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ISPO requirement for risk
management
11.2 Risk Management
………The pilot organization shall maintain a
documented system to ensure that risks are
identified, analysed, evaluated and if required
controls put in place to reduce the identified
risk. Management shall ensure that controls are
communicated and their effectiveness reviewed.
ISPO requirement for risk
management
11.2 Risk Management
………The pilot organization shall maintain a
documented system to ensure that risks are
identified, analysed, evaluated and if required
controls put in place to reduce the identified
risk. Management shall ensure that controls are
communicated and their effectiveness reviewed.
What is risk?
Risk is:
• the combination of the likelihood of a hazardous
event or exposure(s) and the severity of the
injury or ill health that can be caused by the
event or exposure(s) [BS 18004:2008]
• effect of uncertainty on objectives [ISO
31000:2009- Risk Management]
What kind of risks we have?
Risk to
health and
safety
Risk to
environment
Cost
Risk to
operations
The unwanted outcomes
• Grounding
• Collision
• Fire
• Explosion
• Foundering
The consequences
Dependent on types of carrier and
cargo
• Container ship
• Gas carrier
• Tanker
• Passenger ship
• RoRo / Vehicle carrier
“more than 80% of all
marine accidents …
… are caused by human
error”
For “human error” read
“management system failure”
Hazard: A substance, situation or practice
that has the potential to harm ,
Swiss Cheese Model
Defenses
Definitions of risk management
Actions that minimize risk within acceptable limits.
[USCG Risk Based Decision Making Guidelines]
Safety risk management is a generic term that
encompasses the assessment and mitigation of the
safety risks of the consequences of hazards that
threaten the capabilities of an organization, to a
level as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP).
[International Civil Aviation Organisation]
ALARP principle
Business management vs. risk
management
• Business management is about maximising
the chance of success
• Risk management is about minimizing the
chance of failure
• Effective risk management requires structured
risk assessment as an input
Risk assessment in simple terms
• What can go wrong?
hazard identification - the hazard turning into an accident
• How likely is it to go wrong?
likelihood
• What happens if it does go wrong?
consequence
• Do I have to do something about it?
Depends on risk level and tolerability of risk
Implement or improve controls to reduce likelihood
Implement or improve controls to reduce consequences
Identify hazards
The effective identification of hazards is the
key factor in realistic risk assessment
Definitions - BS 18004:2008
Hazard:
Source, situation, or act with a potential for harm in terms of human injury
or ill health, or a combination of these
Hazardous event (near miss)
Occurrence that results in, or has the potential to result in, an incident
Identifying hazards
a common mistake is to identify the
hazardous event instead of the hazard
Identify hazards
In considering sources, situations and acts,
it may be better to think in terms of
– unsafe acts
– unsafe conditions
– job factors
– personal factors
UNSAFE ACTS
• Operating equipment without authority
• Removing/making safety devices inoperable
• Using defective equipment
• Improper use of equipment
• Not using PPE
• Servicing equipment in operation
• Under influence of drink or drugs
UNSAFE CONDITIONS
• Inadequate guards/barriers
• Inadequate/improper PPE
• Defective tools/equipment/material
• Workspace restrictions
• Hazardous environmental conditions
• Noise, high/low temperatures
• Inadequate lighting
• Inadequate ventilation
PERSONAL FACTORS
Physically inadequate
Mentally inadequate
Lack of knowledge
Lack of skill
Stress
Improper motivation
JOB FACTORS
Inadequate supervision
Inadequate leadership
Inadequate engineering
Inadequate purchasing
Inadequate maintenance
Inadequate tools/equip
’
Inadequate work standards
Inadequate design
Link between risk
assessment and
incident investigation
Improve Controls
Risk
Level
Tolerab
le?
Contro
ls
Missin
g?
Incident
Existin
g
Contro
ls
Failed?
Risk
Assessment
Implement
Controls
YESYES
YES
Incident Investigation
Risk Assessment
NO
Harm to
people
property,
process,
environment
and reputation
INCIDENT
DIRECT CAUSE
INDIRECT CAUSE
ROOT CAUSEPrevention
Accident
Consequenc
e
What causes accidents?
What do you prefer?
Being proactive or being reactive?
What is more expensive?
What company’s management
can do?
Consider Risk Management as
their key business activity
What a pilot can do?
-Be proactive and ‘’loud’’
-Report new hazards identified
through near misses
-Reluctant to take excessive risk
THANK YOU !!

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Risk Management in Pilotage - By Mr. Marantis Stylianos

  • 1.
  • 2. ISPO requirement for risk management 11.2 Risk Management ………The pilot organization shall maintain a documented system to ensure that risks are identified, analysed, evaluated and if required controls put in place to reduce the identified risk. Management shall ensure that controls are communicated and their effectiveness reviewed.
  • 3. ISPO requirement for risk management 11.2 Risk Management ………The pilot organization shall maintain a documented system to ensure that risks are identified, analysed, evaluated and if required controls put in place to reduce the identified risk. Management shall ensure that controls are communicated and their effectiveness reviewed.
  • 4. What is risk? Risk is: • the combination of the likelihood of a hazardous event or exposure(s) and the severity of the injury or ill health that can be caused by the event or exposure(s) [BS 18004:2008] • effect of uncertainty on objectives [ISO 31000:2009- Risk Management]
  • 5. What kind of risks we have? Risk to health and safety Risk to environment Cost Risk to operations
  • 6. The unwanted outcomes • Grounding • Collision • Fire • Explosion • Foundering
  • 7. The consequences Dependent on types of carrier and cargo • Container ship • Gas carrier • Tanker • Passenger ship • RoRo / Vehicle carrier
  • 8. “more than 80% of all marine accidents … … are caused by human error”
  • 9. For “human error” read “management system failure”
  • 10. Hazard: A substance, situation or practice that has the potential to harm ,
  • 12. Definitions of risk management Actions that minimize risk within acceptable limits. [USCG Risk Based Decision Making Guidelines] Safety risk management is a generic term that encompasses the assessment and mitigation of the safety risks of the consequences of hazards that threaten the capabilities of an organization, to a level as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). [International Civil Aviation Organisation]
  • 14. Business management vs. risk management • Business management is about maximising the chance of success • Risk management is about minimizing the chance of failure • Effective risk management requires structured risk assessment as an input
  • 15. Risk assessment in simple terms • What can go wrong? hazard identification - the hazard turning into an accident • How likely is it to go wrong? likelihood • What happens if it does go wrong? consequence • Do I have to do something about it? Depends on risk level and tolerability of risk Implement or improve controls to reduce likelihood Implement or improve controls to reduce consequences
  • 16. Identify hazards The effective identification of hazards is the key factor in realistic risk assessment
  • 17. Definitions - BS 18004:2008 Hazard: Source, situation, or act with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health, or a combination of these Hazardous event (near miss) Occurrence that results in, or has the potential to result in, an incident
  • 18. Identifying hazards a common mistake is to identify the hazardous event instead of the hazard
  • 19. Identify hazards In considering sources, situations and acts, it may be better to think in terms of – unsafe acts – unsafe conditions – job factors – personal factors
  • 20. UNSAFE ACTS • Operating equipment without authority • Removing/making safety devices inoperable • Using defective equipment • Improper use of equipment • Not using PPE • Servicing equipment in operation • Under influence of drink or drugs UNSAFE CONDITIONS • Inadequate guards/barriers • Inadequate/improper PPE • Defective tools/equipment/material • Workspace restrictions • Hazardous environmental conditions • Noise, high/low temperatures • Inadequate lighting • Inadequate ventilation
  • 21. PERSONAL FACTORS Physically inadequate Mentally inadequate Lack of knowledge Lack of skill Stress Improper motivation JOB FACTORS Inadequate supervision Inadequate leadership Inadequate engineering Inadequate purchasing Inadequate maintenance Inadequate tools/equip ’ Inadequate work standards Inadequate design
  • 22. Link between risk assessment and incident investigation
  • 24. Harm to people property, process, environment and reputation INCIDENT DIRECT CAUSE INDIRECT CAUSE ROOT CAUSEPrevention Accident Consequenc e What causes accidents?
  • 25. What do you prefer? Being proactive or being reactive? What is more expensive?
  • 26. What company’s management can do? Consider Risk Management as their key business activity
  • 27. What a pilot can do? -Be proactive and ‘’loud’’ -Report new hazards identified through near misses -Reluctant to take excessive risk