic) running per tenant Container management • OpenStack being run on Containers either on an OpenStack undercloud, or on bare metal/container management
  • 17. RUNNING CONTAINERS ON OPENSTACK Where are you going to run your containers: • VM (eg. Nova to Linux OS or “Container OS”) • Bare Metal (eg. Ironic to Linux OS or “Container OS”) • Container “Directly” (e.g. Higgins) <newest addition How do you launch Containers? • LXC/LXD libvirt commands? • Docker commands? • Kubernetes/Mesos-Marathon/etc.
  • 18. ADD MANAGEMENT… AND? Tenant/Project based, or global OpenStack deployment Network interaction model • tunneling (is your base OS already tunneling?) • NAT And SLB services? Storage • shared backend, or brokered backend (e.g. exposed by Openstack)
  • 19. SCHEDULING • Container management services still need better scheduling • No integration between underlying scheduler (Nova) and overlay scheduling (e.g. Kubernetes)
  • 20. SINGLE MANAGEMENT FOR ALL • Deploy a Docker-swarm or Kubernetes or… for the entire OpenStack service • Consistency • Single model/centralized control • Removes any Ops burden from developers
  • 21. PER TENANT MANAGEMENT • OS team enables deployment of an environment (e.g Docker, Kubernetes, etc.) to as a set of VMs for an individual Project/Tenant. • Now project owners are Ops managers again for their container management • Leverage one to deploy: Magnum, Monasca, HEAT
  • 22. MAGNUM / MURANO / HEAT • Magnum- individual “PODs” on a per project/tenant basis • Can have multiple PODs in one tenant domain • PODs can support different management services (Kubernetes, Docker Swarm, etc.) • Murano- PODs as catalog items • HEAT- automates Murano catalog
  • 23. • Kuryr - Integrate Neutron networks with Container managers • Higgins - Basic container management (equivalent to Nova functions) NEW PROJECTS
  • 25. • Load balanced front end services and even some portion of the back-end can be run as containers • Storage elements (e.g. database) and middleware (e.g. RabbitMQ) may be better suited to VMs and or Ironic • Chicken vs. egg issue OPENSTACK AS A DISTRIBUTED APPLICATION
  • 26. • To use OpenStack, hardware is needed • To use Kubernetes, hardware is needed • Which is first ? (i.e. OpenStack standalone with Ironic or Kubernetes/Docker/etc. or through some other mechanism) WHAT COMES FIRST: OPENSTACK OR ?KUBERNETES?
  • 27. KOLLA PROJECT • Containerize OpenStack • Simplifies the creation of individual containers for each individual service element (neutron-api vs neutron-scheduler) • Can be used to support rolling upgrades (and even downgrades)
  • 29. CONTAINERS WITH OPENSTACK • Containers == segregated processes (VM-lite) • Containers need/leverage management for scale, scheduling, and resiliency • Containers can run on OpenStack (via Nova/Ironic) • Containers can be used to run OpenStack
  • 30. OPENSTACK CONTAINER PROJECTS • Magnum: Manage container managers per tenant • Murano: Let end user request a container or container manager via catalog. • HEAT: Deliver a container or container manager from a template • Higgins: Deploy Containers as you would VMs (Nova for Containers) • Kuryr: Manage networks like you do with Neutron (extension to Neutron) • Kolla: Deploying OpenStack services in individual containers, supports upgrade/downgrade