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From words to sentences

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From words to sentences

  1. 1. How do you feel when it comes to writing?
  2. 2. From Words to Sentences
  3. 3. Words Parts of Speech Nouns= Names Adjectives= Characteristics of nouns Verbs= Actions Adverbs= How things are done Prepositions= Describe a relationship between other words in a sentence Conjunctions= Connect parts of a sentence Interjections= Used to exclaim, protest or command.
  4. 4. •Simple = adjective • Simply = adverb • Simplicity = noun • Simplify = verb • Success = noun, • Successful = adjective • Successfully =adverb • Succeed = verb • Regularly = adverb • Regulation = noun • Regulate = verb • Regular = adjective Interesting Examples
  5. 5. It is important to know the function of words in a sentence in order to use them correctly.
  6. 6. Noun/Verbs Confusion Some nouns and verbs share the same form (e.g project, record) but usually they are different. Many nouns end in 'tion' or 'cion', 'ment' or 'ing'. The group were able to identity the most serious academic problem (Incorrect use of noun: should be the verb form, identify) At present, there is a lot of compete for good jobs (Incorrect use of verb: should be the noun form, competition) Noun Verb Analysis Analyze Breath Breathe Choice Choose Complaint Complain Entry Enter Relaxation Relax Service Serve Success Succeed
  7. 7. Noun/Adjective Confusion In a sentence, the qualifying adjective usually comes directly before the noun or noun phrase. As the members were aged from 15 to 55, it was a difficulty task to design a game to suit everyone (Incorrect use of noun: should be the adjectival form, difficult) The company demonstrated a great deal of successful in developing client relationships (Incorrect use of adjective: should be the noun form, success) The important of the case was emphasized (Incorrect use of adjective: should be the noun form, importance)
  8. 8. A good business person should be proactively (Incorrect use of adverb: should be the adjectival form, proactive.) She ready agreed to give her presentation (Incorrect use of adjective: should be the adverbial form, readily.) Adjective/Adverb Confusion An adjective is a word that qualifies or tells us more about a noun or pronoun. An adverb is a word that qualifies or tells us more about a verb.
  9. 9. Gerunds Confusion Nouns based on verbs can end in either 'ing' (the gerund) or another ending such as 'tion' or 'ment'. If there is an object in the sentence, the gerund form is usually correct. Development a high quality product is of paramount importance Developing a high quality product is of paramount importance. Manufacture clothing in China is very cost effective. Manufacturing clothing in China is very cost effective.
  10. 10. Same Root Nouns Confusion She decided to move into a new flat to start a new living. She decided to move into a new flat to start a new life. (The first sentence has a gerund meaning ' means of earning' or 'way of life' instead of the correct noun form meaning 'existence'.)
  11. 11. Possessives Confusion All employees have been notified that their are to be made redundant. All employees have been notified that they are to be made redundant. The MD has seen the contracts and he wants it substantially altered. The MD has seen the contracts and he wants them substantially altered.
  12. 12. Word Order in English S F P C A Subject Finite Predicator Complement Adjunct
  13. 13. Subject S is a function which is realized by a nominal group. Computer chips use this battery of info, don’t they? Loewi was obsessed by the idea. – passive  The idea obsessed Loewi. – active ‘Dummy subjects’‘empty’ S. … it was a mystery why some nerves stimulate an organ and othersdepress it. Examples
  14. 14. Finite Encodes primary tense and person or the speaker’s opinion He is eating the puff. – is present Did you eat the puff. – did past He will eat the puff. – will event will take place sometime after the talk He could eat all the puffs. – could opinion about ability Examples
  15. 15. The rest of the verbal group which carries the meaning.  F and P are often combined in a single word: obsessed Predicator Example She might have been writing the letter.
  16. 16. Complement Other nominal groups may be regarded as C because they complete the argument set up in the clause. A C is the part of a sentence which answers the question “Who or what?” after the verb. Loewi awoke in the night. Loewi woke in the night with an idea. He awoke his wife C? C?
  17. 17. Adjunct Adverbial groups, nominal groups and prepositional phrases which acted as Circumstances for the experiential meaning. Adverbs Prepositional phrases (*) Conjunctions are not included in the sentence analysis, so they are not adjuncts.
  18. 18. Sentences Simple Sentence A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. In the following simple sentences, subjects are in blue, and verbs are in green. Some to study in the mornings. football every afternoon. to the library and every day
  19. 19. Compound Sentence A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the following compound sentences, subjects are in blue, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red. to speak Spanish to speak English. football shopping.
  20. 20. Complex Sentence A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when (and many others) or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.  In the following complex sentences, subjects are in blue, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas are in red. his homework the teacher the last page. the homework the error. to the movies
  21. 21. How to Write Good Sentences
  22. 22. S1. Particularly interesting for researchers in physics is the new feature, named X, for calculating velocity. S2. Physics now has a new feature, named X, for calculating velocity. S3. Velocity can now be calculated with a new feature, named X, which is particularly interesting for physicists. S4. X is a new feature for calculating velocity. It is particularly interesting for physicists. Choose the most relevant subject and put it at the beginning of the sentence
  23. 23. Don’t make the impersonal it the subject of the sentence Don’t use a pronoun (it, they) before you introduce the noun (i.e. the subject of the sentence) that the pronoun refers to
  24. 24. Put the subject before the verb
  25. 25. Keep the subject and verb as close as possible to each other S1. *A gradual decline in germinability and vigor of the resultant seedling, a higher sensitivity to stresses upon germination, and possibly a loss of the ability to germinate are recorded in the literature [5, 8, 19]. S2. *People with a high rate of intelligence, an unusual ability to resolve problems, a passion for computers, along with good communication skills are generally employed by such companies. S3. There is generally a gradual decline in germinability and of the resultant seedling, followed by a higher sensitivity to stress upon germination, and possibly a loss of the ability to germinate [5, 8, 19]. S4. Such companies generally employ people with a high rate of ...
  26. 26. Avoid inserting parenthetical information between the subject and the verb
  27. 27. Don’t separate the verb from its direct object
  28. 28. Put the direct object before the indirect object
  29. 29. How to choose where to locate an adverb (a)Immediately before the main verb. Dying neurons do not usually exhibit these biochemical changes. The mental functions are slowed, and patients are often confused. (b) Immediately before the second auxiliary when there are two auxiliaries. Language would never have arisen as a set of bare arbitraryterms if … Late complications may not always have been notified. (c) After the present and past tenses of ‘to be’ The answer of the machine is always correct.
  30. 30. Put adjectives before the noun they describe, or use a relative clause S1. This is an interesting paper. S2. *This is a paper particularly interesting for PhD students. S3. This paper is particularly interesting for PhD students. S4. This is a paper that is particularly interesting for PhD students. S5. *We examined a patient, 30 years old, to investigate whether … S6. We examined a patient, who was 30 years old, to investigate whether … S7. We examined a 30-year-old patient to investigate whether …
  31. 31. Parts of Speech Confusion. Retrieved from: http://elc.polyu.edu.hk/fyp/html/speech.htm Zila6350. (2008, December 8). Scribd. Retrieved from Systemic Functional Grammar-Interpersonal Metafunction: http://es.scribd.com/doc/8645746/Systemic-Functional- GrammarInterpersonal-Metafunction Advanced Composition for Non-Native Speakers of English. (n.d.). Retrieved from Sentences: Simple, Compound, and Complex: http://eslbee.com/sentences.htm References

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