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Presented by Samuel AJAVON
GENERALITY
 Coconuts are quite edifying in their shape. In fact, once the upper layers are withdrawn
with more or less difficulty, one can finally profit from the fruit of the combat. Internet is
a bit the same, once you have managed to tame it, it can deliver all its wonders. One of
them is what is now called "the Internet of Things". The internet of objects is the set of
services around physical hardware connected to the web. Why Africa should be
interested in the Internet of objects at a time when the supply of water and electricity are
still at least problematic. According to Cisco, Africa has 500 billion good reasons to look
into the issue in the next 10 years. Many possibilities are now offered by the Internet of
objects, some of which will allow the continent to accelerate its socio-economic
development. For example, it would be inadequate to confront poachers with connected
watches such as smartwatch but with connected localization devices implemented on
rare species, it would be easier to combat large-scale poaching. With drones the foci of
poachers would be spotted before they even realized it. According to the latest DHL and
Cisco report on Internet Object Trends (IoT), the global market is estimated at $ 1.9
billion in terms of opportunities. The report estimates that 50 billion devices will be
connected to the Internet by 2020 against 15 billion today. The whole for a value of $ 8
trillion. A market, on which African countries could position themselves as actors.
GENERALITY
 Africa is today at the heart of conflicts of interest, be they
economic, geopolitical or even technological. The Internet
of objects as an emerging trend could become a niche
among many others such as agriculture or renewable
energies on which Africa will rely in order to gain power
over the international trade balance. In sub-Saharan Africa,
the market is relatively untouched, and the costs of
producing the same product or service are often 10 times
lower than those in OECD countries. African entrepreneurs
should look into the issue and create projects along these
lines in the four corners of the continent. The applications
conceivable within the framework of the internet of the
objects are literally infinite. Indeed, it is enough of a zest of
creativity to imagine new solutions.
 In Africa, only MTN (South Africa) has a platform dedicated to the internet of objects.
The ebullition around the internet of objects is such that American bands like Microsoft
and Google have decided to create programs of developers entirely devoted to this
movement. With connected microprocessors it is now possible to monitor the heart rate
of patients in order to detect hypertension problems. In the UK, drones are used as
medical support to cover large distances in a short time and provide first aid to the
wounded. In the African context, where there are sometimes 2 doctors per 10 000
inhabitants according to WHO, compared with 32 in 10 000 in Europe, this solution
could be an opportunity to be explored. In Spain, travel agencies use drones to produce
unpublished images of Barcelona and thus promote local tourism. In Gabon, the Internet
of objects has proved itself during the construction of infrastructures and made it
possible to carry out a mapping. Indeed, the company Perenco used drones in Gabon to
map the oil zones. Drones are used everywhere else to do topographic measurements and
to assess the risks during the construction of infrastructures. Few African companies are
in this segment, which creates dependency on foreign service providers and therefore a
problem of state sovereignty. McKinsey estimates that applications of the Internet of
objects will have an impact on the global economy of the order of $ 3.9 billion to $ 11
billion a year by 2025. At its peak, this influence would represent 11% of the global
economy . Africa must take advantage of this new market, instead of positioning itself as
a consumer; with technology no longer a constraint, especially in the digital field.
TO COME UP
 The ecosystem of technological enterprises
in Africa is nevertheless dominated by
international actors. According to the
expert, this configuration of the sector
should not change soon. African
technology startups have not yet acquired
sufficient maturity to take over. Many of
them fail to achieve profitability that will
allow them to focus on research and
development to grow. Supported by strong
foreign financing and advanced
technologies, non-African service providers
will continue to dominate the market. "This
configuration should persist a few years
before the mixed local / foreign companies
are balanced," says Kalebaila. In fact, these
local operators are better able to
understand the needs of the populations.
An advantage that will only benefit them
once they become mature and competitive
enough. But for now, the expert notes that a
new trend is gaining ground:
 large operators, such as IBM or
Microsoft, are beginning to locate
their services, but also to ally
themselves with local operators to
develop solutions adapted to the
needs of Africans.Faced with these
changes, Africa will face new
challenges, including security.
"Fortunately", this is a problem for the
whole world. In Africa, it is becoming
urgent for all countries to develop the
appropriate regulatory frameworks.
The expertise will come from "highly
specialized" players who position
themselves in this promising market.
In other words, the race has just
started ...
CASE OF BENIN
This observation calls for new
approaches, capable of rapidly
advancing the management and
governance of these territories. The
internet of objects is one of them.
 The Internet of Things describes the ability of
"objects" to transfer data between them
without human interaction. An "object" can be
a guard equipped with a chip transmitting its
position during a patrol, an animal carrying an
implant to follow its migration, a sound sensor
detecting the shots and transmitting an alert, a
drone performing automatically daily trips to
count animals and any other natural or man-
made element that can share the data it collects
via a network.The Internet of the objects is not
a new concept but the opportunities it offers
have recently exploded under the effect of the
banalisation of wireless technologies,
miniature electromechanical systems, and
accessibility to the Internet. These
opportunities are real and offer concrete
opportunities to improve the management of
nature reserves.
YOUNG LION IN
PENDJARI PARC
Reality or science fiction?
PENDJARI PARC
lIONS
In PENDJARI PARC
Masai Mara lions
 Masai Mara lions, equipped with collars, inform the breeders by
sms when they approach too close to their flocks, giving them
time to return the cattle. Amazonian trees carrying a flea in the
trunk, call the forest protection service when they are cut and
therefore move. Rhinoceros carry a collar that shows not only
their location, but also their heart rate, which makes it possible
to detect, at a distance and in real time, any change in case of
poaching.These are some examples of what technology is already
doing to optimize species protection. But it remains to organize
all this, to deploy on a large scale solutions usable by all, to
coordinate the isolated experiments so that the proposed
techniques become simple, economic, like most applications of
our smartphones today. In short, moving from the Internet of
objects to that of conservation.
THREAT
 The internet of thing is, however, a serious threat in terms of cyber security. Indeed most
of the connected devices are designed to be easily deployed and accessible by users who
are certainly technophiles but little informed about the risks involved. Locks connected
to mobile applications are already deployed to simplify access to the home. However, no
precision is given on the risks involved if a malicious hacker attacks the system and
enters a private residence. Lightweight connected equipment manufacturers aim to make
the figure with economies of scale. In this process, they minimize research and
development costs. To extrapolate once the connection has been established between
device "A" and "Internet", the hardware is placed on the market. The same passwords and
usernames are replicated to the string, therefore at one point they end up being known to
hackers. The issue of security and vulnerability becomes secondary where it should be a
priority.Connected cameras are so insecure in the world that there is a search engine that
allows millions of cameras connected in private as well as public organizations to be
blinked. Websites already share images in real time that come from cameras of private
homes with impunity. UAVs, even if they can reduce the cost of mapping, can also be
misused by malicious people to prepare dangerous operations or even fly over sensitive
airspace without prior authorization. This gap also offers an opportunity for ICT
entrepreneurs, who could focus on the development of security processes. It is therefore
imperative for African countries to consider legislation on the Internet of objects to
protect their population from the excesses that this phenomenon can introduce, even if
Africa is not yet a major consumer.
Africa must not become a sponge with technological trends. Big Data and the Internet of Things are
certainly notable advances that can contribute to the development of the continent, but both, without
cybersecurity measures, will only expose to growing threats to both data and the lives of users. Innovation
must adapt to the context in which it wishes to flourish. Africa is a land reddened by the climate and the
blood of children overexploited in the mines of Coltan in the Congo in the name of technological progress
in foreign countries, the Internet of the objects could change the situation and make Africa to the
Africans.All the Internet of the objects appears like a track among many others to fill the technological but
also economic gap between Africa and the so-called developed countries. Over the years, African countries
have begun to adopt the innovative technologies and movements deployed in the four corners of the world
in real tim
Thank you

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The place of the internet of objects in

  • 2. GENERALITY  Coconuts are quite edifying in their shape. In fact, once the upper layers are withdrawn with more or less difficulty, one can finally profit from the fruit of the combat. Internet is a bit the same, once you have managed to tame it, it can deliver all its wonders. One of them is what is now called "the Internet of Things". The internet of objects is the set of services around physical hardware connected to the web. Why Africa should be interested in the Internet of objects at a time when the supply of water and electricity are still at least problematic. According to Cisco, Africa has 500 billion good reasons to look into the issue in the next 10 years. Many possibilities are now offered by the Internet of objects, some of which will allow the continent to accelerate its socio-economic development. For example, it would be inadequate to confront poachers with connected watches such as smartwatch but with connected localization devices implemented on rare species, it would be easier to combat large-scale poaching. With drones the foci of poachers would be spotted before they even realized it. According to the latest DHL and Cisco report on Internet Object Trends (IoT), the global market is estimated at $ 1.9 billion in terms of opportunities. The report estimates that 50 billion devices will be connected to the Internet by 2020 against 15 billion today. The whole for a value of $ 8 trillion. A market, on which African countries could position themselves as actors.
  • 3. GENERALITY  Africa is today at the heart of conflicts of interest, be they economic, geopolitical or even technological. The Internet of objects as an emerging trend could become a niche among many others such as agriculture or renewable energies on which Africa will rely in order to gain power over the international trade balance. In sub-Saharan Africa, the market is relatively untouched, and the costs of producing the same product or service are often 10 times lower than those in OECD countries. African entrepreneurs should look into the issue and create projects along these lines in the four corners of the continent. The applications conceivable within the framework of the internet of the objects are literally infinite. Indeed, it is enough of a zest of creativity to imagine new solutions.
  • 4.  In Africa, only MTN (South Africa) has a platform dedicated to the internet of objects. The ebullition around the internet of objects is such that American bands like Microsoft and Google have decided to create programs of developers entirely devoted to this movement. With connected microprocessors it is now possible to monitor the heart rate of patients in order to detect hypertension problems. In the UK, drones are used as medical support to cover large distances in a short time and provide first aid to the wounded. In the African context, where there are sometimes 2 doctors per 10 000 inhabitants according to WHO, compared with 32 in 10 000 in Europe, this solution could be an opportunity to be explored. In Spain, travel agencies use drones to produce unpublished images of Barcelona and thus promote local tourism. In Gabon, the Internet of objects has proved itself during the construction of infrastructures and made it possible to carry out a mapping. Indeed, the company Perenco used drones in Gabon to map the oil zones. Drones are used everywhere else to do topographic measurements and to assess the risks during the construction of infrastructures. Few African companies are in this segment, which creates dependency on foreign service providers and therefore a problem of state sovereignty. McKinsey estimates that applications of the Internet of objects will have an impact on the global economy of the order of $ 3.9 billion to $ 11 billion a year by 2025. At its peak, this influence would represent 11% of the global economy . Africa must take advantage of this new market, instead of positioning itself as a consumer; with technology no longer a constraint, especially in the digital field.
  • 5. TO COME UP  The ecosystem of technological enterprises in Africa is nevertheless dominated by international actors. According to the expert, this configuration of the sector should not change soon. African technology startups have not yet acquired sufficient maturity to take over. Many of them fail to achieve profitability that will allow them to focus on research and development to grow. Supported by strong foreign financing and advanced technologies, non-African service providers will continue to dominate the market. "This configuration should persist a few years before the mixed local / foreign companies are balanced," says Kalebaila. In fact, these local operators are better able to understand the needs of the populations. An advantage that will only benefit them once they become mature and competitive enough. But for now, the expert notes that a new trend is gaining ground:  large operators, such as IBM or Microsoft, are beginning to locate their services, but also to ally themselves with local operators to develop solutions adapted to the needs of Africans.Faced with these changes, Africa will face new challenges, including security. "Fortunately", this is a problem for the whole world. In Africa, it is becoming urgent for all countries to develop the appropriate regulatory frameworks. The expertise will come from "highly specialized" players who position themselves in this promising market. In other words, the race has just started ...
  • 6. CASE OF BENIN This observation calls for new approaches, capable of rapidly advancing the management and governance of these territories. The internet of objects is one of them.  The Internet of Things describes the ability of "objects" to transfer data between them without human interaction. An "object" can be a guard equipped with a chip transmitting its position during a patrol, an animal carrying an implant to follow its migration, a sound sensor detecting the shots and transmitting an alert, a drone performing automatically daily trips to count animals and any other natural or man- made element that can share the data it collects via a network.The Internet of the objects is not a new concept but the opportunities it offers have recently exploded under the effect of the banalisation of wireless technologies, miniature electromechanical systems, and accessibility to the Internet. These opportunities are real and offer concrete opportunities to improve the management of nature reserves.
  • 7. YOUNG LION IN PENDJARI PARC Reality or science fiction?
  • 10.
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  • 12. Masai Mara lions  Masai Mara lions, equipped with collars, inform the breeders by sms when they approach too close to their flocks, giving them time to return the cattle. Amazonian trees carrying a flea in the trunk, call the forest protection service when they are cut and therefore move. Rhinoceros carry a collar that shows not only their location, but also their heart rate, which makes it possible to detect, at a distance and in real time, any change in case of poaching.These are some examples of what technology is already doing to optimize species protection. But it remains to organize all this, to deploy on a large scale solutions usable by all, to coordinate the isolated experiments so that the proposed techniques become simple, economic, like most applications of our smartphones today. In short, moving from the Internet of objects to that of conservation.
  • 13. THREAT  The internet of thing is, however, a serious threat in terms of cyber security. Indeed most of the connected devices are designed to be easily deployed and accessible by users who are certainly technophiles but little informed about the risks involved. Locks connected to mobile applications are already deployed to simplify access to the home. However, no precision is given on the risks involved if a malicious hacker attacks the system and enters a private residence. Lightweight connected equipment manufacturers aim to make the figure with economies of scale. In this process, they minimize research and development costs. To extrapolate once the connection has been established between device "A" and "Internet", the hardware is placed on the market. The same passwords and usernames are replicated to the string, therefore at one point they end up being known to hackers. The issue of security and vulnerability becomes secondary where it should be a priority.Connected cameras are so insecure in the world that there is a search engine that allows millions of cameras connected in private as well as public organizations to be blinked. Websites already share images in real time that come from cameras of private homes with impunity. UAVs, even if they can reduce the cost of mapping, can also be misused by malicious people to prepare dangerous operations or even fly over sensitive airspace without prior authorization. This gap also offers an opportunity for ICT entrepreneurs, who could focus on the development of security processes. It is therefore imperative for African countries to consider legislation on the Internet of objects to protect their population from the excesses that this phenomenon can introduce, even if Africa is not yet a major consumer.
  • 14. Africa must not become a sponge with technological trends. Big Data and the Internet of Things are certainly notable advances that can contribute to the development of the continent, but both, without cybersecurity measures, will only expose to growing threats to both data and the lives of users. Innovation must adapt to the context in which it wishes to flourish. Africa is a land reddened by the climate and the blood of children overexploited in the mines of Coltan in the Congo in the name of technological progress in foreign countries, the Internet of the objects could change the situation and make Africa to the Africans.All the Internet of the objects appears like a track among many others to fill the technological but also economic gap between Africa and the so-called developed countries. Over the years, African countries have begun to adopt the innovative technologies and movements deployed in the four corners of the world in real tim
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