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A Conceptual Model for e-
Assessing Student Learning
 in Engineering Education
                                        Rita Falcao

                    Universidade do Porto :: FEUP

                                           Portugal

             ICL 2012 / IGIP 2012 :: Villach, Austria



                   www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
nt of student’s learning and e-learning. It will be focusing in Higher Education
lly in Engineering Education. The question of alignment of e-assessment and ed
                        Field of study
ed by the area where the three circles overlap.




                                    Learning!
                                    Outcomes!




                                                 e0Learning
                         Assessment!                   !




                               Figure 1 - Field of study

                                                www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
Initial problem


To what extent e-assessment methods may be
used to measure the achievement of Learning
Outcomes in engineering education?



                          www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
Research questions I

• RQ1) Which type of Learning Outcomes in the
  field of Engineering are relevant and should be
  considered?

• RQ2) Which are the e-assessment methods
  that should be considered?

                            www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes are statements of what a
learner is expected to know, understand
and/or be able to demonstrate after
completion of learning. (AHELO)


                          www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
Learning Outcomes in EE
Selection and description of LOs in Engineering
Education
   • ABET
   • EUR-ACE
   • CDIO
   • EQF

                            www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
(e) Assessment
Assessment: Any procedure used to estimate
student learning for whatever purpose. (Brown et
al)
e-Assessment is the use of ICT and the Internet in
particular for the assessment of learning,
including design, delivery and/or recording of
responses. (JISC)


                             www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
(e) Assessment methods
• Multiple choice questions
• Short Answer Questions
• Problems
• Essays
• Practical work
• Reflexive practice

                              www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
Research questions II
• RQ3) What type of intended Learning
  Outcomes can be measured by e- assessment
  methods?
• RQ4) Is it possible to propose specific e-
  assessment strategies for each type of LO in
  EE?

                              www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
The ALIGNMENT question
      Evaluation of the Application of e-Learning Methodologies to the Education of




                              Statement!!of!
                               the!intented!
                                 Learning!!
                                 Outcome!



                                Learning!
                                Outcome!



              Teaching!and!
                Learning!                      Assessment!
                                                  Tasks!
                Ac=vi=es!




  Figure 10 - The same LO should be present in all:: www.fe.up.pt
                                    www.up.pt the activities
Evaluation of the Application of e-Learning Methodologies to the Education of Engineering




            Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
                                        Table 22 - The Taxonomy Table by Anderson et al.
   The Knowledge                                                  The Cognitive dimension
   dimension
                          1. Remember         2. Understand     3. Apply            4. Analyze   5. Evaluate     6. Create

   A. Factual knowledge

   B. Conceptual
   knowledge

   C. Procedural
   knowledge

   D. Meta-cognitive
   knowledge




The• Taxonomy Table created by Anderson LOs ofplays aqualification frameworks of the
      Analyzing and describing the
                                               et al.
                                                       the
                                                              major role in the development
   • Analyzing the describing When approaching the concept
conceptual model inand current work. LOs from case-studies of writing iLOs statements,
several authors refer the importance of including verbs that describe a measurable action so they can
be •
      Analyzing and describing assessment methods
   assessed [41, 42, 77]. The revised version of the taxonomy of Bloom and the Taxonomy Table
provided the best solution for this problem. The cognitive dimension of the table is structured using
  •   Aligning assessment and LOs
verbs with detailed descriptions explaining their meaning. Verbs were carefully selected to match
cognitive processes and to be the ones used normally by teachers when:: www.fe.up.pt Additionally,
                                                         www.up.pt stating the iLOs.
Some pilot tests of application were done using iLO at course level and QF level. It was found that at
the level of QF, most matrixes have a large number of cells filled. At course level, the distribution of

         The ALOA conceptual model
filled cells is considerable more precise and easier to match with specific assessment methods. This
represented another revision of the model where alignment was achieved at course level but could be
inferred to the higher levels through existing matrixes.




                                Figure 15 - Fourth and final version of the model
                                                                www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
le course usually has more that one iLO statement and more th
ns that one method may be assessing more than one iLO and th
                           Alignment
than one method. This multiplicity of possibilities is represented i



                          Many!LO!          Many!LOs!
                           One!               Many!
                        Assessment!        assessments!




                          One!LO!            One!LO!
                            one!              Many!
                        assessment!        assessment!




                                            www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
           Figure 17 - Alignment possibilities for one unit or course
Application of the model

Scenarios                           Criteria
   Verification of internal
                                             Match
          alignment

Proposal of internal alignment             Emphasis


     Vertical alignment                    Coverage


    Horizontal alignment                    Precision



                                 www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
Evaluate: critiquing
                             Create: planning
      Application to EUR-ACE
         Table 43 - Complete mapping of EUR-ACE programme outcomes to Bloom's revised taxonomy.
                                      FACTUAL             CONCEPTUAL        PROCEDURAL       METACOGNITIVE
REMEMBER          Recognizing         156                 156               256
                  Recalling           156                 156               256
UNDERSTAND        Interpreting                            12456
                  Exemplifying Evaluation of the Application of e-Learning Methodologies to the Education of Engineering
                                                          15
                  Classifying                             15                25
                  Summarizing                             15
                  Inferring                               1245
                  Comparing                               15
                  Explaining                           12456             25
APPLY             Executing                            2                 245
                  Implementing                         2456              23456
ANALYZE           Differentiating                      456               245
104               Organizing                           123456            2345
                  Attributing                          6
EVALUATE          Checking                             5                 5
                  Critiquing                           123456            235
CREATE            Generating                           2345              35
                  Planning                             23456             2345
                  Producing

                                                                www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
Example of case-study
                  Table 54 - Alignment of LO2 with real assessment
                    FACTUAL   CONCEPTUAL         PROCEDURAL         METACOGNITIVE
Recognizing                                      CS.02.DSYS.LO.02
Recalling                                        CS.02.DSYS.LO.02
Interpreting
Exemplifying
Classifying
Summarizing
Inferring                     CS.02.DSYS.LO.02   CS.02.DSYS.LO.02
Comparing                     CS.02.DSYS.LO.02   CS.02.DSYS.LO.02
Explaining                    CS.02.DSYS.LO.02   CS.02.DSYS.LO.02
Executing
Implementing
Differentiating
Organizing
Attributing
Checking
Critiquing
Generating
Planning
Producing


                                                  www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
Thank you!
   Rita Falcao de Berredo

ritafalcaoberredo@gmail.com




                 www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt

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The ALOA model: assessment of Learning Outcomes

  • 1. A Conceptual Model for e- Assessing Student Learning in Engineering Education Rita Falcao Universidade do Porto :: FEUP Portugal ICL 2012 / IGIP 2012 :: Villach, Austria www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 2. nt of student’s learning and e-learning. It will be focusing in Higher Education lly in Engineering Education. The question of alignment of e-assessment and ed Field of study ed by the area where the three circles overlap. Learning! Outcomes! e0Learning Assessment! ! Figure 1 - Field of study www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 3. Initial problem To what extent e-assessment methods may be used to measure the achievement of Learning Outcomes in engineering education? www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 4. Research questions I • RQ1) Which type of Learning Outcomes in the field of Engineering are relevant and should be considered? • RQ2) Which are the e-assessment methods that should be considered? www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 5. Learning Outcomes Learning outcomes are statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and/or be able to demonstrate after completion of learning. (AHELO) www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 6. Learning Outcomes in EE Selection and description of LOs in Engineering Education • ABET • EUR-ACE • CDIO • EQF www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 7. (e) Assessment Assessment: Any procedure used to estimate student learning for whatever purpose. (Brown et al) e-Assessment is the use of ICT and the Internet in particular for the assessment of learning, including design, delivery and/or recording of responses. (JISC) www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 8. (e) Assessment methods • Multiple choice questions • Short Answer Questions • Problems • Essays • Practical work • Reflexive practice www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 9. Research questions II • RQ3) What type of intended Learning Outcomes can be measured by e- assessment methods? • RQ4) Is it possible to propose specific e- assessment strategies for each type of LO in EE? www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 10. The ALIGNMENT question Evaluation of the Application of e-Learning Methodologies to the Education of Statement!!of! the!intented! Learning!! Outcome! Learning! Outcome! Teaching!and! Learning! Assessment! Tasks! Ac=vi=es! Figure 10 - The same LO should be present in all:: www.fe.up.pt www.up.pt the activities
  • 11. Evaluation of the Application of e-Learning Methodologies to the Education of Engineering Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Table 22 - The Taxonomy Table by Anderson et al. The Knowledge The Cognitive dimension dimension 1. Remember 2. Understand 3. Apply 4. Analyze 5. Evaluate 6. Create A. Factual knowledge B. Conceptual knowledge C. Procedural knowledge D. Meta-cognitive knowledge The• Taxonomy Table created by Anderson LOs ofplays aqualification frameworks of the Analyzing and describing the et al. the major role in the development • Analyzing the describing When approaching the concept conceptual model inand current work. LOs from case-studies of writing iLOs statements, several authors refer the importance of including verbs that describe a measurable action so they can be • Analyzing and describing assessment methods assessed [41, 42, 77]. The revised version of the taxonomy of Bloom and the Taxonomy Table provided the best solution for this problem. The cognitive dimension of the table is structured using • Aligning assessment and LOs verbs with detailed descriptions explaining their meaning. Verbs were carefully selected to match cognitive processes and to be the ones used normally by teachers when:: www.fe.up.pt Additionally, www.up.pt stating the iLOs.
  • 12. Some pilot tests of application were done using iLO at course level and QF level. It was found that at the level of QF, most matrixes have a large number of cells filled. At course level, the distribution of The ALOA conceptual model filled cells is considerable more precise and easier to match with specific assessment methods. This represented another revision of the model where alignment was achieved at course level but could be inferred to the higher levels through existing matrixes. Figure 15 - Fourth and final version of the model www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 13. le course usually has more that one iLO statement and more th ns that one method may be assessing more than one iLO and th Alignment than one method. This multiplicity of possibilities is represented i Many!LO! Many!LOs! One! Many! Assessment! assessments! One!LO! One!LO! one! Many! assessment! assessment! www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt Figure 17 - Alignment possibilities for one unit or course
  • 14. Application of the model Scenarios Criteria Verification of internal Match alignment Proposal of internal alignment Emphasis Vertical alignment Coverage Horizontal alignment Precision www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 15. Evaluate: critiquing Create: planning Application to EUR-ACE Table 43 - Complete mapping of EUR-ACE programme outcomes to Bloom's revised taxonomy. FACTUAL CONCEPTUAL PROCEDURAL METACOGNITIVE REMEMBER Recognizing 156 156 256 Recalling 156 156 256 UNDERSTAND Interpreting 12456 Exemplifying Evaluation of the Application of e-Learning Methodologies to the Education of Engineering 15 Classifying 15 25 Summarizing 15 Inferring 1245 Comparing 15 Explaining 12456 25 APPLY Executing 2 245 Implementing 2456 23456 ANALYZE Differentiating 456 245 104 Organizing 123456 2345 Attributing 6 EVALUATE Checking 5 5 Critiquing 123456 235 CREATE Generating 2345 35 Planning 23456 2345 Producing www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 16. Example of case-study Table 54 - Alignment of LO2 with real assessment FACTUAL CONCEPTUAL PROCEDURAL METACOGNITIVE Recognizing CS.02.DSYS.LO.02 Recalling CS.02.DSYS.LO.02 Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring CS.02.DSYS.LO.02 CS.02.DSYS.LO.02 Comparing CS.02.DSYS.LO.02 CS.02.DSYS.LO.02 Explaining CS.02.DSYS.LO.02 CS.02.DSYS.LO.02 Executing Implementing Differentiating Organizing Attributing Checking Critiquing Generating Planning Producing www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt
  • 17. Thank you! Rita Falcao de Berredo ritafalcaoberredo@gmail.com www.up.pt :: www.fe.up.pt