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Web Application
Security Workshop
Oliver Hader
oliver@typo3.org
@ohader
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019
August 4th, 2019
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 2
▪Research & Development
▪Security Team Lead
▪50% TYPO3 GmbH
▪50% freelance software engineer
▪#hof #cycling #paramedic #in.die.musik
~# whoami
Oliver Hader
@ohader
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 3
▪ session probably recorded
▪ real attack vectors are shown
▪ hackers probably knew already
▪ official security fixes available
▪ report to security@typo3.org
Disclaimer
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
Agenda
4
▪ Attack technique basics (XSS, SQLi, deserialization)
▪ Attack tools/simulation (SQLmap, BeEF, BoNeSi)
▪ Phar Stream Vulnerability & Wrapper
▪ CVSSv3 vulnerability scoring
▪ TYPO3 Security Team
▪ Capture the Flag
Agenda
⏳
What is your agenda?
Do you have questions?
5TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
Web Application
Security Basics
6
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
Web Application Security
7
▪ CIA/compliance triad
▪ confidentiality
▪ private, personal, sensitive information
▪ integrity
▪ manipulation of information (“fake news”)
▪ availability
▪ denial of service
▪ online bank account
▪ blocking information flow https://www.ibm.com/blogs/cloud-computing/2018/01/16/drive-compliance-cloud/
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 8
Hacking Playground
CONFIDENTIALITY - unauthorised access to information
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 9
Hacking Playground
INTEGRITY - e.g. manipulated information
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 10
Hacking Playground
AVAILABILITY - information/service not available
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 11
Web Application Security
Open Web Application Security Project - TOP 10 vulnerabilities
https://www.owasp.org/images/7/72/OWASP_Top_10-2017_%28en%29.pdf.pdf
TYPO3 core TYPO3 3rd party extensionsPHP world
TYPO3vulnerabilitiesinpast5years
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 12
Web Application Security
attack chains - multiple components might be affected
https://www.owasp.org/images/7/72/OWASP_Top_10-2017_%28en%29.pdf.pdf
Hacking
Playground

https://github.com/
ohader/typo3v9-
hack/
13TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
Techniques,
Mitigation, Tools
14
Cross-Site
Scripting
15TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
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Cross-Site Scripting - basics
“classic” XSS
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 17
Cross-Site Scripting - basics
XSS vectors - more at https://www.owasp.org/index.php/XSS_Filter_Evasion_Cheat_Sheet
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 18
Cross-Site Scripting - basics
“classic” XSS mitigation
✔
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 19
Cross-Site Scripting - basics
XSS with Fluid - f:format.html relies on TypoScript being available
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 20
Cross-Site Scripting - basics
ViewHelper without any escaping == potentially vulnerable to XSS
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 21
http://typo3v9-hack.ddev.site:3000/ui/panel // admin & joh316
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 22
XSS exploitation
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 23
Browser Exploitation Framework in action
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 24
Browser Exploitation Framework in action
SQL injection
25TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 26
SQL injection basics
“classic” SQL injection - query
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
SQL injection basics
27
▪ SELECT … WHERE uid=10 AND pid>0;
▪ SELECT … WHERE uid=10 AND 1=1 -- AND pid>0; // bool true
▪ SELECT … WHERE uid=10 AND 1=0 -- AND pid>0; // bool false
▪ SELECT … WHERE uid=10 AND SLEEP(10) -- AND pid>0; // time
▪ comment literals (MySQL)
▪ --
▪ #
▪ /* data */
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
SQL injection basics
28
▪ SELECT … WHERE uid=10 AND pid>0;
▪ SELECT uid,pid,header WHERE uid=10 

UNION SELECT username,password,3 

FROM be_users WHERE SUBSTR(username, 1, 1) = ‘a’ 

LIMIT 1,1 

-- AND pid>0;
▪ … FROM be_users WHERE SUBSTR(username, 2, 1) = ‘d’ …
▪ … FROM be_users WHERE SUBSTR(username, 3, 1) = ‘m’ …
▪ … FROM be_users WHERE SUBSTR(username, 4, 1) = ‘i’ …
▪ … FROM be_users WHERE SUBSTR(username, 5, 1) = ’n’ …
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 29
SQL injection QueryBuilder WHERE
SELECT `uid`, `header` FROM `tt_content` WHERE `uid` = TEST;
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 30
SQL injection QueryBuilder WHERE
SELECT `uid`, `header` FROM `tt_content` WHERE `uid` = 0;
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 31
SQL injection QueryBuilder WHERE
(prepared statement)
SELECT `uid`, `header` FROM `tt_content` WHERE `uid` = :dcValue1;
✔
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 32
SQL injection QueryBuilder WHERE
… WHERE `header` LIKE ‘%a%_%b%';
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 33
SQL injection QueryBuilder WHERE
… WHERE `header` LIKE ‘%a%_%b%’;
✔
SQLmap
34TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 35
http://typo3v9-hack.ddev.site/?eID=comments&search=term
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 36
▪ ddev ssh -s sqlmap
▪ bash # suggested
▪ git checkout master
▪ git pull
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 37
▪ ./sqlmap -u '<uri>' ––risk 3 ––level 3 ––banner
▪ regular call
▪ ./sqlmap -u 'http://typo3v9-hack.ddev.site/?
eID=comments&search=typo3*' ––risk 3 ––level 3 ––banner
▪ inside ddev container
▪ ./sqlmap -u 'http://web/?eID=comments&search=typo3*' ––risk 3
––level 3 ––sql-shell # marker* in GET parameters
▪ ./sqlmap -u 'http://web/?eID=comments' ––data
'&search=typo3*' ––risk 3 ––level 3 ––sql-shell # marker* in POST
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 38
SQLmap
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 39
meanwhile in /var/log/nginx/access.log
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 40
possible SQL injection attack payload
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 41
remote SQL shell via SQL injection
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 42
“stacked queries” not allowed in PHP/PDO - SELECT …; INSERT …;
Insecure
Deserialization
43TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 44
Insecure Deserialization - Basics
__destruct() or __wakeup() methods are executed on deserialization
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 45
Insecure Deserialization - Basics
user submitted payload to be deserialized
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 46
allowed_classes introduced with PHP 7.0 (Polyfill available)
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
Insecure Deserialization - TYPO3-CORE-SA-2019-020
47
▪ https://typo3.org/security/advisory/typo3-core-sa-2019-020/
▪ https://blog.ripstech.com/2019/typo3-overriding-the-database/
▪ overrideVals[<table>][l10n_diffsource]=<serialized payload>
▪ addressed on June 25th, 2019
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 48
Insecure Deserialization - Basics
__destruct() saves content to filesystem
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 49
Remote Code Execution #1
making use of FileCookieJar as attack container
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 50
Remote Code Execution #1
prepare attack against TYPO3 backend
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 51
Remote Code Execution #1
actual attack payload that shall be executed
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 52
Remote Code Execution #1
XSRF token needs to be know (valid backend user required)
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 53
Remote Code Execution #1
output of injected & executed /typo3/hack.php
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 54
Remote Code Execution #1
… new admin user h4ck3r31 …
Other™
55TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
Other™ random topics
56
▪ File Upload
▪ check/deny extensions (file deny pattern)
▪ check mime-types - image/png, text/html, …
▪ Extbase controller actions
▪ user/group access needs individual handling
▪ classic: logged in user can access profile data of others
▪ Directory Traversal
▪ zip bundle.zip ../malicious.php
▪ depends on how it is extracted
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
phar://…
57
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 58
https://packagist.org/packages/typo3/phar-stream-wrapper
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 59
▪ usually used like

require_once('phar://bundle.phar/vendor/autoload.php');

$service = new BundleService();
▪ Phar archives are vulnerable to insecure deserialisation
▪ all Phar archives in every PHP version (since 5.3)
▪ using “phar://“ stream wrapper is required here
▪ however, applies to regular file calls as well
▪ is_file(), file_exists(), fopen(), file_get_contents(), …
▪ is_file($_GET[‘fileName’]) // … user submitted data
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 60
demo web application
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 61
file does exist - correct
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 62
result of implicit insecure deserialization
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 63
Hybrid - Valid PNG file & Valid Phar archive
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 64
building hybrid Phar archive
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 65
PharStreamWrapper in TYPO3 core
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 66
▪ TYPO3CMSCoreIOPharStreamWrapperInterceptor
▪ TYPO3 core - Phar only in typo3conf/ext/ directories
▪ TYPO3PharStreamWrapper…PharExtensionInterceptor
▪ Phar only with file extension “.phar”
▪ TYPO3PharStreamWrapper…PharMetaDataInterceptor
▪ Phar only without serialized objects in meta-data
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
Vulnerability
Reporting
CVSSv3, Mitre & Co.
67
How to report?
68TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
How to report a security vulnerability?
69
▪ always report via mail to security@typo3.org (Security Team)
▪ don’t post potential attacks to Forge, Twitter, … (public media)
▪ inform security team in case vulnerabilities are leaked
▪ please be patient & wait for feedback
▪ approx first response time is ~8 hours
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
Responsible Disclosure Workflow
70
▪ report vulnerability to vendor (here: security team)
▪ wait for feedback, questions or confirmation of this issue
▪ ask for status updates in case there is no activity
▪ declare deadline for full disclosure (e.g. 90 days)
▪ in case vendor does not take actions - public disclosure
▪ vendors (should) have interest to release security bulletins
▪ hiding vulnerability caused feeling of false security
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 71
Responsible Disclosure Workflow
https://blog.ripstech.com/2019/typo3-overriding-the-database/
How to read
reports?
72TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 73
https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-metrics/cvss/v3-calculator
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 74
https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-metrics/cvss/v3-calculator
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 75
https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-metrics/cvss/v3-calculator
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
CVSSv3 example #1
76
▪ CVE-2013-1937
▪ phpMyAdmin Reflected Cross-site Scripting Vulnerability
▪ “Reflected cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities are present on
the tbl_gis_visualization.php page in phpMyAdmin 3.5.x, before
version 3.5.8. These allow remote attackers to inject arbitrary
JavaScript or HTML via the (1) visualizationSettings[width] or (2)
visualizationSettings[height] parameters.”
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 77
CVSSv3 example #1
https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-metrics/cvss/v3-calculator
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
CVSSv3 example #2
78
▪ CVE-2016-1645
▪ Google Chrome PDFium JPEG 2000 Remote Code Execution
Vulnerability
▪ “Allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code on vulnerable
installations of Google Chrome. User interaction is required to
exploit this vulnerability in that the victim must visit a malicious
page or open a malicious file. Flaw exists within the handling of
JPEG 2000 images. Specially crafted JPEG 2000 image embedded
inside a PDF can force Google Chrome to write memory past the
end of an allocated object. Attacker can leverage this vulnerability
to execute arbitrary code under the context of the current process.”
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 79
CVSSv3 example #2
https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-metrics/cvss/v3-calculator
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 80
https://typo3.org/security/advisory/typo3-psa-2019-007/
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 81
https://typo3.org/security/advisory/typo3-psa-2019-007/
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 82
https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-11831
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 83
https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-11831
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
TYPO3
Security Team
84
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 85
▪ triage and answer reports
▪ communicate with reporters (individuals, pen-testers)
▪ forward information to maintainers (core, extension author, …)
▪ frankly remind people in case activity is kind of low
▪ coordinate releases & release dates
▪ compile information into security bulletins / announcements
▪ educate & raise awareness in teams & community
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
Capture the
Flag
86
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 87
https://www.root-me.org/en/Challenges/Web-Server/
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 88
https://ctf.hacker101.com/ctf
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 89
▪ https://www.root-me.org/en/Challenges/Web-Server/SQL-
injection-Error # might work with SQLmap
▪ https://ctf.hacker101.com/ctf/launch/7 # check public API
TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org
References
90
▪ Running an SQL Injection Attack: // “Computerphile“, nice series

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ciNHn38EyRc
▪ WordPress WPDB SQL Injection: // nice, on “custom” escaping

https://blog.ircmaxell.com/2017/10/disclosure-wordpress-wpdb-
sql-injection-technical.html
▪ CVSSv3 Examples:

https://www.first.org/cvss/v3.0/examples
thx! ;-)
91

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Web Application Security Workshop (T3DD19)

  • 1. Web Application Security Workshop Oliver Hader oliver@typo3.org @ohader TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 August 4th, 2019
  • 2. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 2 ▪Research & Development ▪Security Team Lead ▪50% TYPO3 GmbH ▪50% freelance software engineer ▪#hof #cycling #paramedic #in.die.musik ~# whoami Oliver Hader @ohader
  • 3. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 3 ▪ session probably recorded ▪ real attack vectors are shown ▪ hackers probably knew already ▪ official security fixes available ▪ report to security@typo3.org Disclaimer
  • 4. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org Agenda 4 ▪ Attack technique basics (XSS, SQLi, deserialization) ▪ Attack tools/simulation (SQLmap, BeEF, BoNeSi) ▪ Phar Stream Vulnerability & Wrapper ▪ CVSSv3 vulnerability scoring ▪ TYPO3 Security Team ▪ Capture the Flag Agenda ⏳
  • 5. What is your agenda? Do you have questions? 5TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
  • 6. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org Web Application Security Basics 6
  • 7. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org Web Application Security 7 ▪ CIA/compliance triad ▪ confidentiality ▪ private, personal, sensitive information ▪ integrity ▪ manipulation of information (“fake news”) ▪ availability ▪ denial of service ▪ online bank account ▪ blocking information flow https://www.ibm.com/blogs/cloud-computing/2018/01/16/drive-compliance-cloud/
  • 8. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 8 Hacking Playground CONFIDENTIALITY - unauthorised access to information
  • 9. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 9 Hacking Playground INTEGRITY - e.g. manipulated information
  • 10. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 10 Hacking Playground AVAILABILITY - information/service not available
  • 11. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 11 Web Application Security Open Web Application Security Project - TOP 10 vulnerabilities https://www.owasp.org/images/7/72/OWASP_Top_10-2017_%28en%29.pdf.pdf TYPO3 core TYPO3 3rd party extensionsPHP world TYPO3vulnerabilitiesinpast5years
  • 12. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 12 Web Application Security attack chains - multiple components might be affected https://www.owasp.org/images/7/72/OWASP_Top_10-2017_%28en%29.pdf.pdf
  • 14. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org Techniques, Mitigation, Tools 14
  • 15. Cross-Site Scripting 15TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
  • 16. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 16 Cross-Site Scripting - basics “classic” XSS
  • 17. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 17 Cross-Site Scripting - basics XSS vectors - more at https://www.owasp.org/index.php/XSS_Filter_Evasion_Cheat_Sheet
  • 18. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 18 Cross-Site Scripting - basics “classic” XSS mitigation ✔
  • 19. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 19 Cross-Site Scripting - basics XSS with Fluid - f:format.html relies on TypoScript being available
  • 20. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 20 Cross-Site Scripting - basics ViewHelper without any escaping == potentially vulnerable to XSS
  • 21. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 21 http://typo3v9-hack.ddev.site:3000/ui/panel // admin & joh316
  • 22. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 22 XSS exploitation
  • 23. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 23 Browser Exploitation Framework in action
  • 24. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 24 Browser Exploitation Framework in action
  • 25. SQL injection 25TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
  • 26. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 26 SQL injection basics “classic” SQL injection - query
  • 27. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org SQL injection basics 27 ▪ SELECT … WHERE uid=10 AND pid>0; ▪ SELECT … WHERE uid=10 AND 1=1 -- AND pid>0; // bool true ▪ SELECT … WHERE uid=10 AND 1=0 -- AND pid>0; // bool false ▪ SELECT … WHERE uid=10 AND SLEEP(10) -- AND pid>0; // time ▪ comment literals (MySQL) ▪ -- ▪ # ▪ /* data */
  • 28. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org SQL injection basics 28 ▪ SELECT … WHERE uid=10 AND pid>0; ▪ SELECT uid,pid,header WHERE uid=10 
 UNION SELECT username,password,3 
 FROM be_users WHERE SUBSTR(username, 1, 1) = ‘a’ 
 LIMIT 1,1 
 -- AND pid>0; ▪ … FROM be_users WHERE SUBSTR(username, 2, 1) = ‘d’ … ▪ … FROM be_users WHERE SUBSTR(username, 3, 1) = ‘m’ … ▪ … FROM be_users WHERE SUBSTR(username, 4, 1) = ‘i’ … ▪ … FROM be_users WHERE SUBSTR(username, 5, 1) = ’n’ …
  • 29. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 29 SQL injection QueryBuilder WHERE SELECT `uid`, `header` FROM `tt_content` WHERE `uid` = TEST;
  • 30. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 30 SQL injection QueryBuilder WHERE SELECT `uid`, `header` FROM `tt_content` WHERE `uid` = 0;
  • 31. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 31 SQL injection QueryBuilder WHERE (prepared statement) SELECT `uid`, `header` FROM `tt_content` WHERE `uid` = :dcValue1; ✔
  • 32. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 32 SQL injection QueryBuilder WHERE … WHERE `header` LIKE ‘%a%_%b%';
  • 33. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 33 SQL injection QueryBuilder WHERE … WHERE `header` LIKE ‘%a%_%b%’; ✔
  • 34. SQLmap 34TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
  • 35. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 35 http://typo3v9-hack.ddev.site/?eID=comments&search=term
  • 36. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 36 ▪ ddev ssh -s sqlmap ▪ bash # suggested ▪ git checkout master ▪ git pull
  • 37. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 37 ▪ ./sqlmap -u '<uri>' ––risk 3 ––level 3 ––banner ▪ regular call ▪ ./sqlmap -u 'http://typo3v9-hack.ddev.site/? eID=comments&search=typo3*' ––risk 3 ––level 3 ––banner ▪ inside ddev container ▪ ./sqlmap -u 'http://web/?eID=comments&search=typo3*' ––risk 3 ––level 3 ––sql-shell # marker* in GET parameters ▪ ./sqlmap -u 'http://web/?eID=comments' ––data '&search=typo3*' ––risk 3 ––level 3 ––sql-shell # marker* in POST
  • 38. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 38 SQLmap
  • 39. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 39 meanwhile in /var/log/nginx/access.log
  • 40. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 40 possible SQL injection attack payload
  • 41. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 41 remote SQL shell via SQL injection
  • 42. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 42 “stacked queries” not allowed in PHP/PDO - SELECT …; INSERT …;
  • 43. Insecure Deserialization 43TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
  • 44. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 44 Insecure Deserialization - Basics __destruct() or __wakeup() methods are executed on deserialization
  • 45. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 45 Insecure Deserialization - Basics user submitted payload to be deserialized
  • 46. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 46 allowed_classes introduced with PHP 7.0 (Polyfill available)
  • 47. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org Insecure Deserialization - TYPO3-CORE-SA-2019-020 47 ▪ https://typo3.org/security/advisory/typo3-core-sa-2019-020/ ▪ https://blog.ripstech.com/2019/typo3-overriding-the-database/ ▪ overrideVals[<table>][l10n_diffsource]=<serialized payload> ▪ addressed on June 25th, 2019
  • 48. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 48 Insecure Deserialization - Basics __destruct() saves content to filesystem
  • 49. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 49 Remote Code Execution #1 making use of FileCookieJar as attack container
  • 50. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 50 Remote Code Execution #1 prepare attack against TYPO3 backend
  • 51. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 51 Remote Code Execution #1 actual attack payload that shall be executed
  • 52. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 52 Remote Code Execution #1 XSRF token needs to be know (valid backend user required)
  • 53. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 53 Remote Code Execution #1 output of injected & executed /typo3/hack.php
  • 54. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 54 Remote Code Execution #1 … new admin user h4ck3r31 …
  • 55. Other™ 55TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
  • 56. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org Other™ random topics 56 ▪ File Upload ▪ check/deny extensions (file deny pattern) ▪ check mime-types - image/png, text/html, … ▪ Extbase controller actions ▪ user/group access needs individual handling ▪ classic: logged in user can access profile data of others ▪ Directory Traversal ▪ zip bundle.zip ../malicious.php ▪ depends on how it is extracted
  • 57. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org phar://… 57
  • 58. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 58 https://packagist.org/packages/typo3/phar-stream-wrapper
  • 59. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 59 ▪ usually used like
 require_once('phar://bundle.phar/vendor/autoload.php');
 $service = new BundleService(); ▪ Phar archives are vulnerable to insecure deserialisation ▪ all Phar archives in every PHP version (since 5.3) ▪ using “phar://“ stream wrapper is required here ▪ however, applies to regular file calls as well ▪ is_file(), file_exists(), fopen(), file_get_contents(), … ▪ is_file($_GET[‘fileName’]) // … user submitted data
  • 60. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 60 demo web application
  • 61. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 61 file does exist - correct
  • 62. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 62 result of implicit insecure deserialization
  • 63. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 63 Hybrid - Valid PNG file & Valid Phar archive
  • 64. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 64 building hybrid Phar archive
  • 65. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 65 PharStreamWrapper in TYPO3 core
  • 66. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 66 ▪ TYPO3CMSCoreIOPharStreamWrapperInterceptor ▪ TYPO3 core - Phar only in typo3conf/ext/ directories ▪ TYPO3PharStreamWrapper…PharExtensionInterceptor ▪ Phar only with file extension “.phar” ▪ TYPO3PharStreamWrapper…PharMetaDataInterceptor ▪ Phar only without serialized objects in meta-data
  • 67. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org Vulnerability Reporting CVSSv3, Mitre & Co. 67
  • 68. How to report? 68TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
  • 69. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org How to report a security vulnerability? 69 ▪ always report via mail to security@typo3.org (Security Team) ▪ don’t post potential attacks to Forge, Twitter, … (public media) ▪ inform security team in case vulnerabilities are leaked ▪ please be patient & wait for feedback ▪ approx first response time is ~8 hours
  • 70. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org Responsible Disclosure Workflow 70 ▪ report vulnerability to vendor (here: security team) ▪ wait for feedback, questions or confirmation of this issue ▪ ask for status updates in case there is no activity ▪ declare deadline for full disclosure (e.g. 90 days) ▪ in case vendor does not take actions - public disclosure ▪ vendors (should) have interest to release security bulletins ▪ hiding vulnerability caused feeling of false security
  • 71. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 71 Responsible Disclosure Workflow https://blog.ripstech.com/2019/typo3-overriding-the-database/
  • 72. How to read reports? 72TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Hacking TYPO3 - oliver.hader@typo3.org
  • 73. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 73 https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-metrics/cvss/v3-calculator
  • 74. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 74 https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-metrics/cvss/v3-calculator
  • 75. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 75 https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-metrics/cvss/v3-calculator
  • 76. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org CVSSv3 example #1 76 ▪ CVE-2013-1937 ▪ phpMyAdmin Reflected Cross-site Scripting Vulnerability ▪ “Reflected cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities are present on the tbl_gis_visualization.php page in phpMyAdmin 3.5.x, before version 3.5.8. These allow remote attackers to inject arbitrary JavaScript or HTML via the (1) visualizationSettings[width] or (2) visualizationSettings[height] parameters.”
  • 77. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 77 CVSSv3 example #1 https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-metrics/cvss/v3-calculator
  • 78. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org CVSSv3 example #2 78 ▪ CVE-2016-1645 ▪ Google Chrome PDFium JPEG 2000 Remote Code Execution Vulnerability ▪ “Allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code on vulnerable installations of Google Chrome. User interaction is required to exploit this vulnerability in that the victim must visit a malicious page or open a malicious file. Flaw exists within the handling of JPEG 2000 images. Specially crafted JPEG 2000 image embedded inside a PDF can force Google Chrome to write memory past the end of an allocated object. Attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute arbitrary code under the context of the current process.”
  • 79. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 79 CVSSv3 example #2 https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-metrics/cvss/v3-calculator
  • 80. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 80 https://typo3.org/security/advisory/typo3-psa-2019-007/
  • 81. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 81 https://typo3.org/security/advisory/typo3-psa-2019-007/
  • 82. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 82 https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-11831
  • 83. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 83 https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-11831
  • 84. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org TYPO3 Security Team 84
  • 85. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 85 ▪ triage and answer reports ▪ communicate with reporters (individuals, pen-testers) ▪ forward information to maintainers (core, extension author, …) ▪ frankly remind people in case activity is kind of low ▪ coordinate releases & release dates ▪ compile information into security bulletins / announcements ▪ educate & raise awareness in teams & community
  • 86. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org Capture the Flag 86
  • 87. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 87 https://www.root-me.org/en/Challenges/Web-Server/
  • 88. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 88 https://ctf.hacker101.com/ctf
  • 89. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org 89 ▪ https://www.root-me.org/en/Challenges/Web-Server/SQL- injection-Error # might work with SQLmap ▪ https://ctf.hacker101.com/ctf/launch/7 # check public API
  • 90. TYPO3 Developer Days 2019 - Web Application Security Workshop - oliver.hader@typo3.org References 90 ▪ Running an SQL Injection Attack: // “Computerphile“, nice series
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ciNHn38EyRc ▪ WordPress WPDB SQL Injection: // nice, on “custom” escaping
 https://blog.ircmaxell.com/2017/10/disclosure-wordpress-wpdb- sql-injection-technical.html ▪ CVSSv3 Examples:
 https://www.first.org/cvss/v3.0/examples