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PARTS
OF SPEECH
•NOUN: These name persons, things, places, ideas -- can be concrete or
abstract. EX: Stephanie, door, biology, honor.
•PRONOUN: These substitute for nouns but act in the same way. They can be
individual (I, you, he) or collective (everyone, each). EX: they, who, which,
she.
•ADJECTIVE: These describe or modify nouns. EX: slow, quiet, useful, blue,
much.
•VERB: These state an action or a state of being. EX: kick, call, create, is, will
be. Verbs can be transitive, meaning that they act on something else (Walter
kicked the ball), or intransitive, meaning that they don't (I was asleep). Verbs
can also be linking verbs, meaning that they connect a subject to a word or
group of words which describe or complete its meaning. EX: The car was blue
and full of bullet holes.
•ADVERB: These modify several things: verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
Adverbs are often made from adjectives (careful -- carefully). They answer
these questions about an action: where? when? why? how? in what way?
how much? EX: tomorrow, next, quietly, honorably, very.
•CONJUNCTION: These join words, phrases and clauses. There are three kinds of
conjuctions:
1.Coordinating Conjunctions: these are single words that join words, phrases,
and clauses of equal grammatical importance in the sentence. EX: and, but, or,
so.
2.Coorelative Conjunctions: these are pairs of words that join equally
important words, phrases, and clauses. EX: either...or, both...and, not only...but
also.
3.Subordinating Conjuctions: these begin clauses that cannot stand on their
own and tell you how that clause relates to the rest of the sentence. These
words help you create sentences with increasingly complicated ideas and
relationships between those ideas. EX (not a complete list): if, because,
although, when, where, unless, until, since.
•PREPOSITIONS: These words or phrases relate nouns or pronouns to other words in
a sentence, and often indicate some sort of positional relationship. EX: of, in, about,
to, around, next to, on top of.
•INTERJECTIONS: They are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah! They have no real
grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in
writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical
connection to the sentence. An interjection is sometimes followed by an
exclamation mark (!) when written.
ADVERBS
ADVERBS
Adverbs are words that modify a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?),
an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?) and/or another
adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?)
•Adverbs are used to describe how, where, when, how often and why something
happens.
• Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in
-ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an
adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are
adjectives:
That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.
•A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't. In
certain cases, the two forms have different meanings:
He arrived late.
Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything.
•If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb
of a sentence), it is called an Adverb Clause:
When this class is over, we're going to the movies.
•When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it is called
an adverbial phrase. Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling
place and time, modifying the verb):
He went to the movies.
She works on holidays.
They lived in Canada during the war.
•And infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why):
She hurried to the mainland to see her brother.
The senator ran to catch the bus.
•Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus we
would say that "the students showed a really wonderful attitude" and that "the students
showed a wonderfully casual attitude" and that "my professor is really tall,
but not "He ran real fast.“
•Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree.
Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.
The student who reads fastest will finish first.
•We often use more and most, less and least to show degree with adverbs:
With sneakers on, she could move more quickly among the patients.
The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen.
She worked less confidently after her accident.
That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years.
•The as — as construction can be used to create adverbs that express sameness or
equality: "He can't run as fast as his sister.“
Adverbs often function as intensifiers, conveying a greater or lesser emphasis to
something. Intensifiers are said to have three different functions: they can
emphasize, amplify, or downtone. Here are some examples:
Emphasizers:
I really don't believe him.
He literally wrecked his mother's car.
She simply ignored me.
They're going to be late, for sure.
Amplifiers:
The teacher completely rejected her proposal.
I absolutely refuse to attend any more faculty meetings.
They heartily endorsed the new restaurant.
I so wanted to go with them.
We know this city well.
Downtoners:
I kind of like this college.
Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister.
His mother mildly disapproved his actions.
We can improve on this to some extent.
The boss almost quit after that.
The school was all but ruined by the storm.
KINDS
OF ADVERBS
KINDS
OF ADVERBS
Adverbs of manner describe how something happens. Where there are two or more verbs in a
sentence, adverb placement affects the meaning. Some commonly used adverbs of manner
include:
carefully
correctly
eagerly
easily
fast
loudly
patiently
quickly
quietly
well.
Consider the following example:
She decided to write her paper. (no adverbs)
She quickly decided to write her paper. (her decision was quick)
She decided to write her paper quickly. (her writing was quick)
Adverbs of place describe where something happens. Most adverbs of place are also used as
prepositions. Some commonly used examples include the following:
abroad
anywhere
downstairs
here
home
in
nowhere
out
outside
somewhere
there
underground
upstairs.
I wanted to go upstairs.
She has lived in the city since June. (prepositional phrase)
Adverbs of purpose describe why something happens. Here are some common examples:
so
so that
to
in order to
because
since
accidentally
intentionally
and purposely.
Jenny walks carefully to avoid falling.
Bob accidentally broke the vase.
Adverbs of frequency describe how often something happens. The following adverbs are
commonly used in this way:
always
every
never
often
rarely
seldom
sometimes
and usually.
Mackenzie gets a ride from her brother every day.
The fish usually swims near the top of its tank.
Adverbs of time describe when something happens. These examples are commonly used:
after
already
during
finally
just
last
later
next
now
recently
soon
then
tomorrow
when
while
and yesterday.
He came home before dark.
Jessica finished her homework last night.
Andy left school early.
Adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, an adjective or
another adverb.
Almost
nearly
quite
just
too
Enough
hardly
scarcely
completely
very
extremely.
•he doesn't quite know what she'll do after university.
•They are completely exhausted from the trip.
•I am too tired to go out tonight.
•He hardly noticed what she was saying.
Adverbs which are used for asking questions are called interrogative adverbs. There are several
different kinds of interrogative adverbs.
Interrogative Adverbs of Time: when, how long, how early, how soon etc.
Interrogative adverbs of Place: where.
Interrogative adverbs of number: how many, how often, how much.
Interrogative adverb of manner: how.
Interrogative adverbs of degree or quantity: how much, how far, how high etc.
Interrogative adverbs of reason: why.
How much did you pay?
How far can you go?
How much more do you want?
ORDER OF
ADVERBS
Verb Manner Place Frequency Time Purpose
Beth swims enthusiastically in the pool every morning before dawn to keep in shape.
Dad walks impatiently into town every afternoon before supper
to get a
newspaper.
Tashonda naps in her room every morning before lunch.
The Royal Order of Adverbs

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Adverbs

  • 2. •NOUN: These name persons, things, places, ideas -- can be concrete or abstract. EX: Stephanie, door, biology, honor. •PRONOUN: These substitute for nouns but act in the same way. They can be individual (I, you, he) or collective (everyone, each). EX: they, who, which, she. •ADJECTIVE: These describe or modify nouns. EX: slow, quiet, useful, blue, much. •VERB: These state an action or a state of being. EX: kick, call, create, is, will be. Verbs can be transitive, meaning that they act on something else (Walter kicked the ball), or intransitive, meaning that they don't (I was asleep). Verbs can also be linking verbs, meaning that they connect a subject to a word or group of words which describe or complete its meaning. EX: The car was blue and full of bullet holes. •ADVERB: These modify several things: verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs are often made from adjectives (careful -- carefully). They answer these questions about an action: where? when? why? how? in what way? how much? EX: tomorrow, next, quietly, honorably, very.
  • 3. •CONJUNCTION: These join words, phrases and clauses. There are three kinds of conjuctions: 1.Coordinating Conjunctions: these are single words that join words, phrases, and clauses of equal grammatical importance in the sentence. EX: and, but, or, so. 2.Coorelative Conjunctions: these are pairs of words that join equally important words, phrases, and clauses. EX: either...or, both...and, not only...but also. 3.Subordinating Conjuctions: these begin clauses that cannot stand on their own and tell you how that clause relates to the rest of the sentence. These words help you create sentences with increasingly complicated ideas and relationships between those ideas. EX (not a complete list): if, because, although, when, where, unless, until, since. •PREPOSITIONS: These words or phrases relate nouns or pronouns to other words in a sentence, and often indicate some sort of positional relationship. EX: of, in, about, to, around, next to, on top of. •INTERJECTIONS: They are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written.
  • 4.
  • 6.
  • 7. Adverbs are words that modify a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?), an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?) and/or another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?) •Adverbs are used to describe how, where, when, how often and why something happens. • Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives: That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood. •A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't. In certain cases, the two forms have different meanings: He arrived late. Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything.
  • 8. •If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb of a sentence), it is called an Adverb Clause: When this class is over, we're going to the movies. •When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrase. Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place and time, modifying the verb): He went to the movies. She works on holidays. They lived in Canada during the war. •And infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why): She hurried to the mainland to see her brother. The senator ran to catch the bus.
  • 9. •Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus we would say that "the students showed a really wonderful attitude" and that "the students showed a wonderfully casual attitude" and that "my professor is really tall, but not "He ran real fast.“ •Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree. Walk faster if you want to keep up with me. The student who reads fastest will finish first. •We often use more and most, less and least to show degree with adverbs: With sneakers on, she could move more quickly among the patients. The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen. She worked less confidently after her accident. That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years. •The as — as construction can be used to create adverbs that express sameness or equality: "He can't run as fast as his sister.“
  • 10. Adverbs often function as intensifiers, conveying a greater or lesser emphasis to something. Intensifiers are said to have three different functions: they can emphasize, amplify, or downtone. Here are some examples: Emphasizers: I really don't believe him. He literally wrecked his mother's car. She simply ignored me. They're going to be late, for sure. Amplifiers: The teacher completely rejected her proposal. I absolutely refuse to attend any more faculty meetings. They heartily endorsed the new restaurant. I so wanted to go with them. We know this city well. Downtoners: I kind of like this college. Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister. His mother mildly disapproved his actions. We can improve on this to some extent. The boss almost quit after that. The school was all but ruined by the storm.
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  • 13. Adverbs of manner describe how something happens. Where there are two or more verbs in a sentence, adverb placement affects the meaning. Some commonly used adverbs of manner include: carefully correctly eagerly easily fast loudly patiently quickly quietly well. Consider the following example: She decided to write her paper. (no adverbs) She quickly decided to write her paper. (her decision was quick) She decided to write her paper quickly. (her writing was quick)
  • 14. Adverbs of place describe where something happens. Most adverbs of place are also used as prepositions. Some commonly used examples include the following: abroad anywhere downstairs here home in nowhere out outside somewhere there underground upstairs. I wanted to go upstairs. She has lived in the city since June. (prepositional phrase)
  • 15. Adverbs of purpose describe why something happens. Here are some common examples: so so that to in order to because since accidentally intentionally and purposely. Jenny walks carefully to avoid falling. Bob accidentally broke the vase.
  • 16. Adverbs of frequency describe how often something happens. The following adverbs are commonly used in this way: always every never often rarely seldom sometimes and usually. Mackenzie gets a ride from her brother every day. The fish usually swims near the top of its tank.
  • 17. Adverbs of time describe when something happens. These examples are commonly used: after already during finally just last later next now recently soon then tomorrow when while and yesterday. He came home before dark. Jessica finished her homework last night. Andy left school early.
  • 18. Adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, an adjective or another adverb. Almost nearly quite just too Enough hardly scarcely completely very extremely. •he doesn't quite know what she'll do after university. •They are completely exhausted from the trip. •I am too tired to go out tonight. •He hardly noticed what she was saying.
  • 19. Adverbs which are used for asking questions are called interrogative adverbs. There are several different kinds of interrogative adverbs. Interrogative Adverbs of Time: when, how long, how early, how soon etc. Interrogative adverbs of Place: where. Interrogative adverbs of number: how many, how often, how much. Interrogative adverb of manner: how. Interrogative adverbs of degree or quantity: how much, how far, how high etc. Interrogative adverbs of reason: why. How much did you pay? How far can you go? How much more do you want?
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  • 22. Verb Manner Place Frequency Time Purpose Beth swims enthusiastically in the pool every morning before dawn to keep in shape. Dad walks impatiently into town every afternoon before supper to get a newspaper. Tashonda naps in her room every morning before lunch. The Royal Order of Adverbs