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Crowdsourcing	
  
Smart	
  Ci1es	
  
______________	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
Ciudades	
  Inteligentes	
  
Construídas	
  con	
  ciudadanos	
  
@OlgaG	
  
olgagil@olgagil.es	
  
	
  
INDEX	
  
____________________________	
  
Mapping	
  
Water	
  
Car	
  Sharing	
  
Appliances	
  and	
  Gadgets	
  Sharing	
  
Crowdfixing	
  UK	
  
City	
  Management	
  Apps	
  Beijing	
  
Crowdmaking	
  Policy	
  
CrowdbudgeLng	
  and	
  Opening	
  up	
  Decision	
  Making	
  
Planning	
  
Traffic	
  Management	
  
Rethinking	
  ciLes	
  with	
  the	
  ciLzens	
  
How	
  to	
  run	
  a	
  people–centred	
  smart	
  city	
  pilot	
  
The	
  four	
  flaws	
  with	
  the	
  smart	
  city	
  vision	
  
Lessons	
  for	
  city	
  governments	
  	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Mapping…	
  i.e.	
  urban	
  flooding	
  and	
  air	
  polluLon	
  
____________________________	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Mapping	
  
____________________________	
  
•  People	
  are	
  using	
  digital	
  
technology	
  to	
  measure	
  and	
  
map	
  their	
  ciLes.	
  	
  
•  Individuals	
  and	
  community	
  
groups	
  can	
  use	
  low–cost	
  kits	
  
and	
  upload	
  the	
  data	
  to	
  
create	
  crowdsourced	
  maps.	
  	
  
•  This	
  data	
  could	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  
supplement	
  professional	
  
networks	
  in	
  the	
  near	
  future.	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Water	
  
____________________________	
  
	
  A	
  real–	
  Lme	
  map	
  of	
  flooding	
  in	
  the	
  city	
  created	
  by	
  crowdsourcing	
  
flood	
  reports	
  from	
  TwiXer.	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Car	
  Sharing	
  
____________________________	
  
In	
  Seoul,	
  South	
  Korea,	
  the	
  city	
  
government	
  is	
  helping	
  residents	
  
make	
  beXer	
  use	
  of	
  the	
  things	
  
they	
  own	
  with	
  the	
  Sharing	
  City	
  
Seoul	
  iniLaLve.	
  
hXps://www.socar.kr	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Appliances	
  and	
  Gadgets	
  Sharing	
  
____________________________	
  
In	
  Seoul,	
  South	
  Korea,	
  the	
  city	
  
government	
  is	
  helping	
  residents	
  
make	
  beXer	
  use	
  of	
  the	
  things	
  
they	
  own	
  with	
  the	
  Sharing	
  City	
  
Seoul	
  iniLaLve.	
  
hXp://billiji.com	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Crowdfixing	
  UK	
  	
  
____________________________	
  
Residents	
  can	
  use	
  
the	
  app	
  to	
  report	
  
issues	
  such	
  as	
  
broken	
  streetlights	
  
and	
  potholes	
  to	
  the	
  
city	
  governments.	
  
hXps://www.fixmystreet.com	
  	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
City	
  Management	
  Apps	
  Beijing	
  	
  
____________________________	
  
In	
  2012	
  Beijing	
  launches	
  new	
  city	
  management	
  app:	
  Beijing	
  Bureau	
  of	
  City	
  Administra1on	
  and	
  Law	
  
Enforcement	
  launched	
  an	
  iPhone	
  applica1on	
  that	
  allow	
  residents	
  of	
  the	
  city	
  to	
  par1cipate	
  through	
  a	
  
mobile	
  plaJorm,	
  Song	
  Gang,	
  the	
  bureau’s	
  Director	
  of	
  Informa1on	
  Systems	
  and	
  Equipment	
  Services.	
  
	
  
The	
  Bureau’s	
  law	
  enforcement	
  responsibili1es	
  cover	
  a	
  wide	
  spectrum:	
  environment	
  management,	
  river	
  
management,	
  pollu1on	
  control,	
  sanita1on,	
  street	
  vendor	
  management,	
  outdoor	
  adver1sement,	
  car	
  park	
  
management,	
  dispute	
  resolu1on	
  and	
  ‘low-­‐level	
  crimes’.	
  All	
  of	
  these	
  are	
  closely	
  related	
  to	
  the	
  daily	
  life	
  
and	
  livelihood	
  of	
  the	
  20	
  million	
  residents	
  in	
  the	
  metropolis.	
  
	
  
The	
  app,	
  called	
  “I	
  love	
  Beijing”	
  (我爱北京),	
  is	
  an	
  extension	
  of	
  the	
  GIS-­‐based	
  integrated	
  service	
  plaJorm	
  
(hXp://map.bjcg.gov.cn).	
  Both	
  channels	
  allow	
  residents	
  to	
  locate	
  nearby	
  city	
  administra1on	
  agencies	
  and	
  
law	
  enforcers,	
  correct	
  errors	
  in	
  GIS	
  map,	
  make	
  complaints	
  and	
  reports,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  provide	
  advices	
  and	
  
sugges1ons.	
  	
  
	
  
The	
  Bureau	
  has	
  established	
  a	
  three	
  1er	
  structure	
  for	
  city	
  management	
  and	
  law	
  enforcement	
  covering	
  the	
  
municipal,	
  district	
  and	
  neighbourhood	
  levels.	
  It	
  has	
  also	
  built	
  close	
  working	
  rela1onships	
  among	
  frontline	
  
law	
  enforcement	
  agents,	
  neighbourhood	
  offices	
  and	
  resident	
  councils.	
  This	
  is	
  integrated	
  with	
  the	
  web	
  
(and	
  now	
  mobile)	
  engagement	
  channel	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  a	
  hotline.	
  The	
  aim	
  is	
  “to	
  ensure	
  that	
  the	
  city	
  is	
  
ul1mately	
  managed	
  by	
  the	
  residents	
  themselves.”	
  
	
  
Allows	
  to	
  include	
  informa1on	
  on	
  informal	
  markets	
  with	
  opening	
  1mes,	
  new	
  markets	
  and	
  what	
  type	
  of	
  
goods	
  they	
  sell.	
  	
  
	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Crowdmaking	
  
Policy	
  	
  
____________________________	
  BeXer	
  Reykjavik	
  
enables	
  ciLzens	
  to	
  
voice,	
  debate	
  and	
  
prioriLze	
  ideas	
  to	
  
improve	
  their	
  city,	
  
creaLng	
  open	
  
discourse	
  between	
  
community	
  
members	
  and	
  city	
  
council	
  and	
  also	
  
giving	
  the	
  voters	
  a	
  
direct	
  influence	
  on	
  
decision	
  making.	
  
hXps://
betrireykjavik.is	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
CrowdbudgeLng	
  
____________________________	
  
In	
  Paris,	
  ‘Madame	
  
Mayor,	
  I	
  have	
  an	
  idea’	
  
is	
  a	
  crowdsourcing	
  and	
  
parLcipatory	
  
budgeLng	
  process	
  that	
  
lets	
  ciLzens	
  propose	
  
and	
  vote	
  on	
  ideas	
  for	
  
projects	
  in	
  Paris.	
  The	
  
process	
  will	
  allocate	
  
500m	
  Euros	
  between	
  
2014	
  and	
  2020.	
  
hXps://
idee.paris.fr/	
  
Opening	
  up	
  decission	
  making	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Planning	
  
____________________________	
  
	
  
In	
  Bangalore,	
  local	
  NGO	
  
the	
  MOD	
  InsLtute	
  
enabled	
  residents	
  
to	
  create	
  a	
  community	
  
vision	
  for	
  the	
  future	
  of	
  
the	
  Shanthingar	
  
neighbourhood	
  of	
  the	
  
city	
  by	
  encouraging	
  
online	
  debate.	
  	
  
	
  
hXp://
www.mod.org.in	
  
Bringing	
  people	
  into	
  the	
  planning	
  process	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Traffic	
  management	
  
____________________________	
  
	
  
In	
  Jakarta,	
  residents	
  can	
  
use	
  TwiXer	
  to	
  organise	
  
shared	
  car	
  journeys	
  to	
  
work.	
  
Jakarta	
  
hXps://twiXer.com/nebengers	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Traffic	
  management	
  
____________________________	
  
	
  
In	
  Jakarta,	
  the	
  
Nebengers	
  TwiXer	
  
account	
  has	
  83,000	
  
followers	
  and	
  re–
Tweets	
  1,000	
  
requests	
  for	
  ride	
  
shares	
  each	
  day.	
  This	
  
could	
  contribute	
  to	
  
easing	
  traffic	
  woes	
  in	
  
the	
  city	
  if	
  the	
  
plagorm	
  conLnues	
  
to	
  grow.	
  
Jakarta	
  
hXp://www.nebengers.com	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Rethinking	
  ciLes	
  with	
  the	
  ciLzens	
  
____________________________	
  
How	
  can	
  ciLes	
  effecLvely	
  harness	
  the	
  power	
  of	
  ciLzens	
  through	
  
digital	
  technologies?	
  
	
  
Four	
  emerging	
  methods	
  are	
  helping	
  city	
  governments	
  to	
  do	
  this,	
  
powered	
  by:	
  	
  
	
  
•  the	
  growing	
  ubiquity	
  of	
  smartphones,	
  	
  
•  the	
  increasing	
  preference	
  for	
  online	
  transacLons,	
  	
  
•  the	
  emergence	
  of	
  low–cost	
  hardware	
  and	
  peer–to–peer	
  
technologies.	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Rethinking	
  ciLes	
  with	
  the	
  ciLzens	
  
____________________________	
  
•	
  The	
  collaboraLve	
  economy:	
  	
  
	
  
ConnecLng	
  distributed	
  groups	
  of	
  people,	
  
using	
  the	
  internet	
  and	
  digital	
  technologies,	
  to	
  
make	
  beXer	
  use	
  of	
  goods,	
  skills	
  and	
  space.	
  	
  
	
  
This	
  is	
  important	
  in	
  ciLes	
  where	
  resources,	
  
parLcularly	
  space,	
  are	
  limited.	
  
Four	
  emerging	
  methods	
  	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Rethinking	
  ciLes	
  with	
  the	
  ciLzens	
  
____________________________	
  
•	
  Crowdsourcing	
  data:	
  	
  
	
  
People	
  can	
  use	
  low–cost	
  sensors	
  to	
  measure	
  and	
  
create	
  crowdsourced	
  maps	
  of	
  their	
  environments.	
  
	
  
City	
  governments	
  can	
  crowdsource	
  data	
  from	
  social	
  
media	
  sites	
  and	
  sensors	
  in	
  mobile	
  phones,	
  as	
  a	
  
supplement	
  to	
  city–wide	
  Internet	
  of	
  Things	
  
networks.	
  
Four	
  emerging	
  methods	
  	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Rethinking	
  ciLes	
  with	
  the	
  ciLzens	
  
____________________________	
  
•	
  CollecLve	
  intelligence:	
  	
  
	
  
Decision	
  making	
  and	
  problem	
  solving	
  are	
  usually	
  lel	
  
to	
  experts,	
  yet	
  ciLzens	
  know	
  a	
  huge	
  amount	
  about	
  
their	
  ciLes.	
  	
  
	
  
New	
  digital	
  tools	
  make	
  it	
  easier	
  for	
  people	
  to	
  get	
  
involved	
  in	
  policymaking,	
  planning	
  and	
  budgeLng,	
  
and	
  this	
  could	
  help	
  ciLes	
  make	
  smarter	
  and	
  more	
  
democraLc	
  decisions.	
  
Four	
  emerging	
  methods	
  	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Rethinking	
  ciLes	
  with	
  the	
  ciLzens	
  
____________________________	
  
•	
  Crowdfunding:	
  	
  
	
  
People	
  can	
  connect	
  with	
  each	
  other	
  online	
  to	
  
collaboraLvely	
  fund	
  community	
  projects	
  and	
  city	
  
governments	
  can	
  use	
  crowdfunding	
  to	
  make	
  
spending	
  decisions	
  that	
  more	
  accurately	
  reflect	
  the	
  
needs	
  and	
  wishes	
  of	
  ciLzens.	
  	
  
Four	
  emerging	
  methods	
  	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Rethinking	
  ciLes	
  with	
  the	
  ciLzens	
  
____________________________	
  
•	
  The	
  collaboraLve	
  economy	
  
	
  
•	
  Crowdsourcing	
  data	
  
	
  
•	
  CollecLve	
  intelligence	
  
	
  
•	
  Crowdfunding	
  
Four	
  emerging	
  methods	
  	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
How	
  to	
  run	
  a	
  people–centred	
  smart	
  city	
  pilot	
  
____________________________	
  
1.	
  Set	
  up	
  a	
  civic	
  innovaLon	
  lab	
  to	
  
drive	
  innovaLon	
  in	
  collaboraLve	
  
technologies	
  
Primary	
  goal	
  should	
  be	
  genera1ng	
  
evidence	
  about	
  which	
  models	
  can	
  most	
  
effec1vely	
  harness	
  the	
  power	
  of	
  
collabora1ve	
  technologies–	
  an	
  area	
  of	
  
work	
  that	
  is	
  currently	
  underdeveloped.	
  	
  
	
  
Examples:	
  
The	
  Seoul	
  Innova1on	
  Bureau	
  
Boston	
  Mayor’s	
  Office	
  of	
  New	
  Urban	
  
Mechanics	
  (MONUM),	
  two	
  examples	
  of	
  
how	
  a	
  civic	
  innova1on	
  lab	
  could	
  work.	
  	
  
	
  
	
  
Na1onal	
  governments	
  should	
  also	
  consider	
  
seang	
  up	
  a	
  civic	
  labs	
  network,	
  to	
  support	
  
knowledge	
  sharing	
  between	
  individual	
  
labs.	
  
hXp://english.seoul.go.kr/policy-­‐informa1on/key-­‐policies/city-­‐ini1a1ves/4-­‐social-­‐innova1on/	
  
hXp://newurbanmechanics.org/boston	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
How	
  to	
  run	
  a	
  people–centred	
  smart	
  city	
  pilot	
  
____________________________	
  
2.	
  Use	
  open	
  data	
  and	
  open	
  plagorms	
  to	
  mobilize	
  collecLve	
  knowledge	
  
Support	
  open	
  source	
  collaboraLve	
  technologies,	
  such	
  as	
  those	
  developed	
  by	
  
OpenPlans,	
  rather	
  than	
  developing	
  proprietary	
  tools	
  from	
  scratch.	
  This	
  will	
  contribute	
  
to	
  the	
  crea1on	
  of	
  common	
  tools	
  that	
  all	
  ci1es	
  can	
  draw	
  on.	
  	
  
	
  
Open	
  up	
  problem	
  solving	
  to	
  ciLzens,	
  using	
  online	
  tools	
  that	
  let	
  people	
  debate	
  ideas	
  
and	
  decide	
  which	
  of	
  them	
  get	
  implemented	
  rather	
  than	
  simply	
  asking	
  for	
  sugges1ons.	
  
BeXer	
  Reykjavik	
  is	
  an	
  example	
  of	
  how	
  to	
  do	
  this.	
  	
  
	
  
Open	
  up	
  data	
  to	
  the	
  public	
  to	
  help	
  generate	
  innovaLve	
  soluLons	
  to	
  urban	
  challenges,	
  
but	
  pay	
  equal	
  aXen1on	
  to	
  finding	
  produc1ve	
  uses	
  for	
  the	
  data.	
  For	
  example,	
  the	
  Open	
  
Data	
  Challenges	
  bringing	
  businesses,	
  community	
  groups	
  and	
  city	
  governments	
  together	
  
to	
  develop	
  new	
  ways	
  of	
  using	
  city	
  data.	
  
	
  	
  
Involve	
  smaller	
  companies	
  and	
  civil	
  society	
  organisaLons	
  in	
  smart	
  city	
  pilots,	
  as	
  they	
  
are	
  oeen	
  behind	
  some	
  of	
  the	
  most	
  inspiring	
  digital	
  solu1ons.	
  The	
  UK’s	
  Small	
  Business	
  
Research	
  Ini1a1ve	
  (SBRI)	
  helps	
  small	
  innova1ve	
  companies	
  access	
  public	
  R&D	
  projects	
  
and	
  such	
  ini1a1ves	
  could	
  be	
  used	
  in	
  smart	
  city	
  pilots.	
  	
  
	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
How	
  to	
  run	
  a	
  people–centred	
  smart	
  city	
  pilot	
  
____________________________	
  
3.	
  Take	
  human	
  behaviour	
  as	
  seriously	
  as	
  technology	
  
	
  
The	
  smart	
  city	
  vision	
  olen	
  fails	
  to	
  recognise	
  the	
  role	
  that	
  behaviour	
  and	
  culture	
  play	
  
in	
  the	
  way	
  ciLes	
  work.	
  	
  
	
  
New	
  technologies	
  and	
  data	
  streams	
  will	
  only	
  be	
  beneficial	
  if	
  they	
  are	
  accompanied	
  by	
  
changes	
  in	
  culture	
  –	
  a	
  greater	
  willingness	
  to	
  engage	
  with	
  data,	
  incorporate	
  new	
  
technologies	
  into	
  tradiLonal	
  workflows	
  and	
  to	
  embrace	
  the	
  potenLal	
  of	
  ‘boXom–up’	
  
soluLons.	
  
	
  
Unsustainable	
  paXerns	
  of	
  living	
  –	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  heavy	
  use	
  of	
  resources	
  or	
  private	
  
transport	
  –	
  undermine	
  data	
  and	
  technology–led	
  efforts	
  to	
  make	
  ciLes	
  more	
  
sustainable.	
  	
  
	
  
Alongside	
  investments	
  in	
  hardware,	
  city	
  governments	
  should	
  promote	
  the	
  
collaboraLve	
  economy,	
  where	
  people	
  can	
  access	
  the	
  things	
  they	
  need,	
  but	
  only	
  
occasionally	
  use.	
  City	
  governments	
  should	
  look	
  to	
  the	
  example	
  of	
  Seoul,	
  which	
  has	
  
supported	
  a	
  range	
  of	
  collaboraLve	
  economy	
  iniLaLves.	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
How	
  to	
  run	
  a	
  people–centred	
  smart	
  city	
  pilot	
  
____________________________	
  
Peerby,	
  a	
  website	
  
and	
  app	
  that	
  
launched	
  in	
  2012	
  
to	
  enable	
  people	
  
to	
  request	
  and	
  
share	
  items	
  with	
  
their	
  neighbours.	
  	
  
	
  
The	
  company	
  has	
  
over	
  100,000	
  users	
  
a	
  month,	
  mainly	
  in	
  
Amsterdam,	
  
London,	
  Brussels	
  
and	
  Berlin.	
  	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
How	
  to	
  run	
  a	
  people–centred	
  smart	
  city	
  pilot	
  
____________________________	
  
BlockPooling,	
  a	
  
social	
  network	
  for	
  
communi1es	
  in	
  
Singapore,	
  set	
  up	
  in	
  
2013	
  with	
  a	
  grant	
  
from	
  the	
  
Government,	
  to	
  
enable	
  neighbours	
  
to	
  share	
  belongings	
  
and	
  offer	
  or	
  ask	
  for	
  
services.	
  	
  
	
  
The	
  service	
  has	
  the	
  
twin	
  goals	
  of	
  
strengthening	
  
communi1es	
  in	
  
Singapore	
  and	
  
making	
  more	
  
efficient	
  use	
  of	
  
resources.	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
How	
  to	
  run	
  a	
  people–centred	
  smart	
  city	
  pilot	
  
____________________________	
  
4.	
  Invest	
  in	
  smart	
  people,	
  not	
  just	
  smart	
  technology	
  
	
  
Without	
  the	
  ability	
  to	
  interpret	
  data	
  and	
  understand	
  how	
  and	
  why	
  it	
  is	
  
collected,	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  serious	
  risk	
  that	
  it	
  will	
  be	
  misinterpreted	
  or	
  ignored	
  by	
  
city	
  government	
  employees.	
  
	
  
City	
  governments	
  should	
  invest	
  in	
  training	
  to	
  give	
  all	
  staff	
  a	
  baseline	
  
understanding	
  of	
  data	
  handling	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  hiring	
  data	
  specialists	
  with	
  
advanced	
  skills.	
  
	
  
A	
  smart	
  ciLes	
  pilot	
  should	
  also	
  invest	
  in	
  digital	
  skills	
  for	
  ciLzens.	
  Successful	
  
programmes	
  include:	
  CoderDojo,	
  a	
  global	
  movement	
  of	
  community–based	
  
programming	
  clubs	
  for	
  young	
  people,	
  and	
  ‘hackathons’	
  organised	
  by	
  the	
  
Singapore	
  Government,	
  which	
  teach	
  people	
  how	
  to	
  use	
  open	
  data.	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
How	
  to	
  run	
  a	
  people–centred	
  smart	
  city	
  pilot	
  
____________________________	
  
5.	
  Spread	
  the	
  potenLal	
  of	
  collaboraLve	
  technologies	
  to	
  all	
  parts	
  of	
  
society	
  
	
  
Collabora1ve	
  technologies	
  require	
  connected	
  ci1zens.	
  However	
  not	
  
everyone	
  uses	
  a	
  smartphone,	
  has	
  internet	
  access	
  or	
  the	
  1me	
  to	
  engage	
  
with	
  their	
  city	
  governments.	
  	
  
	
  
Communi1es	
  that	
  are	
  underserved	
  by	
  these	
  technologies	
  are	
  usually	
  the	
  
elderly,	
  the	
  young,	
  the	
  sick	
  and	
  the	
  poor.	
  	
  
	
  
When	
  suppor1ng	
  and	
  pilo1ng	
  collabora1ve	
  technologies,	
  ci1es	
  should	
  
explore	
  ways	
  to	
  expand	
  their	
  poten1al	
  to	
  these	
  communi1es.	
  Working	
  
with	
  intermediaries	
  including	
  community	
  groups,	
  chari1es	
  and	
  NGOs	
  
could	
  be	
  one	
  way	
  to	
  do	
  this.	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
The	
  four	
  flaws	
  with	
  the	
  smart	
  city	
  vision	
  
___________________________	
  
StarLng	
  with	
  technology	
  rather	
  than	
  urban	
  challenges	
  
Work	
  on	
  smart	
  ci1es	
  oeen	
  begins	
  with	
  the	
  ques1on:	
  what	
  uses	
  can	
  be	
  found	
  for	
  cuang	
  edge	
  technologies?	
  This	
  is	
  
because	
  the	
  primary	
  goal	
  of	
  smart	
  city	
  pilots	
  is	
  oeen	
  economic	
  development:	
  suppor1ng	
  companies	
  to	
  create	
  and	
  
commercialise	
  technologies	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  sold	
  to	
  ci1es	
  around	
  the	
  world.	
  
	
  
Insufficient	
  use	
  or	
  generaLon	
  of	
  evidence	
  
Despite	
  the	
  huge	
  sums	
  invested	
  in	
  smart	
  ci1es	
  worldwide,	
  there	
  is	
  liXle	
  published	
  evidence	
  showing	
  that	
  the	
  solu1ons	
  
they	
  offer	
  help	
  ci1es	
  address	
  real–world	
  challenges.	
  Installing	
  sensors	
  on	
  infrastructure	
  throughout	
  the	
  city	
  or	
  using	
  
data	
  to	
  predict	
  traffic	
  paXerns	
  might	
  make	
  ci1es	
  more	
  efficient	
  and	
  sustainable.	
  Alterna1vely,	
  it	
  might	
  cost	
  more	
  than	
  it	
  
saves,	
  especially	
  when	
  maintenance	
  is	
  factored	
  in.	
  Ci1es	
  currently	
  have	
  no	
  clear	
  guidance	
  regarding	
  what	
  technologies	
  
to	
  invest	
  in,	
  and	
  this	
  will	
  remain	
  the	
  case	
  un1l	
  smart	
  city	
  pilots	
  start	
  sharing	
  their	
  findings.	
  
	
  
Lack	
  of	
  awareness	
  of	
  how	
  others	
  are	
  trying	
  to	
  improve	
  ciLes	
  
The	
  smart	
  ci1es	
  field	
  is	
  oeen	
  too	
  insular,	
  with	
  technologists	
  talking	
  to	
  each	
  other,	
  but	
  not	
  linking	
  to	
  the	
  work	
  that	
  
others	
  groups	
  are	
  doing	
  to	
  address	
  urban	
  challenges,	
  such	
  as	
  those	
  working	
  within	
  city	
  government	
  in	
  areas	
  from	
  
transport	
  and	
  planning	
  to	
  economic	
  development	
  and	
  public	
  par1cipa1on.	
  
	
  
LiXle	
  role	
  for	
  ciLzen	
  engagement	
  
Many	
  smart	
  city	
  strategies	
  offer	
  ci1zens	
  liXle	
  chance	
  to	
  engage	
  in	
  the	
  design	
  and	
  deployment	
  of	
  new	
  technologies.	
  
While	
  ci1zens	
  tend	
  to	
  be	
  the	
  implied	
  beneficiaries	
  of	
  smart	
  city	
  projects,	
  they	
  are	
  rarely	
  consulted	
  about	
  what	
  they	
  
want	
  and	
  their	
  ability	
  to	
  contribute	
  to	
  making	
  the	
  city	
  work	
  beXer	
  is	
  oeen	
  ignored.	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
 
Lessons	
  for	
  city	
  governments	
  	
  
___________________________	
  
Implement	
  websites	
  and	
  apps	
  that	
  allow	
  ci1zens	
  to	
  send	
  feedback	
  and	
  report	
  
issues	
  to	
  the	
  city	
  government.	
  Keep	
  in	
  mind	
  that	
  ci1zens	
  will	
  quickly	
  become	
  
disengaged	
  if	
  they	
  feel	
  their	
  input	
  is	
  being	
  ignored.	
  To	
  make	
  sure	
  this	
  doesn’t	
  
happen,	
  ci1es	
  should	
  develop	
  feedback	
  func1ons	
  in	
  their	
  repor1ng	
  apps.	
  
	
  	
  
Explore	
  ways	
  to	
  crowdsource	
  data	
  from	
  social	
  media	
  as	
  a	
  supplement	
  to	
  city–wide	
  
sensing	
  networks.	
  Successful	
  examples	
  include	
  PetaJakarta’s	
  crowdsourced	
  flood	
  
map.	
  
	
  	
  
People	
  that	
  engage	
  are	
  usually	
  the	
  most	
  affluent,	
  educated	
  and	
  connected	
  
segment	
  of	
  a	
  city’s	
  popula1on.	
  
	
  
More	
  experimenta1on	
  and	
  evidence	
  is	
  needed	
  to	
  iden1fy	
  the	
  best	
  ways	
  to	
  
increase	
  par1cipa1on	
  from	
  a	
  broader	
  group	
  of	
  ci1zens	
  that	
  are	
  more	
  
representa1ve	
  of	
  the	
  whole	
  community.	
  
	
  
The	
  use	
  of	
  these	
  technologies	
  alone	
  is	
  not	
  enough.	
  The	
  difficult	
  work	
  is	
  not	
  
crea1ng	
  the	
  technology	
  but	
  incorpora1ng	
  it	
  into	
  their	
  exis1ng	
  workflow.	
  	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  	
  	
  
Crowdsourcing	
  
Smart	
  Ci1es	
  
______________	
  
Olga	
  Gil	
  
	
  
Ciudades	
  Inteligentes	
  
Construídas	
  con	
  ciudadanos	
  
______________	
  
@OlgaG	
  
olgagil@olgagil.es	
  
	
  
Thank	
  you	
  

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Smart Cities, Made by Citizens

  • 1. Crowdsourcing   Smart  Ci1es   ______________   Olga  Gil       Ciudades  Inteligentes   Construídas  con  ciudadanos   @OlgaG   olgagil@olgagil.es    
  • 2. INDEX   ____________________________   Mapping   Water   Car  Sharing   Appliances  and  Gadgets  Sharing   Crowdfixing  UK   City  Management  Apps  Beijing   Crowdmaking  Policy   CrowdbudgeLng  and  Opening  up  Decision  Making   Planning   Traffic  Management   Rethinking  ciLes  with  the  ciLzens   How  to  run  a  people–centred  smart  city  pilot   The  four  flaws  with  the  smart  city  vision   Lessons  for  city  governments     Olga  Gil      
  • 3.   Mapping…  i.e.  urban  flooding  and  air  polluLon   ____________________________   Olga  Gil      
  • 4.   Mapping   ____________________________   •  People  are  using  digital   technology  to  measure  and   map  their  ciLes.     •  Individuals  and  community   groups  can  use  low–cost  kits   and  upload  the  data  to   create  crowdsourced  maps.     •  This  data  could  be  used  to   supplement  professional   networks  in  the  near  future.   Olga  Gil      
  • 5.   Water   ____________________________    A  real–  Lme  map  of  flooding  in  the  city  created  by  crowdsourcing   flood  reports  from  TwiXer.   Olga  Gil      
  • 6.   Car  Sharing   ____________________________   In  Seoul,  South  Korea,  the  city   government  is  helping  residents   make  beXer  use  of  the  things   they  own  with  the  Sharing  City   Seoul  iniLaLve.   hXps://www.socar.kr   Olga  Gil      
  • 7.   Appliances  and  Gadgets  Sharing   ____________________________   In  Seoul,  South  Korea,  the  city   government  is  helping  residents   make  beXer  use  of  the  things   they  own  with  the  Sharing  City   Seoul  iniLaLve.   hXp://billiji.com   Olga  Gil      
  • 8.   Crowdfixing  UK     ____________________________   Residents  can  use   the  app  to  report   issues  such  as   broken  streetlights   and  potholes  to  the   city  governments.   hXps://www.fixmystreet.com     Olga  Gil      
  • 9.   City  Management  Apps  Beijing     ____________________________   In  2012  Beijing  launches  new  city  management  app:  Beijing  Bureau  of  City  Administra1on  and  Law   Enforcement  launched  an  iPhone  applica1on  that  allow  residents  of  the  city  to  par1cipate  through  a   mobile  plaJorm,  Song  Gang,  the  bureau’s  Director  of  Informa1on  Systems  and  Equipment  Services.     The  Bureau’s  law  enforcement  responsibili1es  cover  a  wide  spectrum:  environment  management,  river   management,  pollu1on  control,  sanita1on,  street  vendor  management,  outdoor  adver1sement,  car  park   management,  dispute  resolu1on  and  ‘low-­‐level  crimes’.  All  of  these  are  closely  related  to  the  daily  life   and  livelihood  of  the  20  million  residents  in  the  metropolis.     The  app,  called  “I  love  Beijing”  (我爱北京),  is  an  extension  of  the  GIS-­‐based  integrated  service  plaJorm   (hXp://map.bjcg.gov.cn).  Both  channels  allow  residents  to  locate  nearby  city  administra1on  agencies  and   law  enforcers,  correct  errors  in  GIS  map,  make  complaints  and  reports,  as  well  as  provide  advices  and   sugges1ons.       The  Bureau  has  established  a  three  1er  structure  for  city  management  and  law  enforcement  covering  the   municipal,  district  and  neighbourhood  levels.  It  has  also  built  close  working  rela1onships  among  frontline   law  enforcement  agents,  neighbourhood  offices  and  resident  councils.  This  is  integrated  with  the  web   (and  now  mobile)  engagement  channel  as  well  as  a  hotline.  The  aim  is  “to  ensure  that  the  city  is   ul1mately  managed  by  the  residents  themselves.”     Allows  to  include  informa1on  on  informal  markets  with  opening  1mes,  new  markets  and  what  type  of   goods  they  sell.       Olga  Gil      
  • 10.   Crowdmaking   Policy     ____________________________  BeXer  Reykjavik   enables  ciLzens  to   voice,  debate  and   prioriLze  ideas  to   improve  their  city,   creaLng  open   discourse  between   community   members  and  city   council  and  also   giving  the  voters  a   direct  influence  on   decision  making.   hXps:// betrireykjavik.is   Olga  Gil      
  • 11.   CrowdbudgeLng   ____________________________   In  Paris,  ‘Madame   Mayor,  I  have  an  idea’   is  a  crowdsourcing  and   parLcipatory   budgeLng  process  that   lets  ciLzens  propose   and  vote  on  ideas  for   projects  in  Paris.  The   process  will  allocate   500m  Euros  between   2014  and  2020.   hXps:// idee.paris.fr/   Opening  up  decission  making   Olga  Gil      
  • 12.   Planning   ____________________________     In  Bangalore,  local  NGO   the  MOD  InsLtute   enabled  residents   to  create  a  community   vision  for  the  future  of   the  Shanthingar   neighbourhood  of  the   city  by  encouraging   online  debate.       hXp:// www.mod.org.in   Bringing  people  into  the  planning  process   Olga  Gil      
  • 13.   Traffic  management   ____________________________     In  Jakarta,  residents  can   use  TwiXer  to  organise   shared  car  journeys  to   work.   Jakarta   hXps://twiXer.com/nebengers   Olga  Gil      
  • 14.   Traffic  management   ____________________________     In  Jakarta,  the   Nebengers  TwiXer   account  has  83,000   followers  and  re– Tweets  1,000   requests  for  ride   shares  each  day.  This   could  contribute  to   easing  traffic  woes  in   the  city  if  the   plagorm  conLnues   to  grow.   Jakarta   hXp://www.nebengers.com   Olga  Gil      
  • 15.   Rethinking  ciLes  with  the  ciLzens   ____________________________   How  can  ciLes  effecLvely  harness  the  power  of  ciLzens  through   digital  technologies?     Four  emerging  methods  are  helping  city  governments  to  do  this,   powered  by:       •  the  growing  ubiquity  of  smartphones,     •  the  increasing  preference  for  online  transacLons,     •  the  emergence  of  low–cost  hardware  and  peer–to–peer   technologies.   Olga  Gil      
  • 16.   Rethinking  ciLes  with  the  ciLzens   ____________________________   •  The  collaboraLve  economy:       ConnecLng  distributed  groups  of  people,   using  the  internet  and  digital  technologies,  to   make  beXer  use  of  goods,  skills  and  space.       This  is  important  in  ciLes  where  resources,   parLcularly  space,  are  limited.   Four  emerging  methods     Olga  Gil      
  • 17.   Rethinking  ciLes  with  the  ciLzens   ____________________________   •  Crowdsourcing  data:       People  can  use  low–cost  sensors  to  measure  and   create  crowdsourced  maps  of  their  environments.     City  governments  can  crowdsource  data  from  social   media  sites  and  sensors  in  mobile  phones,  as  a   supplement  to  city–wide  Internet  of  Things   networks.   Four  emerging  methods     Olga  Gil      
  • 18.   Rethinking  ciLes  with  the  ciLzens   ____________________________   •  CollecLve  intelligence:       Decision  making  and  problem  solving  are  usually  lel   to  experts,  yet  ciLzens  know  a  huge  amount  about   their  ciLes.       New  digital  tools  make  it  easier  for  people  to  get   involved  in  policymaking,  planning  and  budgeLng,   and  this  could  help  ciLes  make  smarter  and  more   democraLc  decisions.   Four  emerging  methods     Olga  Gil      
  • 19.   Rethinking  ciLes  with  the  ciLzens   ____________________________   •  Crowdfunding:       People  can  connect  with  each  other  online  to   collaboraLvely  fund  community  projects  and  city   governments  can  use  crowdfunding  to  make   spending  decisions  that  more  accurately  reflect  the   needs  and  wishes  of  ciLzens.     Four  emerging  methods     Olga  Gil      
  • 20.   Rethinking  ciLes  with  the  ciLzens   ____________________________   •  The  collaboraLve  economy     •  Crowdsourcing  data     •  CollecLve  intelligence     •  Crowdfunding   Four  emerging  methods     Olga  Gil      
  • 21.   How  to  run  a  people–centred  smart  city  pilot   ____________________________   1.  Set  up  a  civic  innovaLon  lab  to   drive  innovaLon  in  collaboraLve   technologies   Primary  goal  should  be  genera1ng   evidence  about  which  models  can  most   effec1vely  harness  the  power  of   collabora1ve  technologies–  an  area  of   work  that  is  currently  underdeveloped.       Examples:   The  Seoul  Innova1on  Bureau   Boston  Mayor’s  Office  of  New  Urban   Mechanics  (MONUM),  two  examples  of   how  a  civic  innova1on  lab  could  work.         Na1onal  governments  should  also  consider   seang  up  a  civic  labs  network,  to  support   knowledge  sharing  between  individual   labs.   hXp://english.seoul.go.kr/policy-­‐informa1on/key-­‐policies/city-­‐ini1a1ves/4-­‐social-­‐innova1on/   hXp://newurbanmechanics.org/boston   Olga  Gil      
  • 22.   How  to  run  a  people–centred  smart  city  pilot   ____________________________   2.  Use  open  data  and  open  plagorms  to  mobilize  collecLve  knowledge   Support  open  source  collaboraLve  technologies,  such  as  those  developed  by   OpenPlans,  rather  than  developing  proprietary  tools  from  scratch.  This  will  contribute   to  the  crea1on  of  common  tools  that  all  ci1es  can  draw  on.       Open  up  problem  solving  to  ciLzens,  using  online  tools  that  let  people  debate  ideas   and  decide  which  of  them  get  implemented  rather  than  simply  asking  for  sugges1ons.   BeXer  Reykjavik  is  an  example  of  how  to  do  this.       Open  up  data  to  the  public  to  help  generate  innovaLve  soluLons  to  urban  challenges,   but  pay  equal  aXen1on  to  finding  produc1ve  uses  for  the  data.  For  example,  the  Open   Data  Challenges  bringing  businesses,  community  groups  and  city  governments  together   to  develop  new  ways  of  using  city  data.       Involve  smaller  companies  and  civil  society  organisaLons  in  smart  city  pilots,  as  they   are  oeen  behind  some  of  the  most  inspiring  digital  solu1ons.  The  UK’s  Small  Business   Research  Ini1a1ve  (SBRI)  helps  small  innova1ve  companies  access  public  R&D  projects   and  such  ini1a1ves  could  be  used  in  smart  city  pilots.       Olga  Gil      
  • 23.   How  to  run  a  people–centred  smart  city  pilot   ____________________________   3.  Take  human  behaviour  as  seriously  as  technology     The  smart  city  vision  olen  fails  to  recognise  the  role  that  behaviour  and  culture  play   in  the  way  ciLes  work.       New  technologies  and  data  streams  will  only  be  beneficial  if  they  are  accompanied  by   changes  in  culture  –  a  greater  willingness  to  engage  with  data,  incorporate  new   technologies  into  tradiLonal  workflows  and  to  embrace  the  potenLal  of  ‘boXom–up’   soluLons.     Unsustainable  paXerns  of  living  –  such  as  the  heavy  use  of  resources  or  private   transport  –  undermine  data  and  technology–led  efforts  to  make  ciLes  more   sustainable.       Alongside  investments  in  hardware,  city  governments  should  promote  the   collaboraLve  economy,  where  people  can  access  the  things  they  need,  but  only   occasionally  use.  City  governments  should  look  to  the  example  of  Seoul,  which  has   supported  a  range  of  collaboraLve  economy  iniLaLves.   Olga  Gil      
  • 24.   How  to  run  a  people–centred  smart  city  pilot   ____________________________   Peerby,  a  website   and  app  that   launched  in  2012   to  enable  people   to  request  and   share  items  with   their  neighbours.       The  company  has   over  100,000  users   a  month,  mainly  in   Amsterdam,   London,  Brussels   and  Berlin.     Olga  Gil      
  • 25.   How  to  run  a  people–centred  smart  city  pilot   ____________________________   BlockPooling,  a   social  network  for   communi1es  in   Singapore,  set  up  in   2013  with  a  grant   from  the   Government,  to   enable  neighbours   to  share  belongings   and  offer  or  ask  for   services.       The  service  has  the   twin  goals  of   strengthening   communi1es  in   Singapore  and   making  more   efficient  use  of   resources.   Olga  Gil      
  • 26.   How  to  run  a  people–centred  smart  city  pilot   ____________________________   4.  Invest  in  smart  people,  not  just  smart  technology     Without  the  ability  to  interpret  data  and  understand  how  and  why  it  is   collected,  there  is  a  serious  risk  that  it  will  be  misinterpreted  or  ignored  by   city  government  employees.     City  governments  should  invest  in  training  to  give  all  staff  a  baseline   understanding  of  data  handling  as  well  as  hiring  data  specialists  with   advanced  skills.     A  smart  ciLes  pilot  should  also  invest  in  digital  skills  for  ciLzens.  Successful   programmes  include:  CoderDojo,  a  global  movement  of  community–based   programming  clubs  for  young  people,  and  ‘hackathons’  organised  by  the   Singapore  Government,  which  teach  people  how  to  use  open  data.   Olga  Gil      
  • 27.   How  to  run  a  people–centred  smart  city  pilot   ____________________________   5.  Spread  the  potenLal  of  collaboraLve  technologies  to  all  parts  of   society     Collabora1ve  technologies  require  connected  ci1zens.  However  not   everyone  uses  a  smartphone,  has  internet  access  or  the  1me  to  engage   with  their  city  governments.       Communi1es  that  are  underserved  by  these  technologies  are  usually  the   elderly,  the  young,  the  sick  and  the  poor.       When  suppor1ng  and  pilo1ng  collabora1ve  technologies,  ci1es  should   explore  ways  to  expand  their  poten1al  to  these  communi1es.  Working   with  intermediaries  including  community  groups,  chari1es  and  NGOs   could  be  one  way  to  do  this.   Olga  Gil      
  • 28.   The  four  flaws  with  the  smart  city  vision   ___________________________   StarLng  with  technology  rather  than  urban  challenges   Work  on  smart  ci1es  oeen  begins  with  the  ques1on:  what  uses  can  be  found  for  cuang  edge  technologies?  This  is   because  the  primary  goal  of  smart  city  pilots  is  oeen  economic  development:  suppor1ng  companies  to  create  and   commercialise  technologies  that  can  be  sold  to  ci1es  around  the  world.     Insufficient  use  or  generaLon  of  evidence   Despite  the  huge  sums  invested  in  smart  ci1es  worldwide,  there  is  liXle  published  evidence  showing  that  the  solu1ons   they  offer  help  ci1es  address  real–world  challenges.  Installing  sensors  on  infrastructure  throughout  the  city  or  using   data  to  predict  traffic  paXerns  might  make  ci1es  more  efficient  and  sustainable.  Alterna1vely,  it  might  cost  more  than  it   saves,  especially  when  maintenance  is  factored  in.  Ci1es  currently  have  no  clear  guidance  regarding  what  technologies   to  invest  in,  and  this  will  remain  the  case  un1l  smart  city  pilots  start  sharing  their  findings.     Lack  of  awareness  of  how  others  are  trying  to  improve  ciLes   The  smart  ci1es  field  is  oeen  too  insular,  with  technologists  talking  to  each  other,  but  not  linking  to  the  work  that   others  groups  are  doing  to  address  urban  challenges,  such  as  those  working  within  city  government  in  areas  from   transport  and  planning  to  economic  development  and  public  par1cipa1on.     LiXle  role  for  ciLzen  engagement   Many  smart  city  strategies  offer  ci1zens  liXle  chance  to  engage  in  the  design  and  deployment  of  new  technologies.   While  ci1zens  tend  to  be  the  implied  beneficiaries  of  smart  city  projects,  they  are  rarely  consulted  about  what  they   want  and  their  ability  to  contribute  to  making  the  city  work  beXer  is  oeen  ignored.   Olga  Gil      
  • 29.   Lessons  for  city  governments     ___________________________   Implement  websites  and  apps  that  allow  ci1zens  to  send  feedback  and  report   issues  to  the  city  government.  Keep  in  mind  that  ci1zens  will  quickly  become   disengaged  if  they  feel  their  input  is  being  ignored.  To  make  sure  this  doesn’t   happen,  ci1es  should  develop  feedback  func1ons  in  their  repor1ng  apps.       Explore  ways  to  crowdsource  data  from  social  media  as  a  supplement  to  city–wide   sensing  networks.  Successful  examples  include  PetaJakarta’s  crowdsourced  flood   map.       People  that  engage  are  usually  the  most  affluent,  educated  and  connected   segment  of  a  city’s  popula1on.     More  experimenta1on  and  evidence  is  needed  to  iden1fy  the  best  ways  to   increase  par1cipa1on  from  a  broader  group  of  ci1zens  that  are  more   representa1ve  of  the  whole  community.     The  use  of  these  technologies  alone  is  not  enough.  The  difficult  work  is  not   crea1ng  the  technology  but  incorpora1ng  it  into  their  exis1ng  workflow.     Olga  Gil      
  • 30. Crowdsourcing   Smart  Ci1es   ______________   Olga  Gil     Ciudades  Inteligentes   Construídas  con  ciudadanos   ______________   @OlgaG   olgagil@olgagil.es     Thank  you