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Prompt Engineering -
an Art, a Science, or
your next Job Title?
Maxim Salnikov
Developer Productivity Lead
Microsoft
• Building on web platform
since 90s
• Organizing developer
communities and technical
conferences
• Speaking, training, blogging:
Webdev, Cloud, Generative AI,
Prompt Engineering
Helping developers to succeed with the Dev Tools, Cloud & AI in Microsoft
I’m Maxim Salnikov
>1 Billion
generative AI users
Building
intelligent
apps
Productivity
Business, personal,
education, science
Creativity
Arts, hobbies
?
One common thing…
Emerging model landscape
• Anthropic Claude 3
• Databricks DBRX
• Meta Llama 3
• Mistral Mixtral 8x22B
• Google Gemini 1.5
• RWKV Eagle 7B
• Microsoft Phi-2
• X Grok-1
• OpenAI GPT-4
• Cerebras Cerebras-GPT
• Cohere Command R
• Bloomberg BloombergGPT
• LAION OpenAssistant
• …
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_language_model
GPT-4o
Prompt Engineering
Process of designing, refining, and
optimizing input prompts to guide a
model toward producing more accurate
outputs while keeping cost efficiency
Prompt anatomy
Instruction
Input data
Context
Target format
Example
Cue
<
Write a product launch email for new headphones.
This product is AI-powered and priced at $79.99.
The tone is friendly and exciting.
Output as a JSON object with "subject" and "body" fields.
Example:
{
"subject": "Introducing Our New AI-Powered Headphones!",
"body": "We are thrilled to announce the launch of our new AI-
powered headphones"
}
JSON output:
Tokens
https://platform.openai.com/tokenizer
Tokens and cost efficiency
https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/pricing/details/cognitive-services/openai-service
(Prompt length + Completion length) x Number of API calls
Model selection strategy
1. Write the best prompt for the most expensive
model
2. Downgrade to the cheaper model
3. Tune the prompt if needed
Completion
is not worse
Keep it or downgrade & repeat
Yes
Return to the expensive
No
Using multiple models
1. Mix the models
• Expensive: generation
• Cheap: summarization, classification
2. Chain the models
• Summarize text before sending to the expensive
one
• Use whitespaces carefully
• Try various formats
• Tabular | data | is | space-efficient
• Language makes difference
Space efficiency
LLMLingua: Prompt compressor
https://github.com/microsoft/LLMLingua/
• Compact, well-trained language model (e.g., GPT2-small, LLaMA-7B) to
identify and remove non-essential tokens in prompts
• Achieving up to 20x compression with minimal performance loss
Compressed
Write product launch email new headphones.
product AI - powered priced $ 79. 99.
tone friendly exciting.
Output JSON object subject " body " fields.
Example :
{
subject " Introducing New AI - Powered Headphones! ",
body " thrilled announce launch new AI - powered headphones
}
Output :
70 vs 84 tokens (17%)
https://huggingface.co/spaces/microsoft/llmlingua-2
General recommendations
• Be specific and clear
• Be descriptive, use examples
• Order matters
• Double down
• Give the model an “out”
https://github.com/microsoft/generative-ai-for-beginners/
Technical recommendations
• Start with clear instructions and repeat the
instructions at the end
• Add clear syntax: headers, separators
• Break the task down
• Adjust parameters: Temperature and Top
probabilities
Zero-shot VS few-shot prompts
Zero-shot
The model predicts the answer given only a natural
language description of the task.
Few-shot
In addition to the task description, the model sees a few
examples of the task.
Customer question: Hi there, do you know how to choose
flood insurance?​
Classified topic: 2​
Customer question: Hi there, I have a question on my auto insurance.​
Classified topic: 1​
Classify customer's question. Classify between category 1 to 3.
Detailed guidelines for how to choose:
choose 1 if the question is about auto insurance.
choose 2 if the question is about home flood insurance.
choose 3 if the question is not relevant to insurance.
Classify customer's question. Classify between category 1 to 3.
Detailed guidelines for how to choose:
choose 1 if the question is about auto insurance.
choose 2 if the question is about home flood insurance.
choose 3 if the question is not relevant to insurance.
Customer question: {insert new question here}
Classified topic:
Customer question: What packages do you have in auto insurance?
Classified topic:
Chain-of-Thought (Reasoning)
Before
What is the annual water demand of a single-family
household containing four people who are at home an
average of 200 days per year and use an average of 100
liters of water per day?
The annual water demand of a single-family household
containing four people who are at home an average of
200 days per year and use an average of 100 liters of
water per day is 8,000,000 liters per year.
After
What is the annual water demand of a single-family
household containing four people who are at home an
average of 200 days per year and use an average of 100
liters of water per day?
Step 1: Calculate the total number of days in a year:
There are 365 days in a year.
Step 2: Calculate the total number of days the family is at home:
The family is at home an average of 200 days per year.
Step 3: Calculate the total water demand of the family:
The family uses an average of 100 liters of water per day. Therefore, the total
water demand of the family is 100 liters x 200 days = 20,000 liters per year.
Step 4: Calculate the annual water demand of the single-family household:
The annual water demand of the single-family household is 20,000 liters per
year.
Let’s think step by step and explain the
calculation step by step.
Prompt Chaining
Entity Extraction
Please extract entities from the
following news article: 'The new
iPhone model is set to be released
next month. It has been highly
anticipated by Apple fans and is
expected to feature a larger screen
and improved camera
{'text': 'iPhone', 'type’:
'PRODUCT'}, {'text': 'Apple’,
'type': 'ORGANIZATION'}]
Summarization
Please summarize the information
about the product
[{'text': 'iPhone', 'type': 'PRODUCT'},
{'text': 'Apple', 'type':
'ORGANIZATION’}]
The iPhone is a line of smartphones
designed and marketed by Apple
Inc. These devices combine a
computer, camera, and internet
connectivity in a single device, and
are known for their sleek design and
user-friendly interface.
Sentiment Analysis
Please provide a sentiment for the
following text:
The iPhone is a line of smartphones
designed and marketed by Apple
Inc. These devices combine a
computer, camera, and internet
connectivity in a single device,
and are known for their sleek
design and user-friendly interface.
Positive
Please summarize and extract topic:
Climate change is a pressing issue that needs to be addressed
immediately. Governments around the world need to take
immediate action to reduce carbon emissions and invest in
renewable energy sources. Failure to do so will have dire
consequences for future generations
Summary of chunk 2
Summary of Chunk 3
…
Prompt Chunking
Large Text
Beyond
Token
Limit
Chunks
The text is discussing global warming, which is the gradual increase in
the overall temperature of the Earth's atmosphere caused by the
burning of fossil fuels. This burning releases greenhouse gases, such as
carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere which trap heat and cause the
temperature to rise. The text also highlights the urgency of the issue of
climate change and the need for governments to take action to reduce
carbon emissions and invest in renewable energy sources. Failure to
address this issue will have negative consequences for future
generations.
Topic: Climate change and Global warming.
Please summarize the following text:
Climate change is a pressing issue that needs
to be addressed immediately. The increasing
levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
are causing the Earth's temperature to rise,
which is leading to more frequent and severe
natural disasters. Governments around the
world need to take immediate action to
reduce carbon emissions and invest in
renewable energy sources.
…
+ many more sentences
Climate change is a pressing issue that needs to
be addressed immediately. Governments
around the world need to take immediate
action to reduce carbon emissions and invest in
renewable energy sources. Failure to do so will
have dire consequences for future generations
Directional Stimulus Prompting
https://www.promptingguide.ai/techniques/dsp
Produced by small,
optimized, fine-tuned
LM
The Cambridge Dictionary
Word of the Year 2023 is...
https://dictionaryblog.cambridge.org/2023/11/15/understanding-ai-jargon-artificial-intelligence-vocabulary/
Reducing hallucination
• Tell the model what you don’t want
• Tell it what to say when it is not sure, say “I don’t know”
• “Do not make up facts”
• Discriminator that checks if all information needed to answer is
available
• Step by step reasoning
• Ask the model to explain along with the answer
• Dynamically finding and injecting relevant context into
prompt
Prompt
Text input that provides some
framing as to how the engine
should behave
You are an intelligent assistant helping Contoso Inc
employees with their healthcare plan questions and
employee handbook questions. Answer the following
question using only the data provided in the
sources below.
User provided question
that needs to be answered
Response
Based on the provided information,
it can be determined that both
health plans offered by Northwind
Health Plus and Northwind Standard
provide coverage for vision exams.
Therefore, your health plan should
cover annual eye exams.
Added Knowledge Prompting
Question: Does my health plan cover annual
eye exams?
Data used to
answer the question
Sources:
1. Northwind Health Plus offers coverage for vision exams,
glasses, and contact lenses, as well as dental exams,
cleanings, and fillings.
2. Northwind Standard only offers coverage for
vision exams and glasses.
3. Both plans offer coverage for vision and
dental services.
User Question
LLM Workflow
Retrieve My Data
Knowledge
base
Add Results to Prompt
Query Model
Large Language
Model
Send Results
Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG)
https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/search/retrieval-augmented-generation-overview
1. Using LLM to extract keywords
or to create embeddings for the
vector search
2. Sending prompt with all
needed data pasted in
Will my sleeping bag
work for my trip to
Patagonia next
month?
User input
Historical weather
lookup
Intent mapping
Personalization Product info
Recommendations
engine
???
Prompt engineering LLM
Yes, your Elite Eco
sleeping bag is rated
to 21.6F, which is
below the average
low temperature in
Patagonia in
September
Output
More context
What about DX for the prompts LLM apps
• Prototyping
• Experimenting
• Iterating
• Deploying
• Optimizing
• Monitoring
LangChain Semantic Kernel
https://github.com/microsoft/semantic-kernel
https://github.com/langchain-ai/langchain
Operationalize
LLM app
development
• Prompt engineering: authoring,
tracking history, variants
• CI/CD-ready
• Iterative experimentation
• Versioning and reproducibility
• Deployment and optimization
• Code-first
Design and development
Develop flow based on prompt
to extend the capability
Debug, run, and evaluate
flow with small data
Modify flow (prompts and
tools etc.)
No If satisfied
Yes
Evaluation and refinement
Evaluate flow against large
dataset with different metrics
(quality, relevance, safety, etc.)
If satisfied
Yes
Optimization and production
Optimize flow
Deploy and
monitor flow
Get end user
feedback
Prompt Flow for LLMOps!
Create and iteratively develop flow
• Create executable flows that link LLMs, prompts,
Python code and other tools together.
• Debug and iterate your flows, especially the
interaction with LLMs with ease.
Evaluate flow quality and performance
• Evaluate your flow's quality and performance with
larger datasets.
• Integrate the testing and evaluation into your
CI/CD system to ensure quality of your flow.
Streamlined development cycle for production
• Deploy your flow to the serving platform you
choose or integrate into your app's code base
easily.
• Collaborate with your team by leveraging the
cloud version of Prompt flow in Azure AI.
Code-first!
https://github.com/microsoft/promptflow
Agenta: e2e LLM developer platform
https://github.com/Agenta-AI/agenta
Experiment and compare prompts on any
LLM workflow (chain-of-prompts, RAG, LLM
agents...)
Evaluate your application with pre-existing or
custom evaluators
Collaborate with product teams for prompt
engineering and evaluation
Deploy your application in one-click in the
UI, through CLI, or through GitHub workflows
Works with any LLM framework and any LLM provider
Learning resources
• Learn Prompting Community
• Prompting Guide by DAIR.AI
• Prompt Engineering for the developers on Deep Learning
• Prompt Examples on OpenAI
• Introduction to Prompt Engineering on Microsoft Learn
Future of Prompt Engineering?
• Separate job title or essential skill?
• Simpler (with tooling, more intuitive models) or
more complex (multi-modality, vectors, etc.)?
• Democratizing (+ job title inflation) or gating?
• Linguists or technologists (or domain experts able
to formulate the problem)?
• Competing with “LLM Prompt Engineers”?
https://hbr.org/2023/06/ai-prompt-engineering-isnt-the-future
https://promptengineering.rocks
v2.0
Thank you! I kindly prompt you:

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Prompt Engineering - an Art, a Science, or your next Job Title?

  • 1. Prompt Engineering - an Art, a Science, or your next Job Title? Maxim Salnikov Developer Productivity Lead Microsoft
  • 2. • Building on web platform since 90s • Organizing developer communities and technical conferences • Speaking, training, blogging: Webdev, Cloud, Generative AI, Prompt Engineering Helping developers to succeed with the Dev Tools, Cloud & AI in Microsoft I’m Maxim Salnikov
  • 6. Emerging model landscape • Anthropic Claude 3 • Databricks DBRX • Meta Llama 3 • Mistral Mixtral 8x22B • Google Gemini 1.5 • RWKV Eagle 7B • Microsoft Phi-2 • X Grok-1 • OpenAI GPT-4 • Cerebras Cerebras-GPT • Cohere Command R • Bloomberg BloombergGPT • LAION OpenAssistant • … https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_language_model GPT-4o
  • 7. Prompt Engineering Process of designing, refining, and optimizing input prompts to guide a model toward producing more accurate outputs while keeping cost efficiency
  • 8. Prompt anatomy Instruction Input data Context Target format Example Cue < Write a product launch email for new headphones. This product is AI-powered and priced at $79.99. The tone is friendly and exciting. Output as a JSON object with "subject" and "body" fields. Example: { "subject": "Introducing Our New AI-Powered Headphones!", "body": "We are thrilled to announce the launch of our new AI- powered headphones" } JSON output:
  • 10. Tokens and cost efficiency https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/pricing/details/cognitive-services/openai-service (Prompt length + Completion length) x Number of API calls
  • 11. Model selection strategy 1. Write the best prompt for the most expensive model 2. Downgrade to the cheaper model 3. Tune the prompt if needed Completion is not worse Keep it or downgrade & repeat Yes Return to the expensive No
  • 12. Using multiple models 1. Mix the models • Expensive: generation • Cheap: summarization, classification 2. Chain the models • Summarize text before sending to the expensive one
  • 13. • Use whitespaces carefully • Try various formats • Tabular | data | is | space-efficient • Language makes difference Space efficiency
  • 14. LLMLingua: Prompt compressor https://github.com/microsoft/LLMLingua/ • Compact, well-trained language model (e.g., GPT2-small, LLaMA-7B) to identify and remove non-essential tokens in prompts • Achieving up to 20x compression with minimal performance loss
  • 15. Compressed Write product launch email new headphones. product AI - powered priced $ 79. 99. tone friendly exciting. Output JSON object subject " body " fields. Example : { subject " Introducing New AI - Powered Headphones! ", body " thrilled announce launch new AI - powered headphones } Output : 70 vs 84 tokens (17%) https://huggingface.co/spaces/microsoft/llmlingua-2
  • 16. General recommendations • Be specific and clear • Be descriptive, use examples • Order matters • Double down • Give the model an “out” https://github.com/microsoft/generative-ai-for-beginners/
  • 17. Technical recommendations • Start with clear instructions and repeat the instructions at the end • Add clear syntax: headers, separators • Break the task down • Adjust parameters: Temperature and Top probabilities
  • 18. Zero-shot VS few-shot prompts Zero-shot The model predicts the answer given only a natural language description of the task. Few-shot In addition to the task description, the model sees a few examples of the task. Customer question: Hi there, do you know how to choose flood insurance?​ Classified topic: 2​ Customer question: Hi there, I have a question on my auto insurance.​ Classified topic: 1​ Classify customer's question. Classify between category 1 to 3. Detailed guidelines for how to choose: choose 1 if the question is about auto insurance. choose 2 if the question is about home flood insurance. choose 3 if the question is not relevant to insurance. Classify customer's question. Classify between category 1 to 3. Detailed guidelines for how to choose: choose 1 if the question is about auto insurance. choose 2 if the question is about home flood insurance. choose 3 if the question is not relevant to insurance. Customer question: {insert new question here} Classified topic: Customer question: What packages do you have in auto insurance? Classified topic:
  • 19. Chain-of-Thought (Reasoning) Before What is the annual water demand of a single-family household containing four people who are at home an average of 200 days per year and use an average of 100 liters of water per day? The annual water demand of a single-family household containing four people who are at home an average of 200 days per year and use an average of 100 liters of water per day is 8,000,000 liters per year. After What is the annual water demand of a single-family household containing four people who are at home an average of 200 days per year and use an average of 100 liters of water per day? Step 1: Calculate the total number of days in a year: There are 365 days in a year. Step 2: Calculate the total number of days the family is at home: The family is at home an average of 200 days per year. Step 3: Calculate the total water demand of the family: The family uses an average of 100 liters of water per day. Therefore, the total water demand of the family is 100 liters x 200 days = 20,000 liters per year. Step 4: Calculate the annual water demand of the single-family household: The annual water demand of the single-family household is 20,000 liters per year. Let’s think step by step and explain the calculation step by step.
  • 20. Prompt Chaining Entity Extraction Please extract entities from the following news article: 'The new iPhone model is set to be released next month. It has been highly anticipated by Apple fans and is expected to feature a larger screen and improved camera {'text': 'iPhone', 'type’: 'PRODUCT'}, {'text': 'Apple’, 'type': 'ORGANIZATION'}] Summarization Please summarize the information about the product [{'text': 'iPhone', 'type': 'PRODUCT'}, {'text': 'Apple', 'type': 'ORGANIZATION’}] The iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. These devices combine a computer, camera, and internet connectivity in a single device, and are known for their sleek design and user-friendly interface. Sentiment Analysis Please provide a sentiment for the following text: The iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. These devices combine a computer, camera, and internet connectivity in a single device, and are known for their sleek design and user-friendly interface. Positive
  • 21. Please summarize and extract topic: Climate change is a pressing issue that needs to be addressed immediately. Governments around the world need to take immediate action to reduce carbon emissions and invest in renewable energy sources. Failure to do so will have dire consequences for future generations Summary of chunk 2 Summary of Chunk 3 … Prompt Chunking Large Text Beyond Token Limit Chunks The text is discussing global warming, which is the gradual increase in the overall temperature of the Earth's atmosphere caused by the burning of fossil fuels. This burning releases greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere which trap heat and cause the temperature to rise. The text also highlights the urgency of the issue of climate change and the need for governments to take action to reduce carbon emissions and invest in renewable energy sources. Failure to address this issue will have negative consequences for future generations. Topic: Climate change and Global warming. Please summarize the following text: Climate change is a pressing issue that needs to be addressed immediately. The increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are causing the Earth's temperature to rise, which is leading to more frequent and severe natural disasters. Governments around the world need to take immediate action to reduce carbon emissions and invest in renewable energy sources. … + many more sentences Climate change is a pressing issue that needs to be addressed immediately. Governments around the world need to take immediate action to reduce carbon emissions and invest in renewable energy sources. Failure to do so will have dire consequences for future generations
  • 23. The Cambridge Dictionary Word of the Year 2023 is... https://dictionaryblog.cambridge.org/2023/11/15/understanding-ai-jargon-artificial-intelligence-vocabulary/
  • 24. Reducing hallucination • Tell the model what you don’t want • Tell it what to say when it is not sure, say “I don’t know” • “Do not make up facts” • Discriminator that checks if all information needed to answer is available • Step by step reasoning • Ask the model to explain along with the answer • Dynamically finding and injecting relevant context into prompt
  • 25. Prompt Text input that provides some framing as to how the engine should behave You are an intelligent assistant helping Contoso Inc employees with their healthcare plan questions and employee handbook questions. Answer the following question using only the data provided in the sources below. User provided question that needs to be answered Response Based on the provided information, it can be determined that both health plans offered by Northwind Health Plus and Northwind Standard provide coverage for vision exams. Therefore, your health plan should cover annual eye exams. Added Knowledge Prompting Question: Does my health plan cover annual eye exams? Data used to answer the question Sources: 1. Northwind Health Plus offers coverage for vision exams, glasses, and contact lenses, as well as dental exams, cleanings, and fillings. 2. Northwind Standard only offers coverage for vision exams and glasses. 3. Both plans offer coverage for vision and dental services.
  • 26. User Question LLM Workflow Retrieve My Data Knowledge base Add Results to Prompt Query Model Large Language Model Send Results Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/search/retrieval-augmented-generation-overview 1. Using LLM to extract keywords or to create embeddings for the vector search 2. Sending prompt with all needed data pasted in
  • 27. Will my sleeping bag work for my trip to Patagonia next month? User input Historical weather lookup Intent mapping Personalization Product info Recommendations engine ??? Prompt engineering LLM Yes, your Elite Eco sleeping bag is rated to 21.6F, which is below the average low temperature in Patagonia in September Output More context
  • 28. What about DX for the prompts LLM apps • Prototyping • Experimenting • Iterating • Deploying • Optimizing • Monitoring
  • 30. Operationalize LLM app development • Prompt engineering: authoring, tracking history, variants • CI/CD-ready • Iterative experimentation • Versioning and reproducibility • Deployment and optimization • Code-first Design and development Develop flow based on prompt to extend the capability Debug, run, and evaluate flow with small data Modify flow (prompts and tools etc.) No If satisfied Yes Evaluation and refinement Evaluate flow against large dataset with different metrics (quality, relevance, safety, etc.) If satisfied Yes Optimization and production Optimize flow Deploy and monitor flow Get end user feedback
  • 31. Prompt Flow for LLMOps! Create and iteratively develop flow • Create executable flows that link LLMs, prompts, Python code and other tools together. • Debug and iterate your flows, especially the interaction with LLMs with ease. Evaluate flow quality and performance • Evaluate your flow's quality and performance with larger datasets. • Integrate the testing and evaluation into your CI/CD system to ensure quality of your flow. Streamlined development cycle for production • Deploy your flow to the serving platform you choose or integrate into your app's code base easily. • Collaborate with your team by leveraging the cloud version of Prompt flow in Azure AI. Code-first! https://github.com/microsoft/promptflow
  • 32.
  • 33. Agenta: e2e LLM developer platform https://github.com/Agenta-AI/agenta Experiment and compare prompts on any LLM workflow (chain-of-prompts, RAG, LLM agents...) Evaluate your application with pre-existing or custom evaluators Collaborate with product teams for prompt engineering and evaluation Deploy your application in one-click in the UI, through CLI, or through GitHub workflows Works with any LLM framework and any LLM provider
  • 34. Learning resources • Learn Prompting Community • Prompting Guide by DAIR.AI • Prompt Engineering for the developers on Deep Learning • Prompt Examples on OpenAI • Introduction to Prompt Engineering on Microsoft Learn
  • 35. Future of Prompt Engineering? • Separate job title or essential skill? • Simpler (with tooling, more intuitive models) or more complex (multi-modality, vectors, etc.)? • Democratizing (+ job title inflation) or gating? • Linguists or technologists (or domain experts able to formulate the problem)? • Competing with “LLM Prompt Engineers”? https://hbr.org/2023/06/ai-prompt-engineering-isnt-the-future
  • 37. Thank you! I kindly prompt you: