SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 80
welcome to dance history.
sydney skybetter | skybetter@nyu.edu | @sydneyskybetter
everyone has an angle.
History is not objective. Also: my French pronunciation sucks.
let’s just say it starts with
Catherine de Medici.
(1519-1589)



✤   Italian born, married into the
    French court.

✤   Murdered over 70,000
    Huguenots.

✤   Rumored to have eaten babies.

✤   Initiated the development of
    ballet.
Ballet de Polonais (1573)
✤   Catherine de Medici figured-dance showpiece to celebrate the coronation of her son.

✤   Featured dance stylings of Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx.
Ballet Comique
de la Reine Louise
(1581)

✤   Beaujoyeulx appropriated
    mythological themes to
    affirm Henry III’s throne.
✤   The work was a fracking
    spectacle the likes of
    which the world had
    never seen: it had a
    unified aesthetic and plot.
✤   Featured a palace, a
    garden, a townscape, a
    groto, an organ, a gilded
    vault, numerous chariots
    and floats.
slouching towards Louis XIV.

  ✤   Catherine de Medici



                ✤   Henry III (son of Catherine)




                                ✤   Louis XIII (son of Henry III)




                                                    ✤   Louis XIV (son of Louis XIII)
Ballet de la Nuit (1653)
✤   Debuts a 14 year-old Louis XIV as Apollo the sun king (le roi soleil),
    featuring music by Jean-Baptiste Lully.

✤   12 hour work featuring 45 entrees, including beggars, werewolves,
    cripples, shepherds, Venus, Diana, three ballets-within-a-ballet, a
    demonic sabbath, monkeys, and a burning house.
Pierre
Beauchamp

✤   Born into family of French
    dancing masters.

✤   Dancing master to Louis XIV.

✤   Invented Beauchamp–Feuillet
    notation, and codified the five
    balletic positions.

✤   Lead dancing master of the The
    Académie Royale de Danse.
Jean Baptiste
Lully

✤   Born Italian citizen, became a
    court dancer to Louis XIV, then
    promoted to premier composer
    and producer.

✤   Stabbed himself in the foot
    with a baton. Died of gangrene.
    It was awful.
Molière

✤   Introduced an intermediary
    form between the court ballet
    and the proscenium ballet
    called the comedies-ballet.

✤   Oft writerly collaborator of
    Lully and Beauchamp.

✤   Died in a fit of tuberculotic
    irony, and had a lung
    hemorrhage while acting the
    role of a hypochondriac on
    stage.
This is kinda what it all looked like.


     ✤   (From Le Roi Danse, directed by Gérard Corbiau.)
towards the proscenium...
✤   With more dancing masters graduating from the Academie Royale de
    Danse, a professional class of dance artists emerged, and the technical
    distance between the “amateur” and “professional” started to grew.

✤   Figured dancing lost favor towards individual athleticism and
    virtuosity.
towards the proscenium...
✤   Louis XIV stopped dancing in 1670, per his incredible corpulence, and
    the era of the court ballet in the halls of power was over.

✤   Professionals take performance roles, and a new dancerly spectatorship
    emerges that distinguishes between watcher and watchee.

✤   WWSFS? (What Would Susan Foster Say?)
Académie Royale de Danse (1661)
✤   Inaugerated a new class of professional dancers, eventually becoming
    the Paris Opéra.
genealogy of
ballerina drama
✤   Françoise Prévost, a dancer with
    Louis XIV and star of the Paris
    Opéra, originates Les Caractères de la
    Danse (Types of the Dance, 1726).
    Effectively the death of court ballet.

✤   Plot: Soloist enacts a rococo plot
    involving a shepherd, the god
    amour, etc, to all and sundry
    “popular” music.

✤   Prévost taught the solo to Marie
    Camargo and Marie Sallé while they
    were students at the Opéra, and
    they all hated each other.
Marie Camargo
(1710-1770)
✤   Brilliant technician who took scissors to
    her skirt so that her cabrioles would be
    more visible. After decades of very, very,
    very conservative “costuming,” this is a
    revolution in performance garb.

✤   Invented caleçons de precaution (“panties
    of precaution”), a precursor to the tutu.

✤   Paved the way for petit allegro.
Marie Sallé
    (1707-1756)
✤   In contrast to Camargo, Sallé was a
    brilliant actress and mime that brought
    characters alive within a dancerly
    context.

✤   Dared to perform without a pannier,
    skirt, or bodice, but controversially
    performed her Pygmalion (1734) in a
    “Greek” tunic for the sake of realism.

✤   Anticipated Noverre’s balletic reforms
    and theatrical conventions to come.

✤   Because of her non-conformance with
    gender norms, she was accused of
    frigidity, among other things.
Noverre and
    Ballet d’Action
✤   Salle’s Pygmalion was
    performed all over Europe,
    including by a young Jean-
    Georges Noverre (1727-1810).

✤   Took Salle’s work as a guide,
    and wrote “Letters on Dancing
    and Ballets,” a popular dance
    manual.

✤   Took over the Paris Opéra in
    1776, an appointee of Marie
    Antoinette.
"Destroy the masks and
                                                     we shall gain a soul!"




The No(verre) Manifesto (Ballet d’Action)
✤   No to masques! Let the dancers be expressive.

✤   No to insane plots! Stage action should be logical and coherent. 

✤   No to independent collaborators! All artistic personnel should work
    together.

✤   No to tonnelets! Costumes should be sensible and timely.
et cetera.

  ✤   Noverre


                                ✤   Gaétan Vestris (danced with
                                    Noverre, helped popularize his
                                    ideas. First to dance w/out mask.)


                ✤   Jean Dauberval (pupil of      ✤   Auguste Vestris (“God of the
                    Noverre, and took over            Dance,” was a lead dancer at the
                    the Paris Opéra with...)          Paris Opéra for almost 40 years).




                    ✤   Maximilien Gardel (Soloist at the
                        Opéra...)
Dauberval

✤   Left the Paris Opéra for Grand
    Théâtre de Bordeaux in 1789.

✤   Choreographed La Fille Mal
    Gardée two weeks before the
    storming of the Bastille.

✤   Incorporated “peasant” dress
    and folk steps with balletic
    technique.
La Fille Mal
    Gardée


✤   Plot: Girl loves boy. Girl’s
    mother attempts to arrange
    marriage with some other rich
    boy. There are histrionics and
    chicken dances. Also: a happy
    ending.
This is not the original La Fille Mal Gardée, like,
at all. But you get the idea.


         ✤   (Choreography by Alicia Alonso after Dauberval,
             with Ballet National de Cuba.)
revolutionary war sucks for dance.




✤   Pierre Gardel (Maximilien’s brother, 1758- 1840) takes over at the Opéra,
    and produces all sorts of patriotic tripe.

✤   On the plus side, there is a forced departure from aristocratic
    conventions and support, leading us to....
ROMANTICISM!




✤   Ballet starts appropriating from other art forms, including (but
    definitely not limited to) Romantic poetry and literature.

✤   Notion of “romanticism” is at odds with the notion of
    enlightenment / aristocratic rationalization of everything. Think
    chaos and strong feeling versus order and refinement.

✤   Preoccupation of the exotic, oriental “other” and women as
    supernatural characters.
La Sylphide (1832)
    (is not Les Sylphides)

✤    First major romantic ballet.

✤    Choreographed by Filippo
     Taglioni, with his daughter Marie
     Taglioni in the lead.

✤    Plot: Scottish (exotic!) farmer
     (James) falls in love with a magical
     sylph (magical!) on the morning of
     his wedding (irony!). Farmer
     chases sylph. Evil witch gives
     farmer scarf to trap sylph. Scarf
     kills sylph. Farmer’s fiancee
     marries best friend (twist!). Evil
     triumphs.
This is the La Sylphide by Bournonville... It’s the
only version that survived... apologies...


         ✤   (Erik Bruhn & Carla Fracci from 1962)
Marie Taglioni
✤   - Her "style" of ballet is called
    "Danse Ballonné," characterized
    by lightness and leaps.

✤   - Characterized by Théophile
    Gautier (writer, defender of
    Romanticism) as the "Christian"
    dancer.

✤   Trained daily by her father, who
    was arguably the first truly
    sadistic ballet master.

✤   Brought dance en pointe to new
    levels of artistry.
Fanny Elssler
(GASP! A RIVALRY!)

✤
    Brought to the Opéra to be a foil
    to Marie Taglioni in 1834.

✤   Originates a solo called “La
    Cacucha” (a “Spanish” dance
    with tight footwork). On the
    basis of its success, then
    appropriates wildly from Poland
    and Italy.

✤   Dubbed the “Pagan” dancer by
    Gautier.
enter Giselle (1841)




✤   Libretto by Gautier, choreography by Perrot (Grisi’s husband) and Coralli
    (resident ballet master), with Giselle played by Carlotta Grisi. (GASP! A RIVALRY!)

✤   Plot: Peasant girl falls in love with nobleman in peasant drag (Albrecht). Girl
    discovers his secret, goes #&$%ing crazy and kills herself. Girl becomes a willi
    who, unlike her bloodsucking fiend friends doesn’t hate men. Girl saves boy’s life
    from dance to death.
Why are the willis
trying to murder me?

✤   Per the stories of Heinrich
    Heine (source material for
    Giselle) willis are the spirits of
    virgin girls who die before they
    get married, enjoy dancing
    naked in town squares, and
    sucking the blood of young
    men.

✤   Just so we’re clear: the willis
    are sexually frustrated, angry
    virgin vampires.
Terrible video quality, but here’s Alicia Alonso
explaining Giselle’s mad scene.


          ✤   (Giselle, choreographed by Alicia Alonso after Perrot
              and Coralli.)
The willis in full man-killing force, tossing
Hilarion into a lake.


          ✤   (Kirov Ballet’s Giselle, choreographed by Petipa.)
Things get transnational.
    ✤    Alumni of the Opéra            ✤   August Bournonville (studied
         go abroad, and Paris’
                                            under Auguste Vestris at the
         dominance in ballet
                                            Opéra) takes over the Royal
         is challenged.
                                            Danish Ballet. Opa! Bournonville
                                            technique.

                                        ✤   His La Sylphide (1836) is one of the
✤       Charles Didelot (studied            canonical works of romantic
        under Noverre and                   ballet.
        Dauberval at the Opéra) and
        takes over the Imperial
        Ballet. Opa! Russian balletic
        tradition.

✤       His Flore et Zephyr (1796)
        used wires to fly ballerinas
        across the stage... Think
        Streb in Russia. (Kirstein,
        136)
The Franco Prussian war sucks for dance.




✤   The Paris Opéra is shut down around 1870 as Germany bombs France. Yet in Russia, a stable monarchic
    power remains in the hands of the tzars, and Didelot, Elssler, Taglioni (anybody who was anybody)
    dances there eventually.

✤   Prevalence of women-centered ballets decreases male performers and roles, often resulting in balletic
    “girlie” shows. On the plus side, less lethal stage lighting!

✤   Digression: Business models of dance; aristocratic support versus prostitution?
Marius Petipa and the Über-Classical Ballet.




✤   Marius Petipa (danced with Vestris in Bordeaux) moved to St. Petersburg in
    1847. Takes over the Imperial School at St. Petersburg in 1849.

✤   Created the contemporary notion of a “classical” ballet, with its emphasis on
    order and form (over emotion), pas de deux structure (pas, male variation,
    female variation, coda), and divertissements.
Sleeping Beauty (1890)

✤   Choreography by Petipa, with music
    by Tchaikovsky.

✤   Plot: Princess Aurora is cursed by
    the witch Carabosse to die. Lilac
    fairy commutes sentence to sleeping
    for 100 years until a prince kisses
    her. There is sleeping. Then Prince
    Désiré (subtle, no?) is hunting with
    his dude friends when the Lilac fairy
    reveals Aurora. There is kissing, a
    marriage, and lots of caractère
    dancing.
Entrance and Rose Adagio from Sleeping Beauty


         ✤   Margot Fonteyn performing with The Royal Ballet,
             with choreography by Petipa.
La Bayadère (1877)
✤   Choreography by Petipa, with music
    by Minkus.

✤   Plot: “Indian” temple dancer
    (Nikiya) loves “Indian” warrior
    (Solor). The lead “Brahmin” loves
    Nikiya... intrigues ensue... Nikiya is
    bitten by a snake... dies... Solor takes
    some opium, dreams of Nikiya, and
    is about to marry another woman
    when the “Gods” kill everyone.
    Nikiya and Solor are reunited in
    death.

✤   Blackface.
Solor’s Variation from La Bayadère


          ✤   Baryshnikov’s Gold Medal winning performance at
              the Moscow International Ballet Competition.
Nikiya’s Death from La Bayadère


         ✤   Choreography by Nureyev after Petipa, at the Paris
             Opéra.

         ✤   Anyone else reminded of Giselle? Also: note that the
             sets look like Louis XIV’s...
Swan Lake
    (1895, redux)
✤   Choreography by Petipa and Ivanov
    (second balletmaster in the Imperial Ballet),
    music by Tchaikovsky.

✤   Plot: Boy (Prince Siegfried) goes huntin’ for
    swans with his dude friend Benno. A swan
    (Odette) turns into a girl, and boy falls in
    love. To break swan spell, he has to marry
    her. Boy is pressured into marriage by his
    mother, and Odile (who he confuses for
    Odette due to the evil Rothbart) does many
    fouettés. He declares love to the wrong
    woman. Drama drama drama. Odette and
    Siegfried throw themselvs in a lake. Plus
    side: united in life after death.
and then there’s
    the queer angle...

✤   Many, many queer readings of Swan Lake.
    Even though this originates from a time
    before “homosexuality” existed,
    Tchaikovsky felt cursed by his
    “buggeromania,” and he (and his
    collaborators) were variously obsessed with
    the totally insane / gay Bavarian king
    Ludwig II, who in turn, was obsessed with
    swans. And so on.
but PS...



✤   Petipa was the first to choreograph 32
    fouettés, executed by rock star Pierina
    Legnani.
Pas de Quatre (primo classicism)
from Swan Lake


        ✤   American Ballet Theater performing choreography
            by Ivanov and Petipa.
Black Swan Pas de Deux


        ✤   Choreography by Alicia Alonso, after Petipa, on the
            Ballet Nacional de Cuba.

        ✤   PS- Alonso was nearly blind by the time was
            recorded.
Enter Михаил Михайлович Фокин! (Fokine.)




✤   Had radical notions of ballet, and you’ve heard them all before:
    - No to needless spectacle.
    - No needless tutus or pointe shoes.
    - No needless fouettés. Characters move how they “should” move.
    (Note: fine for swans. Little more problematic for people of color.)

✤   Danced under Petipa, but not for long....
Excerpt from from The Dying Swan (1907)


         ✤   Pavlova performing choreography by Fokine.

         ✤   Note post-Swan Lake queer resonances and reduced
             “story.”
Diaghilev
    hold on to your queer hats.
✤   Aesthete aristocrat who worked
    at the Imperial Theater,
    “discovered” Fokine, and invited
    him to become the lead
    choreographer of his new
    venture, the Ballets Russes.

✤   Sought imperial funding, but
    upon being denied, sought
    funding from wealthy
    individuals. One of the first
    historical dance companies to
    have an individual donor
    program. (Digression: business
    models + the male image.)
Diaghilev
    hold on to your queer hats.


✤   Drew on the Wagnerian notion
    of gesamtkunstwerk, signifying
    the collaboration and unification
    of all artistic collaborators.
    (Noverre anyone?)

✤
    Brought the young company
    (featuring Nijinsky, Karasavina,
    and Pavlova) to Paris in 1909,
    where ballet had been a
    backwater for 100 years.
Schéhérazade (1910)


✤   Choreographed by Fokine, with
    music by Rimsky-Korsakov.

✤   Plot: A “shah’s” wife falls for her
    “negro” Golden Slave. Orgies and
    sexy massacres ensue. 

✤   Nijinsky is a big golden hunk of
    meat. The audience’s “gaze” is
    queered.
Schéhérazade
        ✤   Choreography by Fokine, on dancers from the
            Mariinsky and Bolshoi Ballets.

        ✤   PS- Note: the intercourse in the background is not the
            conversational kind.

        ✤   Note the diminishment of codified balletic technique,
            (yet later there is figured dancing and fouettés?)
Petroucha (1912)
✤   Choreographed by Fokine, with
    music by Stravinsky. (Kirstein,
    194)

✤   Plot: Magician (Cecchetti) has
    three puppets: the pathetic
    Petrouchka (Nijinksky), a
    ballerina (Karasavina) and a
    “moor” (Orlov). Petrouchka loves
    the Ballerina, but is killed by the
    moor, and then haunts the
    magician. 

✤   Read: Petrouchka as Nijinsky,
    magician as Diaghliev.

✤   Blackface.
Petrushka (with extra sambo action)


Petrushka (part deux)

         ✤   Choreography by Fokine, and starring Nureyev.

         ✤   PS: Silly sambo thinks the coconut is a god!
             Hahahahaha!
Le Spectre de la Rose
(1911)
✤   Choreographed by Fokine, music
    by Stravinsky, libretto by
    Gautier. (Remember him?)

✤   Plot: A young girl (Karasavina)
    returns home from a ball with a
    rose given to her by an admirer.
    The spirit of the rose (Nijinsky)
    does a dance as she falls asleep
    and jumps out the window.
Le Spectre de la Rose


        ✤   Choreography by Fokine, starring Nureyev.
Exit Fokine.
Enter Nijinsky.
✤   Fokine exited the company as
    Nijinsky and Diaghilev grew, er,
    closer. Nijinsky became the lead
    choreographer for the Ballet
    Russe.
L'après-midi d'un faune
(1912)
✤   Choreography by Nijinsky,
    music by Debussy. (Kirstein, 198)

✤   Invoked archaic greece, with all
    dancers moving in a "Greecian"
    manner.

✤   Plot: A faun sees 7 bathing
    nymphs. He dances with one of
    them, who drops her scarf. Then:
    masturbation.
L'après-midi d'un faune
(1912)


✤   Inspired Queen’s music video for
    “I Want to Break Free” (1991)
L'après-midi d'un faune


        ✤   From the film “Nijinsky,” with choreography by
            Nijinsky, starring George de la Peña.

        ✤   Balletic technique is nearly invisible.
Le sacre du printemps
(1913)
✤   Choreography by Nijisky, (crazy
    impossibly hard) music by
    Stravinsky. (Kirstein, 206)

✤   Invoked archaic Russia, with all
    dancers moving in a "primitive"
    manner. Auto-orientalism?

✤   Plot: Pre-Russian tribe celebrates
    spring by sacrificing a virgin to
    the Gods with a dance to the
    death. 

✤   Audience response: riots in Paris.
Le sacre du printemps


        ✤   Choreography by Nijinsky, reconstructed on the Joffrey
            Ballet.

        ✤   Balletic technique, inside out.

        ✤   Reminiscent of Giselle and Schéhérazade?
meanwhile, stateside, there were all sorts
of queer goings ons....
Loïe Fuller

✤   Illinois born, Fuller radically
    reconfigured notions of dancerly
    performance and stage lighting.

✤   Created (and patented) her own
    chemical compounds, gels, and
    stage technologies.

✤   Toured Europe with her
    entourage of lady dancers. It was
    romantic.
some queer details...
✤   Like Nijinsky, Fuller created a
    new, abstract space freed
    from gender norms. (“One
    can scarcely believe she’s a
    woman!”)

✤   Though her work deviated
    from balletic norms, she used
    scores by Wagner, Beethoven,
    and other “serious”
    composers.

✤   Started a school and taught
    improvisation. (#fail)
    (Digression: new business
    models.)
Danse Serpentine


       ✤   Choreography by Fuller.

       ✤   PS: This is apparently really her, per the Library of
           Congress.
Isadora Duncan

✤   San Francisco born, Duncan
    created a radical system of
    movement that drew on
    “natural” gesture, musicality,
    and originated in the solar
    plexus.

✤   By radical, I mean she was a
    breast-bearing socialist bisexual
    killed in a freak accident
    involving an amilcar and a too-
    long scarf. True story.

✤   Started numerous schools in
    Europe and on the West coast.
    (#fail)
Ruth St. Denis
✤   One of the most thorough
    American appropriators, St.
    Denis made “Indian” dances,
    “Oriental” dances,
    “Egyptian” dances, and so
    on, with admirable religiosity.

✤   Au: "these dances made no
    claim to authenticity, they
    aimed to capture the spirit
    rather than the letter of the
    cultures they depicted."
Ruth St. Denis
✤   Radha (1906): St. Denis
    "celebrated a ritual of the five
    senses," per Krishna's milkmaid
    lover. (Zero authenticity, strict
    coney island.) 

✤   Met Ted Shawn in 1914, who
    became her dancing partner /
    husband (#fail). They created
    Denishawn, with Louis Horst as
    the musical director, and taught
    yoga, ballet, clogging, and
    various pseudo-spiritual
    practices (#fail).
Ruth St. Denis

✤   Xochitl (1920) was an "Aztec-
    Toltec dance drama" starring
    Martha Graham as a maiden
    defended her virtue from a
    lusty Mexican aristocrat. (Ted
    Shawn). 

✤   Founder of "musical
    visualization," with by Doris
    Humphrey. (ie their
    collaboration Soaring (1920)
    which used a large scarf and
    colored lights.)
Documentary on the Early Moderns


       ✤   Featuring Isadora Duncan, Ruth St. Denis.
Ted Shaun has a secret.


✤   Denishawn dissolves in the
    1930s due to financial
    difficulties. Also: Ted is gay.

✤   Formed “Ted Shawn and His
    Men Dancers" which
    simultaneously emphasized
    the athleticism of modern
    dance while claiming a sort of
    uniquely American
    masculinity.
From documentary, “The Men Who Danced”


      ✤   Choreography by Ted Shawn.
Meanwhile in Germany:
Laban and Ausdrucktanz!
(expressive dance)
 ✤   Utopic dance theorist (1879–
     1958 ) who laid the
     groundwork for Laban
     Notation, expression of inner
     self through outer movement.

 ✤   Started a school / commune
     in Zürich.

 ✤   Created the notion of a
     “movement choir,” which
     was rigorously appropriated
     by the Nazis (and was kinda
     a Nazi himself.)
Mary Wigman

✤   Pupil of Laban, innovator in
    “expressionist” dances.

✤   Choreograped
    “Hexentanz” (“Witch Dance”)
    to “non-Western”
    instrumentation.

✤   Beginnings of an abject
    aesthetic?
Documentary footage, including Hexentanz


       ✤   Choreography by Mary Wigman.
Kurt Joos

✤   Pupil of Laban, (co-)founder
    of “tanztheater.”

✤   Choreographed “The Green
    Table” or, “A Dance of Death
    in Eight Scenes,” with music
    by Frederick Cohen.
Excerpt from The Green Table


       ✤   Choreography by Kurt Jooss, performed by the
           Joffrey Ballet.
Conclusions
    good grief 80 slides later

✤   Dance performance has            ✤   Dance is not now and has
    adapted to various economic          never been politically neutral
    models, ranging from                 or ahistorical. From Louis
    aristocratic court dances with       XIV to The Green Table, dance
    imperial theaters to a               and politics have been
    “companies” with “schools.”          thoroughly enmeshed and /
                                         or at historical odds.
✤   Ballet history co-mingles
    with Orientalism and racist      ✤   So what is it to you?
    assumption of “ethnic”
    identities.
thank you.
sydney skybetter | skybetter@nyu.edu | @sydneyskybetter

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Dance composition handbook (1)
Dance composition handbook (1)Dance composition handbook (1)
Dance composition handbook (1)
 
Modern dance
Modern danceModern dance
Modern dance
 
History of dance
History of danceHistory of dance
History of dance
 
Lyrical dance
Lyrical danceLyrical dance
Lyrical dance
 
Modern Dance
Modern DanceModern Dance
Modern Dance
 
Modern dance[1][2]
Modern dance[1][2]Modern dance[1][2]
Modern dance[1][2]
 
Jazz Dance History.pdf
Jazz Dance History.pdfJazz Dance History.pdf
Jazz Dance History.pdf
 
Performance Art
Performance ArtPerformance Art
Performance Art
 
Ballet
BalletBallet
Ballet
 
20th-and-21st-Century-Multimedia-Forms-4.1.pptx
20th-and-21st-Century-Multimedia-Forms-4.1.pptx20th-and-21st-Century-Multimedia-Forms-4.1.pptx
20th-and-21st-Century-Multimedia-Forms-4.1.pptx
 
Opera: The Art of Emotion
Opera: The Art of EmotionOpera: The Art of Emotion
Opera: The Art of Emotion
 
Modern dance history
Modern dance historyModern dance history
Modern dance history
 
Moderndance
ModerndanceModerndance
Moderndance
 
History of ballet
History of balletHistory of ballet
History of ballet
 
Origins of jazz dance
Origins of jazz danceOrigins of jazz dance
Origins of jazz dance
 
Post impressionism
Post impressionismPost impressionism
Post impressionism
 
Dance Etiquette – Rules Are Meant For Your Comfortability
Dance Etiquette – Rules Are Meant For Your ComfortabilityDance Etiquette – Rules Are Meant For Your Comfortability
Dance Etiquette – Rules Are Meant For Your Comfortability
 
Ballet history
Ballet historyBallet history
Ballet history
 
The Evolution of Dance
The Evolution of DanceThe Evolution of Dance
The Evolution of Dance
 
Contemporary dance
Contemporary danceContemporary dance
Contemporary dance
 

Viewers also liked

#NoReallyEverythingIsGoingToBeOk
#NoReallyEverythingIsGoingToBeOk#NoReallyEverythingIsGoingToBeOk
#NoReallyEverythingIsGoingToBeOkSydney Skybetter
 
Social media for Seniors (or, no booze pics plz)
Social media for Seniors (or, no booze pics plz)Social media for Seniors (or, no booze pics plz)
Social media for Seniors (or, no booze pics plz)Sydney Skybetter
 
Trade relations between Saudi Arabia and India
Trade relations between Saudi Arabia and IndiaTrade relations between Saudi Arabia and India
Trade relations between Saudi Arabia and IndiaDeepika Kalro
 
Deficiencias combinadas de factores de coagulación
Deficiencias combinadas de factores de coagulaciónDeficiencias combinadas de factores de coagulación
Deficiencias combinadas de factores de coagulaciónSusy Solano
 
Fracturas en recien nacidos
Fracturas en recien nacidosFracturas en recien nacidos
Fracturas en recien nacidosSusy Solano
 
Fracturas en recien nacidos 2016
Fracturas en recien nacidos 2016Fracturas en recien nacidos 2016
Fracturas en recien nacidos 2016Susy Solano
 
Fracturas en recien nacidos
Fracturas en recien nacidosFracturas en recien nacidos
Fracturas en recien nacidosSusy Solano
 

Viewers also liked (9)

#NoReallyEverythingIsGoingToBeOk
#NoReallyEverythingIsGoingToBeOk#NoReallyEverythingIsGoingToBeOk
#NoReallyEverythingIsGoingToBeOk
 
Social media for Seniors (or, no booze pics plz)
Social media for Seniors (or, no booze pics plz)Social media for Seniors (or, no booze pics plz)
Social media for Seniors (or, no booze pics plz)
 
Linear Programming Quiz
Linear Programming QuizLinear Programming Quiz
Linear Programming Quiz
 
Stem and leaf plots
Stem and leaf plotsStem and leaf plots
Stem and leaf plots
 
Trade relations between Saudi Arabia and India
Trade relations between Saudi Arabia and IndiaTrade relations between Saudi Arabia and India
Trade relations between Saudi Arabia and India
 
Deficiencias combinadas de factores de coagulación
Deficiencias combinadas de factores de coagulaciónDeficiencias combinadas de factores de coagulación
Deficiencias combinadas de factores de coagulación
 
Fracturas en recien nacidos
Fracturas en recien nacidosFracturas en recien nacidos
Fracturas en recien nacidos
 
Fracturas en recien nacidos 2016
Fracturas en recien nacidos 2016Fracturas en recien nacidos 2016
Fracturas en recien nacidos 2016
 
Fracturas en recien nacidos
Fracturas en recien nacidosFracturas en recien nacidos
Fracturas en recien nacidos
 

Similar to Dance History from Catherine de' Medici to Giselle

História da dança
História da dançaHistória da dança
História da dançaSofia Lebre
 
Brief History of Ballet Shoes (Part Two)
Brief History of Ballet Shoes (Part Two)Brief History of Ballet Shoes (Part Two)
Brief History of Ballet Shoes (Part Two)Cameron Kippen
 
9 Arts Quarter IV - part 2...........pptx
9 Arts Quarter IV - part 2...........pptx9 Arts Quarter IV - part 2...........pptx
9 Arts Quarter IV - part 2...........pptxJhimarPeredoJurado
 
Chapter 2: Continental Operetta
Chapter 2: Continental OperettaChapter 2: Continental Operetta
Chapter 2: Continental OperettaSherri Weiler
 
Elements of Arts as Applied to Western Classical Theatre and Opera.pptx
Elements of Arts as Applied to Western Classical Theatre and Opera.pptxElements of Arts as Applied to Western Classical Theatre and Opera.pptx
Elements of Arts as Applied to Western Classical Theatre and Opera.pptxAntonioJeremiahTurza
 
What makes a successful musical?
What makes a successful musical?What makes a successful musical?
What makes a successful musical?RebeccaMoore122
 
Theater: a crash course pt. 1
Theater: a crash course pt. 1Theater: a crash course pt. 1
Theater: a crash course pt. 1Ronald_mclaggin
 
Romanticism in opera
Romanticism in operaRomanticism in opera
Romanticism in operaDave Shafer
 
History of fashion 1900-1913
History of fashion 1900-1913History of fashion 1900-1913
History of fashion 1900-1913avantikarana
 
Music Masters: Who Was Claude Debussy?
Music Masters: Who Was Claude Debussy?Music Masters: Who Was Claude Debussy?
Music Masters: Who Was Claude Debussy?AnnMarie Ppl
 
Lesson 1 Zarzuels(Sarswela)
Lesson 1 Zarzuels(Sarswela)Lesson 1 Zarzuels(Sarswela)
Lesson 1 Zarzuels(Sarswela)Meg Grado
 
Renaissance Period Music
Renaissance Period MusicRenaissance Period Music
Renaissance Period MusicCasey Banugan
 
Presentation What Does History Do For Theatre
Presentation    What Does  History Do For  TheatrePresentation    What Does  History Do For  Theatre
Presentation What Does History Do For Theatreguest4b4e29
 
What Does History Do For Theatre and what does Theatre do for History
 What Does History Do For Theatre and what does Theatre do for History What Does History Do For Theatre and what does Theatre do for History
What Does History Do For Theatre and what does Theatre do for HistoryRubertDoo
 

Similar to Dance History from Catherine de' Medici to Giselle (20)

Adolphe Charles Adam Biography
Adolphe Charles Adam   BiographyAdolphe Charles Adam   Biography
Adolphe Charles Adam Biography
 
Ballet history
Ballet historyBallet history
Ballet history
 
História da dança
História da dançaHistória da dança
História da dança
 
Brief History of Ballet Shoes (Part Two)
Brief History of Ballet Shoes (Part Two)Brief History of Ballet Shoes (Part Two)
Brief History of Ballet Shoes (Part Two)
 
9 Arts Quarter IV - part 2...........pptx
9 Arts Quarter IV - part 2...........pptx9 Arts Quarter IV - part 2...........pptx
9 Arts Quarter IV - part 2...........pptx
 
Gaetano Donizetti - English Version
Gaetano Donizetti - English VersionGaetano Donizetti - English Version
Gaetano Donizetti - English Version
 
Camille Saint Saëns Biography
Camille Saint Saëns   BiographyCamille Saint Saëns   Biography
Camille Saint Saëns Biography
 
Chapter 2: Continental Operetta
Chapter 2: Continental OperettaChapter 2: Continental Operetta
Chapter 2: Continental Operetta
 
Elements of Arts as Applied to Western Classical Theatre and Opera.pptx
Elements of Arts as Applied to Western Classical Theatre and Opera.pptxElements of Arts as Applied to Western Classical Theatre and Opera.pptx
Elements of Arts as Applied to Western Classical Theatre and Opera.pptx
 
What makes a successful musical?
What makes a successful musical?What makes a successful musical?
What makes a successful musical?
 
Theater: a crash course pt. 1
Theater: a crash course pt. 1Theater: a crash course pt. 1
Theater: a crash course pt. 1
 
Romanticism in opera
Romanticism in operaRomanticism in opera
Romanticism in opera
 
Les miserable anaylsis
Les miserable anaylsisLes miserable anaylsis
Les miserable anaylsis
 
Bizet
BizetBizet
Bizet
 
History of fashion 1900-1913
History of fashion 1900-1913History of fashion 1900-1913
History of fashion 1900-1913
 
Music Masters: Who Was Claude Debussy?
Music Masters: Who Was Claude Debussy?Music Masters: Who Was Claude Debussy?
Music Masters: Who Was Claude Debussy?
 
Lesson 1 Zarzuels(Sarswela)
Lesson 1 Zarzuels(Sarswela)Lesson 1 Zarzuels(Sarswela)
Lesson 1 Zarzuels(Sarswela)
 
Renaissance Period Music
Renaissance Period MusicRenaissance Period Music
Renaissance Period Music
 
Presentation What Does History Do For Theatre
Presentation    What Does  History Do For  TheatrePresentation    What Does  History Do For  Theatre
Presentation What Does History Do For Theatre
 
What Does History Do For Theatre and what does Theatre do for History
 What Does History Do For Theatre and what does Theatre do for History What Does History Do For Theatre and what does Theatre do for History
What Does History Do For Theatre and what does Theatre do for History
 

Recently uploaded

31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmStan Meyer
 
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptxweek 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptxJonalynLegaspi2
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptxmary850239
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Developmentchesterberbo7
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptxiammrhaywood
 
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxMULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxAnupkumar Sharma
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvRicaMaeCastro1
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONHumphrey A Beña
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17Celine George
 
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1GloryAnnCastre1
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxMichelleTuguinay1
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 

Recently uploaded (20)

31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
 
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptxweek 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
 
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxMULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
 
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
 
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
 
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Professionprashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 

Dance History from Catherine de' Medici to Giselle

  • 1. welcome to dance history. sydney skybetter | skybetter@nyu.edu | @sydneyskybetter
  • 2. everyone has an angle. History is not objective. Also: my French pronunciation sucks.
  • 3. let’s just say it starts with Catherine de Medici. (1519-1589) ✤ Italian born, married into the French court. ✤ Murdered over 70,000 Huguenots. ✤ Rumored to have eaten babies. ✤ Initiated the development of ballet.
  • 4. Ballet de Polonais (1573) ✤ Catherine de Medici figured-dance showpiece to celebrate the coronation of her son. ✤ Featured dance stylings of Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx.
  • 5. Ballet Comique de la Reine Louise (1581) ✤ Beaujoyeulx appropriated mythological themes to affirm Henry III’s throne. ✤ The work was a fracking spectacle the likes of which the world had never seen: it had a unified aesthetic and plot. ✤ Featured a palace, a garden, a townscape, a groto, an organ, a gilded vault, numerous chariots and floats.
  • 6. slouching towards Louis XIV. ✤ Catherine de Medici ✤ Henry III (son of Catherine) ✤ Louis XIII (son of Henry III) ✤ Louis XIV (son of Louis XIII)
  • 7. Ballet de la Nuit (1653) ✤ Debuts a 14 year-old Louis XIV as Apollo the sun king (le roi soleil), featuring music by Jean-Baptiste Lully. ✤ 12 hour work featuring 45 entrees, including beggars, werewolves, cripples, shepherds, Venus, Diana, three ballets-within-a-ballet, a demonic sabbath, monkeys, and a burning house.
  • 8. Pierre Beauchamp ✤ Born into family of French dancing masters. ✤ Dancing master to Louis XIV. ✤ Invented Beauchamp–Feuillet notation, and codified the five balletic positions. ✤ Lead dancing master of the The Académie Royale de Danse.
  • 9. Jean Baptiste Lully ✤ Born Italian citizen, became a court dancer to Louis XIV, then promoted to premier composer and producer. ✤ Stabbed himself in the foot with a baton. Died of gangrene. It was awful.
  • 10. Molière ✤ Introduced an intermediary form between the court ballet and the proscenium ballet called the comedies-ballet. ✤ Oft writerly collaborator of Lully and Beauchamp. ✤ Died in a fit of tuberculotic irony, and had a lung hemorrhage while acting the role of a hypochondriac on stage.
  • 11. This is kinda what it all looked like. ✤ (From Le Roi Danse, directed by Gérard Corbiau.)
  • 12. towards the proscenium... ✤ With more dancing masters graduating from the Academie Royale de Danse, a professional class of dance artists emerged, and the technical distance between the “amateur” and “professional” started to grew. ✤ Figured dancing lost favor towards individual athleticism and virtuosity.
  • 13. towards the proscenium... ✤ Louis XIV stopped dancing in 1670, per his incredible corpulence, and the era of the court ballet in the halls of power was over. ✤ Professionals take performance roles, and a new dancerly spectatorship emerges that distinguishes between watcher and watchee. ✤ WWSFS? (What Would Susan Foster Say?)
  • 14. Académie Royale de Danse (1661) ✤ Inaugerated a new class of professional dancers, eventually becoming the Paris Opéra.
  • 15. genealogy of ballerina drama ✤ Françoise Prévost, a dancer with Louis XIV and star of the Paris Opéra, originates Les Caractères de la Danse (Types of the Dance, 1726). Effectively the death of court ballet. ✤ Plot: Soloist enacts a rococo plot involving a shepherd, the god amour, etc, to all and sundry “popular” music. ✤ Prévost taught the solo to Marie Camargo and Marie Sallé while they were students at the Opéra, and they all hated each other.
  • 16. Marie Camargo (1710-1770) ✤ Brilliant technician who took scissors to her skirt so that her cabrioles would be more visible. After decades of very, very, very conservative “costuming,” this is a revolution in performance garb. ✤ Invented caleçons de precaution (“panties of precaution”), a precursor to the tutu. ✤ Paved the way for petit allegro.
  • 17. Marie Sallé (1707-1756) ✤ In contrast to Camargo, Sallé was a brilliant actress and mime that brought characters alive within a dancerly context. ✤ Dared to perform without a pannier, skirt, or bodice, but controversially performed her Pygmalion (1734) in a “Greek” tunic for the sake of realism. ✤ Anticipated Noverre’s balletic reforms and theatrical conventions to come. ✤ Because of her non-conformance with gender norms, she was accused of frigidity, among other things.
  • 18. Noverre and Ballet d’Action ✤ Salle’s Pygmalion was performed all over Europe, including by a young Jean- Georges Noverre (1727-1810). ✤ Took Salle’s work as a guide, and wrote “Letters on Dancing and Ballets,” a popular dance manual. ✤ Took over the Paris Opéra in 1776, an appointee of Marie Antoinette.
  • 19. "Destroy the masks and we shall gain a soul!" The No(verre) Manifesto (Ballet d’Action) ✤ No to masques! Let the dancers be expressive. ✤ No to insane plots! Stage action should be logical and coherent.  ✤ No to independent collaborators! All artistic personnel should work together. ✤ No to tonnelets! Costumes should be sensible and timely.
  • 20. et cetera. ✤ Noverre ✤ Gaétan Vestris (danced with Noverre, helped popularize his ideas. First to dance w/out mask.) ✤ Jean Dauberval (pupil of ✤ Auguste Vestris (“God of the Noverre, and took over Dance,” was a lead dancer at the the Paris Opéra with...) Paris Opéra for almost 40 years). ✤ Maximilien Gardel (Soloist at the Opéra...)
  • 21. Dauberval ✤ Left the Paris Opéra for Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux in 1789. ✤ Choreographed La Fille Mal Gardée two weeks before the storming of the Bastille. ✤ Incorporated “peasant” dress and folk steps with balletic technique.
  • 22. La Fille Mal Gardée ✤ Plot: Girl loves boy. Girl’s mother attempts to arrange marriage with some other rich boy. There are histrionics and chicken dances. Also: a happy ending.
  • 23. This is not the original La Fille Mal Gardée, like, at all. But you get the idea. ✤ (Choreography by Alicia Alonso after Dauberval, with Ballet National de Cuba.)
  • 24. revolutionary war sucks for dance. ✤ Pierre Gardel (Maximilien’s brother, 1758- 1840) takes over at the Opéra, and produces all sorts of patriotic tripe. ✤ On the plus side, there is a forced departure from aristocratic conventions and support, leading us to....
  • 25. ROMANTICISM! ✤ Ballet starts appropriating from other art forms, including (but definitely not limited to) Romantic poetry and literature. ✤ Notion of “romanticism” is at odds with the notion of enlightenment / aristocratic rationalization of everything. Think chaos and strong feeling versus order and refinement. ✤ Preoccupation of the exotic, oriental “other” and women as supernatural characters.
  • 26. La Sylphide (1832) (is not Les Sylphides) ✤ First major romantic ballet. ✤ Choreographed by Filippo Taglioni, with his daughter Marie Taglioni in the lead. ✤ Plot: Scottish (exotic!) farmer (James) falls in love with a magical sylph (magical!) on the morning of his wedding (irony!). Farmer chases sylph. Evil witch gives farmer scarf to trap sylph. Scarf kills sylph. Farmer’s fiancee marries best friend (twist!). Evil triumphs.
  • 27. This is the La Sylphide by Bournonville... It’s the only version that survived... apologies... ✤ (Erik Bruhn & Carla Fracci from 1962)
  • 28. Marie Taglioni ✤ - Her "style" of ballet is called "Danse Ballonné," characterized by lightness and leaps. ✤ - Characterized by Théophile Gautier (writer, defender of Romanticism) as the "Christian" dancer. ✤ Trained daily by her father, who was arguably the first truly sadistic ballet master. ✤ Brought dance en pointe to new levels of artistry.
  • 29. Fanny Elssler (GASP! A RIVALRY!) ✤ Brought to the Opéra to be a foil to Marie Taglioni in 1834. ✤ Originates a solo called “La Cacucha” (a “Spanish” dance with tight footwork). On the basis of its success, then appropriates wildly from Poland and Italy. ✤ Dubbed the “Pagan” dancer by Gautier.
  • 30. enter Giselle (1841) ✤ Libretto by Gautier, choreography by Perrot (Grisi’s husband) and Coralli (resident ballet master), with Giselle played by Carlotta Grisi. (GASP! A RIVALRY!) ✤ Plot: Peasant girl falls in love with nobleman in peasant drag (Albrecht). Girl discovers his secret, goes #&$%ing crazy and kills herself. Girl becomes a willi who, unlike her bloodsucking fiend friends doesn’t hate men. Girl saves boy’s life from dance to death.
  • 31. Why are the willis trying to murder me? ✤ Per the stories of Heinrich Heine (source material for Giselle) willis are the spirits of virgin girls who die before they get married, enjoy dancing naked in town squares, and sucking the blood of young men. ✤ Just so we’re clear: the willis are sexually frustrated, angry virgin vampires.
  • 32. Terrible video quality, but here’s Alicia Alonso explaining Giselle’s mad scene. ✤ (Giselle, choreographed by Alicia Alonso after Perrot and Coralli.)
  • 33. The willis in full man-killing force, tossing Hilarion into a lake. ✤ (Kirov Ballet’s Giselle, choreographed by Petipa.)
  • 34. Things get transnational. ✤ Alumni of the Opéra ✤ August Bournonville (studied go abroad, and Paris’ under Auguste Vestris at the dominance in ballet Opéra) takes over the Royal is challenged. Danish Ballet. Opa! Bournonville technique. ✤ His La Sylphide (1836) is one of the ✤ Charles Didelot (studied canonical works of romantic under Noverre and ballet. Dauberval at the Opéra) and takes over the Imperial Ballet. Opa! Russian balletic tradition. ✤ His Flore et Zephyr (1796) used wires to fly ballerinas across the stage... Think Streb in Russia. (Kirstein, 136)
  • 35. The Franco Prussian war sucks for dance. ✤ The Paris Opéra is shut down around 1870 as Germany bombs France. Yet in Russia, a stable monarchic power remains in the hands of the tzars, and Didelot, Elssler, Taglioni (anybody who was anybody) dances there eventually. ✤ Prevalence of women-centered ballets decreases male performers and roles, often resulting in balletic “girlie” shows. On the plus side, less lethal stage lighting! ✤ Digression: Business models of dance; aristocratic support versus prostitution?
  • 36. Marius Petipa and the Über-Classical Ballet. ✤ Marius Petipa (danced with Vestris in Bordeaux) moved to St. Petersburg in 1847. Takes over the Imperial School at St. Petersburg in 1849. ✤ Created the contemporary notion of a “classical” ballet, with its emphasis on order and form (over emotion), pas de deux structure (pas, male variation, female variation, coda), and divertissements.
  • 37. Sleeping Beauty (1890) ✤ Choreography by Petipa, with music by Tchaikovsky. ✤ Plot: Princess Aurora is cursed by the witch Carabosse to die. Lilac fairy commutes sentence to sleeping for 100 years until a prince kisses her. There is sleeping. Then Prince Désiré (subtle, no?) is hunting with his dude friends when the Lilac fairy reveals Aurora. There is kissing, a marriage, and lots of caractère dancing.
  • 38. Entrance and Rose Adagio from Sleeping Beauty ✤ Margot Fonteyn performing with The Royal Ballet, with choreography by Petipa.
  • 39. La Bayadère (1877) ✤ Choreography by Petipa, with music by Minkus. ✤ Plot: “Indian” temple dancer (Nikiya) loves “Indian” warrior (Solor). The lead “Brahmin” loves Nikiya... intrigues ensue... Nikiya is bitten by a snake... dies... Solor takes some opium, dreams of Nikiya, and is about to marry another woman when the “Gods” kill everyone. Nikiya and Solor are reunited in death. ✤ Blackface.
  • 40. Solor’s Variation from La Bayadère ✤ Baryshnikov’s Gold Medal winning performance at the Moscow International Ballet Competition.
  • 41. Nikiya’s Death from La Bayadère ✤ Choreography by Nureyev after Petipa, at the Paris Opéra. ✤ Anyone else reminded of Giselle? Also: note that the sets look like Louis XIV’s...
  • 42. Swan Lake (1895, redux) ✤ Choreography by Petipa and Ivanov (second balletmaster in the Imperial Ballet), music by Tchaikovsky. ✤ Plot: Boy (Prince Siegfried) goes huntin’ for swans with his dude friend Benno. A swan (Odette) turns into a girl, and boy falls in love. To break swan spell, he has to marry her. Boy is pressured into marriage by his mother, and Odile (who he confuses for Odette due to the evil Rothbart) does many fouettés. He declares love to the wrong woman. Drama drama drama. Odette and Siegfried throw themselvs in a lake. Plus side: united in life after death.
  • 43. and then there’s the queer angle... ✤ Many, many queer readings of Swan Lake. Even though this originates from a time before “homosexuality” existed, Tchaikovsky felt cursed by his “buggeromania,” and he (and his collaborators) were variously obsessed with the totally insane / gay Bavarian king Ludwig II, who in turn, was obsessed with swans. And so on.
  • 44. but PS... ✤ Petipa was the first to choreograph 32 fouettés, executed by rock star Pierina Legnani.
  • 45. Pas de Quatre (primo classicism) from Swan Lake ✤ American Ballet Theater performing choreography by Ivanov and Petipa.
  • 46. Black Swan Pas de Deux ✤ Choreography by Alicia Alonso, after Petipa, on the Ballet Nacional de Cuba. ✤ PS- Alonso was nearly blind by the time was recorded.
  • 47. Enter Михаил Михайлович Фокин! (Fokine.) ✤ Had radical notions of ballet, and you’ve heard them all before: - No to needless spectacle. - No needless tutus or pointe shoes. - No needless fouettés. Characters move how they “should” move. (Note: fine for swans. Little more problematic for people of color.) ✤ Danced under Petipa, but not for long....
  • 48. Excerpt from from The Dying Swan (1907) ✤ Pavlova performing choreography by Fokine. ✤ Note post-Swan Lake queer resonances and reduced “story.”
  • 49. Diaghilev hold on to your queer hats. ✤ Aesthete aristocrat who worked at the Imperial Theater, “discovered” Fokine, and invited him to become the lead choreographer of his new venture, the Ballets Russes. ✤ Sought imperial funding, but upon being denied, sought funding from wealthy individuals. One of the first historical dance companies to have an individual donor program. (Digression: business models + the male image.)
  • 50. Diaghilev hold on to your queer hats. ✤ Drew on the Wagnerian notion of gesamtkunstwerk, signifying the collaboration and unification of all artistic collaborators. (Noverre anyone?) ✤ Brought the young company (featuring Nijinsky, Karasavina, and Pavlova) to Paris in 1909, where ballet had been a backwater for 100 years.
  • 51. Schéhérazade (1910) ✤ Choreographed by Fokine, with music by Rimsky-Korsakov. ✤ Plot: A “shah’s” wife falls for her “negro” Golden Slave. Orgies and sexy massacres ensue.  ✤ Nijinsky is a big golden hunk of meat. The audience’s “gaze” is queered.
  • 52. Schéhérazade ✤ Choreography by Fokine, on dancers from the Mariinsky and Bolshoi Ballets. ✤ PS- Note: the intercourse in the background is not the conversational kind. ✤ Note the diminishment of codified balletic technique, (yet later there is figured dancing and fouettés?)
  • 53. Petroucha (1912) ✤ Choreographed by Fokine, with music by Stravinsky. (Kirstein, 194) ✤ Plot: Magician (Cecchetti) has three puppets: the pathetic Petrouchka (Nijinksky), a ballerina (Karasavina) and a “moor” (Orlov). Petrouchka loves the Ballerina, but is killed by the moor, and then haunts the magician.  ✤ Read: Petrouchka as Nijinsky, magician as Diaghliev. ✤ Blackface.
  • 54. Petrushka (with extra sambo action) Petrushka (part deux) ✤ Choreography by Fokine, and starring Nureyev. ✤ PS: Silly sambo thinks the coconut is a god! Hahahahaha!
  • 55. Le Spectre de la Rose (1911) ✤ Choreographed by Fokine, music by Stravinsky, libretto by Gautier. (Remember him?) ✤ Plot: A young girl (Karasavina) returns home from a ball with a rose given to her by an admirer. The spirit of the rose (Nijinsky) does a dance as she falls asleep and jumps out the window.
  • 56. Le Spectre de la Rose ✤ Choreography by Fokine, starring Nureyev.
  • 57. Exit Fokine. Enter Nijinsky. ✤ Fokine exited the company as Nijinsky and Diaghilev grew, er, closer. Nijinsky became the lead choreographer for the Ballet Russe.
  • 58. L'après-midi d'un faune (1912) ✤ Choreography by Nijinsky, music by Debussy. (Kirstein, 198) ✤ Invoked archaic greece, with all dancers moving in a "Greecian" manner. ✤ Plot: A faun sees 7 bathing nymphs. He dances with one of them, who drops her scarf. Then: masturbation.
  • 59. L'après-midi d'un faune (1912) ✤ Inspired Queen’s music video for “I Want to Break Free” (1991)
  • 60. L'après-midi d'un faune ✤ From the film “Nijinsky,” with choreography by Nijinsky, starring George de la Peña. ✤ Balletic technique is nearly invisible.
  • 61. Le sacre du printemps (1913) ✤ Choreography by Nijisky, (crazy impossibly hard) music by Stravinsky. (Kirstein, 206) ✤ Invoked archaic Russia, with all dancers moving in a "primitive" manner. Auto-orientalism? ✤ Plot: Pre-Russian tribe celebrates spring by sacrificing a virgin to the Gods with a dance to the death.  ✤ Audience response: riots in Paris.
  • 62. Le sacre du printemps ✤ Choreography by Nijinsky, reconstructed on the Joffrey Ballet. ✤ Balletic technique, inside out. ✤ Reminiscent of Giselle and Schéhérazade?
  • 63. meanwhile, stateside, there were all sorts of queer goings ons....
  • 64. Loïe Fuller ✤ Illinois born, Fuller radically reconfigured notions of dancerly performance and stage lighting. ✤ Created (and patented) her own chemical compounds, gels, and stage technologies. ✤ Toured Europe with her entourage of lady dancers. It was romantic.
  • 65. some queer details... ✤ Like Nijinsky, Fuller created a new, abstract space freed from gender norms. (“One can scarcely believe she’s a woman!”) ✤ Though her work deviated from balletic norms, she used scores by Wagner, Beethoven, and other “serious” composers. ✤ Started a school and taught improvisation. (#fail) (Digression: new business models.)
  • 66. Danse Serpentine ✤ Choreography by Fuller. ✤ PS: This is apparently really her, per the Library of Congress.
  • 67. Isadora Duncan ✤ San Francisco born, Duncan created a radical system of movement that drew on “natural” gesture, musicality, and originated in the solar plexus. ✤ By radical, I mean she was a breast-bearing socialist bisexual killed in a freak accident involving an amilcar and a too- long scarf. True story. ✤ Started numerous schools in Europe and on the West coast. (#fail)
  • 68. Ruth St. Denis ✤ One of the most thorough American appropriators, St. Denis made “Indian” dances, “Oriental” dances, “Egyptian” dances, and so on, with admirable religiosity. ✤ Au: "these dances made no claim to authenticity, they aimed to capture the spirit rather than the letter of the cultures they depicted."
  • 69. Ruth St. Denis ✤ Radha (1906): St. Denis "celebrated a ritual of the five senses," per Krishna's milkmaid lover. (Zero authenticity, strict coney island.)  ✤ Met Ted Shawn in 1914, who became her dancing partner / husband (#fail). They created Denishawn, with Louis Horst as the musical director, and taught yoga, ballet, clogging, and various pseudo-spiritual practices (#fail).
  • 70. Ruth St. Denis ✤ Xochitl (1920) was an "Aztec- Toltec dance drama" starring Martha Graham as a maiden defended her virtue from a lusty Mexican aristocrat. (Ted Shawn).  ✤ Founder of "musical visualization," with by Doris Humphrey. (ie their collaboration Soaring (1920) which used a large scarf and colored lights.)
  • 71. Documentary on the Early Moderns ✤ Featuring Isadora Duncan, Ruth St. Denis.
  • 72. Ted Shaun has a secret. ✤ Denishawn dissolves in the 1930s due to financial difficulties. Also: Ted is gay. ✤ Formed “Ted Shawn and His Men Dancers" which simultaneously emphasized the athleticism of modern dance while claiming a sort of uniquely American masculinity.
  • 73. From documentary, “The Men Who Danced” ✤ Choreography by Ted Shawn.
  • 74. Meanwhile in Germany: Laban and Ausdrucktanz! (expressive dance) ✤ Utopic dance theorist (1879– 1958 ) who laid the groundwork for Laban Notation, expression of inner self through outer movement. ✤ Started a school / commune in Zürich. ✤ Created the notion of a “movement choir,” which was rigorously appropriated by the Nazis (and was kinda a Nazi himself.)
  • 75. Mary Wigman ✤ Pupil of Laban, innovator in “expressionist” dances. ✤ Choreograped “Hexentanz” (“Witch Dance”) to “non-Western” instrumentation. ✤ Beginnings of an abject aesthetic?
  • 76. Documentary footage, including Hexentanz ✤ Choreography by Mary Wigman.
  • 77. Kurt Joos ✤ Pupil of Laban, (co-)founder of “tanztheater.” ✤ Choreographed “The Green Table” or, “A Dance of Death in Eight Scenes,” with music by Frederick Cohen.
  • 78. Excerpt from The Green Table ✤ Choreography by Kurt Jooss, performed by the Joffrey Ballet.
  • 79. Conclusions good grief 80 slides later ✤ Dance performance has ✤ Dance is not now and has adapted to various economic never been politically neutral models, ranging from or ahistorical. From Louis aristocratic court dances with XIV to The Green Table, dance imperial theaters to a and politics have been “companies” with “schools.” thoroughly enmeshed and / or at historical odds. ✤ Ballet history co-mingles with Orientalism and racist ✤ So what is it to you? assumption of “ethnic” identities.
  • 80. thank you. sydney skybetter | skybetter@nyu.edu | @sydneyskybetter

Editor's Notes

  1. \n
  2. \n
  3. \n
  4. \n
  5. \n
  6. \n
  7. \n
  8. \n
  9. \n
  10. \n
  11. \n
  12. \n
  13. \n
  14. \n
  15. \n
  16. \n
  17. \n
  18. \n
  19. \n
  20. \n
  21. \n
  22. \n
  23. \n
  24. \n
  25. \n
  26. \n
  27. \n
  28. \n
  29. \n
  30. \n
  31. \n
  32. \n
  33. \n
  34. \n
  35. \n
  36. \n
  37. \n
  38. \n
  39. \n
  40. \n
  41. \n
  42. \n
  43. \n
  44. \n
  45. \n
  46. \n
  47. \n
  48. \n
  49. \n
  50. \n
  51. \n
  52. \n
  53. \n
  54. \n
  55. \n
  56. \n
  57. \n
  58. \n
  59. \n
  60. \n
  61. \n
  62. \n
  63. \n
  64. \n
  65. \n
  66. \n
  67. \n
  68. \n
  69. \n
  70. \n
  71. \n
  72. \n
  73. \n
  74. \n
  75. \n
  76. \n
  77. \n
  78. \n
  79. \n
  80. \n